Psuedomonas Aeruginosa A Nosocomial Bacteria Challenges to essay

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Psuedomonas aeruginosa: A nosocomial bacteria

Challenges to healthcare

Annotated Bibliography

(1) Melaku, S., Gebre-Selassie, S., Damtie, M., and Alamrew, K. (2012) Hospital acquired infections among surgical, gynecology and obstetrics patients in Felege-Hiwot referral hospital, Bahir Dar, northwest Ethiopia. Ethiop Med 2012 -- Apr; 50(2): 135-44. Retrieved from PubMed.

Melaku, Gebre-Selassie, Damtie, and Alamrew (2012) report a study with the objective of assessing the prevalence and risk factors of hospital-acquired infections and the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of bacterial isolates in Feleg-Hiwot referral hospital. The study is reported to have been conducted among 1383 patients admitted to Surgical and Gynecology-Obstetrics wards during their stay in the hospital for development of infections. Data collected included sociodemographic, underlying disease, and risk factors. These were investigated using culture, biochemical testing, and gram staining as well as antibacterial sensitivity tests using disc diffusion methods. Results reported state that of the 1383 patients assessed including 333 obstetrics, and 89 gynecology patients, that "17.1% 21.0% and 13.5% developed infections, respectively. The overall incidence of hospital acquired infections was 246 (17.8%) with 251 (18.1%) episodes of bacterial infections. Urinary tract and surgical site infections were detected in 118 (48%) and 112 (45.6%) of the cases, respectively. Of the bacterial isolates, 132 (52.6%) were gram negative and 119 (47.4%) gram positive. Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Psuedomonas aeruginosa, were the dominant gram negative isolates accounting for 49 (19.5%), 36 (14.3%) and 26 (10.4%), respectively. On the other hand, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase negative staphylococci, and Enteroccocus species were isolated in 91 (36.3%), 18 (7.2%) and 10 (4.0%), respectively. Surgery, catheterization, underlying diseases, antibiotics prophylaxis and length of hospital stay were risk factors for infection (P<.0001). Most, >80% of isolates showed high rate of resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and amoxacillin-clavulanic acid." (p.1)

(2) Sebastian S., et al. (2012) Molecular Structure, Normal Coordinate Analysis, harmonic vibrational frequencies, Natural Bond Orbital, TD-DFT calculations, and biological activity analysis of antioxidant drug 7-hydroxycoumarin. Spectrochim Acta A Mol-Biompl Spectrosc (2013) Jan 15:101: 370-81. Retrieved from: PubMed.

Sebastain, et al. (2013) reports "harmonic vibrational frequencies, molecular structure, NBO and HOMO, LUMO analysis of Umbelliferone also known as 7-hydroxycoumarin (7HC). The optimized geometric bond lengths and bond angles obtained by computation (monomer and dimmer) shows good agreement with experimental XRD data. Harmonic frequencies of 7HC were determined and analyzed by DFT utilizing 6-311+G (d, p) as basis set. The assignments of the vibrational spectra have been carried out with the help of Normal Coordinate Analysis (NCA) following the Scaled Quantum Mechanical Force Field Methodology (SQMFF). The change in electron density (ED) in the ?(*) and ?(*) antibonding orbitals and stabilization energies E (2) have been calculated by Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis to give clear evidence of stabilization originating in the hyperconjugation of hydrogen-bonded interaction. The energy and oscillator strength calculated by Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT) complements with the experimental findings. The simulated spectra satisfactorily coincides with the experimental spectra. Microbial activity of studied compounds was tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Psuedomonasaeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhi and Enterococcus faecalis." (p.1)

(3) Konj, SS, Sexton, MD (2012) Treatment of Psuedomonas aeruginosa Infections. Wolters Kluwer Health UpToDate. Retrieved from:

Kanj and Sexton (2012) report the principles of treatment of serious P. aeruginosa infections and state: (1) delayed therapy results in increased mortality; (2) when possible all infected catheters should be removed and abscesses or obstructions drained or removed; and (3) combination therapy is indicated in certain patients who are high risk and in severe infections. The use of combination of monotherapy for serious infections due to P. aeruginosa is one of the most controversial questions of management.

(4) Bomberger, JM, et al. (2011) A Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Toxin That Hijacks the Host Ubiquitin Proteolytic System." Ed. John Rohde. PLoS Pathogens 7.3 (2011): e1001325. Public Library of Science. Retrieved from:,d.cGE

The work of Bomberger, et al. (2011) reports that Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an "opportunistic pathogen chronically infecting the lungs of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cycstic fibrosis (CF) and bronchietasis Cif (PA2934) a bacterial toxin secrete in outer membrane vesicles (OMV) by P. aeruginosa reduces CFTR-mediated chloride secretion by human airway epithelial cells, a key driving force for mucociliary clearance." (p.1) Bomberger reports a study to investigate the mechanism whereby Cif reduced the CFTR-mediated chloride secretion.

(5) Lupo, A., Coyne, S., and Berendonk, TU (2012) Origin and Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance: The Common Mechanisms of Emergency and Spread in Water Bodies. Frontier in Microbiology: 2012; 3: 18. Retrieved from: http://www.n cbi.nlm.nih.g ov/pmc/article es/P MC3 266646/

The work of Lupo, Coyne and Berenedonk (2012) explain that the environment and specifically freshwater "constitutes a reactor where the evolution and the rise of new resistances occur." (p.1) Water bodies including "waste water effluents, lakes, rivers or streams" with bacteria from various sources collect and mix with environmental species resulting in two impacts on antibiotic development including: (1) contamination of water by antibiotics or other pollutants result in resistance due to selection processes; and (2) environmental species are provided with intrinsic antibiotic resistance mechanisms there is more likely to be genetic exchange due to the mixture with allochthonous species. The authors hold that the result is that the "role of phages and integrons for the spread of resistance mechanisms appear significant." (p.1) The allochthonous species might make acquisition of new resistances from donors in the environment with the newly acquired resistance mechanisms being introduced into the clinics. The primary point in this study is the role in freshwater in the emergency and spread of antibiotic resistances.

(6) Shao, H, et al. (2012) Extracellular matrix lumican promotes bacterial phagocytosis, and Lum-/- mice show increased Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection severity. J. Biol Chem Oct 19: 287(43). Retrieved from: PubMed.

Shao, et al. (2012) reports " In Psuedomonas aeruginosa lung infections, lumican-deficient (Lum (-/-)) mice failed to clear the bacterium from lungs, tissues, and showed a dramatic increase in mortality. In vitro, phagocytosis of nonopsonized gram-negative Escherichia coli and P. aeruginosa was inhibited in Lum (-/-) peritoneal macrophages (M-s). Lumican co-localized with CD14, CD18, and bacteria on Lum (+/+) M? surfaces. Using two different P. aeruginosa strains that require host CD14 (808) or CD18/CR3 (P1) for phagocytosis, we showed that lumican has a larger role in CD14-mediated phagocytosis. Recombinant lumican (rLum) restored phagocytosis in Lum (-/-) M-s. Surface plasmon resonance showed specific binding of rLum to CD14 (K (A) = 2.15 x 10(6) M (-1)), whereas rLumY20A, and not rLumY21A, where a tyrosine in each was replaced with an alanine, showed 60-fold decreased binding. The rLumY20A variant also failed to restore phagocytosis in Lum (-/-) M-s, indicating Tyr-20 to be functionally important. Thus, in addition to a structural role in connective tissues, lumican has a major protective role in gram-negative bacterial infections, a novel function for small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycans." (p.1)

(7) Shultsz, C. And Geerlings, S. (2012) Plasmid-Mediated Resistance in Enterobacteriaceae: Changing Landscape and Implications for Therapy. 1 Jan 2012. Vol. 72, Issue 1. Retrieved from:

Schultsz and Geerlings (2012) report that pathogenic microorganism that are resistant to all available antimicrobial agents are reported on an increasing basis. Emerging plasmid-encoded extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs) and carbapenemases are increasingly reported worldwide. In addition, it is reported that "Carbapenemase production encoded by genes located on mobile genetic elements is typically accompanied by genes encoding resistance to other drug classes, often but not necessarily located on the same mobile element." (p.1) There are only limited alternative options available for treating infections caused by carbapenem-resitant strain of Enterobacteriaceae. Clinical evaluations do not provide evidence that is strong for improved outcome using these drugs against a large proportion of carbapenem-resitant strains of Enterbacteriaceae although intravenous fosfomycin may be safe and beneficial for patients when they are used in combination therapy in managing severe infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella penumoniae.

(8) Chaudhari, MS; et al. (2011) A Study of Metallo-Beta-Lactatamase Producing Pseudomonas Aeruginosa in Clinical Samples of SSG Hospital. National Journal of Medical Research. Issue. 2. Retrieved from:

The work of Chaudhan, et al. (2011) reports a study with the objective of detecting metallo-lactamase producing isolates of Pseudomonas aerugenosa from various clinical samples from patients admitted in the hospital. The study examined the prevalence following standard methods of isolation and identification techniques of these bacterials from clinical materials. The samples of patients were from various wards of the SSG Hospital. Of the total of 150 isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, it is reported that 8 isolates are resistance to Imipenem . Of 8 samples examined, it is reported that all are producing Metallo-Beta-Lactamase enzyme. The study concludes that infection caused by metallo-lactamese positive isolates of Pseudomonas aerugenosa is critical for identification since it not only poses a problem of a therapeutic nature but also because it presents a serious concern for control and management of infection.

(9) New Study Shows Zylast Antiseptic Products Kill More than 99.99$ of E. Coli, Other Bacteria, On Contact (2012) Innovative BioDefense Inc. Retrieved from:

The study reported by Innovative BioDefense Inc. states that studies have…[continue]

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