Professional Development Term Paper

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Professional development' is an extensive term that can apply to a range of education, training and opportunities for development. For the intention of this brief, the term will be applied to a complete wide range of activities that have the general aim of enhancing the knowledge and skills of staff and volunteers. (Promoting Quality through Professional Development: A Framework for Evaluation)

Professional development refers to the sequence of getting the aptitude required so as to develop one's profession. (Professional Development) The eventual value of professional development is the main role it plays in the enhancement of student learning. This means that educators must provide interest to the results of professional development on the output of jobs, efficiency of organization, and the success of entire students. Each professional development activity should be convoyed by a perfectly-designed assessment plan for finding its efficiency. Professional development programs must be analyzed to understand their value to the school, teachers, and finally the students. Assessment of a professional development program has two important objectives: to enhance the quality of the program, and to find its complete effectiveness. Assessment results should be given in a format that can be appreciated and supported by all stakeholders in the professional development technique. Assessment to find the complete effectiveness of a professional development program is called "summative evaluation." Lucid communication of the findings helps making sure that the results attained are used to guide school improvement efforts and activities and professional development activities which happen in successive levels. In this paper various models useful for evaluation are described. (Critical Issue: Evaluating Professional Growth and Development)

Kirkpatrick Evaluation Model:

The final step in the ADDIE model is a summative evaluation in which one calculates how efficiently the training program achieved its stated aims. This step in the training process is normally overlooked because of the extra time and funds needed. Training departments with narrow budgets usually believe new programs are effectual and need dollars that are needed in the assessment for the next program. But as senior executives command additional accountability from training activities, interest is definite to improve in evaluating and reporting results. In 1975, Donald Kirkpatrick first gave a four-level model of assessment that has become a standard in the industry. These levels are Reaction wherein students are to assess the training after finishing the program; Learning evaluates or measures the results derived from learning; Behavior is whether or not the behavior and attitudes of students bring about a change due to new learning; and Results assess or measure the business influence of the training program conducted. These levels can be used at levels of training which are based on technology as well as to more conventional or old forms or techniques of delivery. (Evaluating e-Learning: Introduction to the Kirkpatrick Model)

The four levels can be further explained as follows. Reaction: how participants have reacted to the program. It is important that we get a positive reaction in order that participants are encouraged to learn. Learning: Regarding what participants have gained information from the program. Calculates the extent to which participants are learning in line with programme goals like the increase in ability or acquaintance, change of outlook and/or behavior, early usage of new learning. Behavior: whether the knowledge attained is being used on the job. Calculates the level to which a change in behavior has taken place due to the program. Results: whether that application is attaining results and the process evaluates the final results that have been realized due to the learning obtained from the program. (The Kirkpatrick Evaluation Model)

Guskey's Critical levels of Professional Development Evaluation Model:

In an age of values and responsibility in education, professional development for school leaders is more essential than ever. Yet, plenty of resources dedicated to the professional development of principals are far from sure. Schools and school districts must make the most of time and money committed to promoting school leaders. Equally significant, an agreement has come out that the main center of attention of professional development for principals and teachers should be enhancement of the learning of students. (Evaluating Professional Development Programs)

In assessing professional development, there are five critical stages or levels of information to think. The five levels in this model are orderly arranged, from simple to more complex. With each successive level, collecting assessment information is expected to take more time and more resources. More significantly, each higher level is formed on the ones that come one before. In other words, success of one level is generally required for success of the other levels that follow. These levels are: Participants' Reactions: to assess whether participants enjoyed a certain professional development activity; Participants' Learning: to concentrate on calculating the acquaintance, ability, and conceivably the new approaches that participants got; Organizational support and Change: to concentrate on the qualities of the organization and features which are essential for success; Participant's use of new knowledge and skill: to assess whether the participants are using the newly got knowledge in their surroundings; Student learning outcomes: to assess the influence of the program on the students, that is, any advantages obtained by students out of this activity. (The age of our accountability)

Joellen Killion Evaluation Model:

Schools assess their professional development programs in several varied styles. Cultured assessments of professional development include portfolios of teachers, action plans and programs, proof for target achievement, principal inspection, examination of student work, and receipt of Pay for Performance or ladder for career improvement, state exams, and peer assessment. (Evaluating Professional Development)

"Evaluation is a complete, determined process of learning, appraisal, and examining data collected from many sources in order to make up-to-date decisions about a program." A good assessment of a professional learning program can be achieved by following eight steps. This eight-step process is got from wide practice and research in program assessment. The eight steps are: Assess Evaluability: The first step is finding out the level to which a program, as intended, is ready to be assessed. Formulate evaluation questions: The question an assessment tries to answer forms the assessment plan. For example, if a decisive assessment asks whether teachers are adding new technologies in their classrooms, the assessment questions might be: How often are teachers making use of the technology in their mathematics lessons? Construct evaluation framework: The assessment structure is the map for the evaluation. (8 Smooth Steps)

Decisions made in this step decide the proof required to answer the formative and summative evaluation questions, determine the apt sources of that proof, decide apt and possible data collection methods, the timeframe for collection of data, persons liable for the data collection, and method of data analysis. Understanding what type of change is required enables the evaluator decides on the best source of proof and the most apt data collection method. Collect data: The evaluator next gets ready for and gathers the data. Organize and analyze data: Evaluators must arrange and examine data gathered. Interpret data: While data analysis is the method of counting and contrasting, understanding is making sense of what the study tells us. "Understanding is the 'meaning-making' process that comes after the data have been calculated, organized, examined, and exhibited." Disseminate findings: After they understand data, evaluators share their findings. Evaluate the evaluation: Assessments seldom have this step. Evaluating the assessment includes replicating on the assessment process to evaluate the evaluator's work, the resources spent for evaluation, and the complete efficiency of the assessment procedure. (8 Smooth Steps)

Bruce Joyce and Beverly Showers Evaluation Model:

Joyce and Showers found that partaking in peer coaching teams had a remarkable influence on transfer and use of new learning in the classroom. Teachers who obtained training in theory together with illustration, practice and taking part in peer coaching study teams made an 80% transfer and applying of new learning to the classroom area. The training steps include the following: Theory, Demonstration, Practice and Coaching. Complete staff development plans comprise the following components. Multiple chances to study new theory to develop acquaintance and ability that can be converted into classroom practice; Demonstrations in replicated and real classroom contexts of the new acquaintance and talents teachers have studied; Practice in interpreting and using new knowledge and skills in the classroom; continuous chances for teachers to work as a team to prepare and reflect on the process of using new learning; constant use of data to update and form instruction and school improvement efforts. All of these components joined together give teachers time and chance to learn in a range of contexts. Peer coaching teams can make the task of executing new syllabus and policies simple by mutually preparing lessons and sharing the job of forming materials and planning instruction. Peer coaching study teams should be created when teachers start to learn new plans to offer finest co-operation in transfer and application as teachers translate into action the new learning in their classrooms. (Peer coaching to increase Student Learning)

Mosaic Approach & Shinohara Evaluation Model:

To appreciate the effect of staff development…[continue]

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