The tests of any type are being designed in order to choose individuals who will find it considerably easier to make way via the planned syllabus of study, and this is quite different from operating in the role of a manager in real life. This happens with several of the students and at certain stages in their lives, several students might find out that they are not being suited for the jobs for which they have been educated. This leads us to situations wherein we have nuclear physicists taking up totally different careers as painters or that of musicians. The personality of a student is considered to be very delicate and developing and still in its infancy stage and while the person is a student, there are many influences like from parents, from teachers, of the images of life which education might give to him. What most of the advisors forget is regarding that the individual has to be content with the career that he chooses. The result is that several managers are not happy and satisfied as managers and naturally they are not able to perform well as managers.
The beginnings of psychology
There may be several reasons in relation to this and the first one that one would suggest is with regard to individual traits. Some individuals like to dominate and exercise their authority over others while others desire to lead their own life. The characters can be considered in terms of being "extrovert" as well as "introvert." There is however nothing good or bad about being considered to be an introvert or an extrovert as they are certain individual characteristics which is difficult to change. They are like the different parts-like that of face or arms or feet of individuals. Yet certain jobs need particular elements of characters, and an introvert individual would tend to find it really difficult to be a manager. In simple terms it could be said that he does not like to interact with people, but he may be considered to be really intelligent. On the other side, there may be an individual having average levels of intelligence, but he may like to keep on talking, and further if he is of the dominating nature, then he would be considered to be a good manager, as he would tend to get people to work the way that he intends to.
Whether that would be good for the organization or not is a different matter, and depends primarily on his intelligence. Even with his extrovert nature and dominating nature, he still has to understand the individuals he is dealing with, and behave accordingly; otherwise, there would be disaster ahead. This brings us to the different psychological explanations of management. The first set was that of McGregor who came out with Theory X and Y. The entire human population was split up into X and Y types. X types were autocratic strong men, obnoxious and without much power while Y were the type of individuals who were concerned about others and their developmental needs. (Traits: The Journey from Will to Power to Will to Serve) This is one of the problems of our images; we try to make them very simple so that they become easy to understand, but lose all touch with reality.
Other theories also came up from Myers and Briggs who started the measurement of 16 personality traits and the entire theory behind this was the work of Carl Jung regarding collective consciousness or evolutionary instincts of humans. The study of these theories has gone on and many leaders have been distributed to one of the 16 types of personalities. Other theoreticians concerned themselves with just making statements like that powerful leaders are needed at the birth of an organization and at times of crisis. (Traits: The Journey from Will to Power to Will to Serve) These are theories of management based on psychology and keep coming out regularly. While all this is going on, let us remember that there is a constant process of change in human beings and the process of change does not stop at any age.
The objective of human beings in relation to live and they try their ultimate best in order to go through any crisis that they consider to be without harm. This feature is often not noticeable for the average human is considered to be unknown and only an aspect of imagination of statisticians. The position tends to become clear when crisis is being faced by the community and then the nature of people tends to have variations. Examples of this are found to be several during the Second World War, during the Vietnam conflict and even now during the recent Iraq situation. It would be wrong to differentiate and classify the human beings who are being involved in these situations as something which is distinct from other human beings, yet when they have felt that their rights were being violated and affected upon and varied into the humans who were fighting for their rights. In a similar vein, it could be said that managers who join an organization do not tend to remain the same, but they keep on changing as the organization evolves with the process of time, and their functions and activity levels also change to be in line with the objectives and aims of the organization. Thus it would be wrong to categorize a man in and assess him within that category. (De Souza, 2002, p. 51)
Going back to what we started this argument with, extroverts and introverts, there have been studies to find out the influence of these characteristics on the promotional matters of managers having these element of characteristics. It would be really useful to remember that even if one section was being selected in comparison to the other then it does not make them better influential managers, or even a predicated level of performance. As already stated, performance of any individual is based on the situation as a whole that the individual tend to face, and the situation involves not just the official responsibilities and functions that he has to perform, but also the situations in the person's individualistic life. The individual has to lead a total amount of existence as that of a human being and cannot tend to live separately for fulfilling his official duties and for his family or his peer group, and so on. The feelings had been that extroverts would tend to function in a better manner as managers because their nature is more suited to that of a managerial operation, they are more likely to attain better promotions or more added promotions. During the study it was also being found that it was the introverts who had received more of the promotions on a proportional basis. (De Souza, 2002, p. 51)
The reasons for this are however not clear, and it might be because that the promotions were also being used as a tool for the sake of management by the seniors involved in the hierarchy. It may also be considered to be true that job performance was not the absolute reason for bringing about promotions, but from an individual's view point, being an introvert would tend to provide him with improved chances of success as a manager. The qualities of overly dominance and ambitious nature and other relevant qualities of an extrovert individual may not be appreciated to a great extent as it may be viewed that the senior levels of management needs more of thinking, capabilities to plan for as well as social reserve. The reason for this is considered to be the need of human resources as well as team efforts. The question which is to be asked is whether an introvert individual would make a better and improved team leader? How should he be able to lead the team when he does not communicate in a required manner with the team? How do you find out regarding others problems, if you do not communicate or relate to them?
Development of psychological theories
The personality of managers had been studied by Boyatzis in 1982 and he also came out with certain theories like the famous theory X and Y. His description was more detailed and the first quality that he talked about was efficiency orientation and this was a concern for the task, high standards for inner work, motivation for high achievement along with challenging goals and deadlines, ability to develop action plans, finding out methods to overcome obstacles, ability to organize work efficiently and concentrating on performance in all discussions with followers. The second feature of such individuals was a direct and demonstrated impact on sub-ordinates with high power needs, concerns about the symbols of power, assertive behaviors with subordinates, repeated attempts…