Psycho-educational Models of Family Therapy and Transgenerational Models of Family Therapy in Correlation to Physical and Sexual Violence and Abuse
Molestation, commonly known as sexual abuse, is defined as forced sexual behavior by one individual with another. However, sexual assault is one which is not so frequent, lasts for short duration, and is immediate. Pejoratively, sexual abuser or offender is referred as a molester. It also means any act on behalf of an adult in order to arouse child or adult sexually. Any sexual act is referred as child sexual abuse if the age of victim is below the age of consent. Mentioned below are the acts that are included in sexual abuse:
Sexual assault and rape, which is forced and non-consensual.
When a child or adult touches without any need.
Exhibitionism, genitalia's exposure, fondling, sexual kissing, or sexual assault.
Showing pornography to a child.
Child molestation, in which child is interacted with sexually suggestive statement.
When an adult is interacted with non-consensual verbal sexual demands.
Using trust to motivate other to have sex, otherwise, it may be done forcefully resulting in sexual assault or rape.
Sexual deviancy, such as incest.
Other kinds of sexual harassment.
Another type of domestic violence is the spousal sexual abuse. In this, the spouse may be raped or forcefully sexed, and may result into assault if jurisdictions are taken into account.
Physical abuse and violence
When the purpose of an abuse is to harm someone's body, let him/her go through physical sufferings, cause injury, or intimidate others, it is known as physical abuse. Physical abuse and violence may be tripping, kneeing, kicking, pinching on body unnecessarily, whipping, slapping, puling, pushing, belting, punching, or striking via object, etc.
In this paper the researcher analyzes psycho-educational family therapy and transgenerational models as they relate to physical and sexual violence and abuse in families. Subsequently, cultural considerations are highlighted and empirical studies on culture related to physical and sexual violence and abuse in families are analyzed. Lastly, the paper provides a Psychiatric Diagnosis based on PTSD criteria for diagnosis by the American Psychiatric Association.
Chapter II: Comprehensive Coverage
Numerous researches have supported the use of family therapy structures to be the appropriate way to intervene and help those families who have trouble dealing with mentally ill or disturbed members of the family. The family therapy setup helps educate and train the family members to deal with the mentally challenged members on a one-on-one format as well as in a social gathering. People having mental illnesses, like schizophrenia (McFarlane, 2002) or those having violent or abusive streaks (Henggeler et al., 1998) or those suffering from drug or alcohol abuse (Ozechowski et al., 2003) or even those families who are suffering from chronic diseases (Rolland, 2003); have been better off by going through the program of family psycho-education (taken from chapter 8).
The trans-generational model, as the name suggests, is a model that interlocks the historical aspects with the individual growth and continuity of family problems together in order to determine patterns and then uses four crucial elements to help the mentally ill individuals and their families to cope with whatever emotional and social deficiencies exist. The four elements for the trans-generational model are emotional triangles, the concept of differentiation of self, family patterns, and problem's time frame. The important thing to note here is that the trans-generational model does not look to point blame and claim that prior or current generations and their activities were the basis for the problems that they were facing. Furthermore, the trans-generational models utilize the help of family therapists and the theories that they present so as to tackle the general issues that the families and individuals face. Another emphasis in the trans-generational models is on the relationships and associations that exist between family members. This is perhaps why the model utilizes family therapy so that they can have family sessions whereby these relationships can be improved and enhanced. Most often, a trans-generational model is used to deal with a differentiated individual whose mental capability allows him or her to think, analyze and ponder over events but be incapable of automatically responding to the external and internal environments that surround him. Therefore, one of the first things to analyze here for the family therapist becomes the existence of self-recognition from the patient. Once, the family therapists are able to define whether or not the patient has a structure of self-recognition or self-identity, the overall family model and system that influences the patient becomes easier to recognize and treat thereof (taken from chapter 8).
Bowen's family theory
Bowen's family theory is also one that engages the therapy with factors like self-development, intergenerational issues, prior familial relationships as well as prior familial interactions. He focused minimally on the emotional stances of the families or couples he was providing therapy to, instead he chose to focus on tangible and logical aspects individually (at first) and then together in order to present a controlled therapeutic session that tackles each individual's deficiencies without creating an environment of blame placements and finger pointing. Bowen's family therapy is one that was ahead of his time, as he did not confine himself to the traditional theories available, instead he expanded his theory into balancing the togetherness of a family dynamic and an individual's freedom within that dynamic. He believed this approach of creating balance must be instigated at the teaching levels so that clinicians and their remedies provided, especially to schizophrenics, were ones that propagated this balance when dealing with emotional or problematic familial situations (taken from chapter 8).
Bowen was a leading figure and pioneer in the realm of family therapy. His experiences during war served as the prelude to his interest in the psychoanalysis of individuals. It was his research and efforts back in 1954 that encouraged him to take forth his ideologies into clinical practice and analyze the impact made thereof. Bowen first perceived the mother-child relationship to be unbalanced and thus the cause of problematic situations but then moved his focus on the entire family as an unbalanced unit made up of people who were incapable of recognizing their own individuality and thus incapable of separating themselves even in the familial dynamic. This he believed was the case due to the emotional imbalance and inconsistency at the individual and group level. To counter this, Bowen started focusing on what he called family emotional system. This was by far the biggest point of growth for Bowen as it opened new doors to his clinical approach. Bowen now incorporated in his clinical practice the aspect of emotional human intelligence to be part of a natural system that was structured along similar laws and regulations as every other aspect within the natural system. Hence, it can easily be said that Bowen was pioneering a new theory of human behavior. In support of Bowen's approach, there were other leading figures that took the same route. These included: Michael Kerr, Edwin Freidman, Phillip Guerin, Peter Titelman, Betty Carter, amongst others (taken from chapter 8).
Family system theory
Family system therapy has gained popularity over the years and newer techniques are emerging and adopted extensively as useful therapeutic procedures to deal with the mentally ill and help their families develop coping strategies. Family system therapy primarily focuses on the strengths and skills of the family members and polishes those to deal with the mentally ill members especially those who have been disregarded by their society due to their mental illnesses. Some of the therapeutic methods applied in this structure include: family systems theories; cognitive behavior therapy; theory of planned behavior; structural therapy; educational psychology, amongst others. All of these methods and therapies are complemented with the use of psycho-pharmacological therapies and are primarily aimed to assist the mentally ill people and their families to create a sustainable environment whereby they can rejoin their occupational and social life. In this regard, family system therapy provides strategies to the family members regarding how to cope with other family member's attitude behavior - which is going through a particular menial illness (Herbert et al., 2008). In the same paper, the authors emphasize on how the purpose of family system therapy is not only to cater psychiatric treatment of an ill family member, but to uplift family's social, economic, psychological position in the community too and build whatever relationships had been tainted. This is an extremely important aspect of the family system therapy structure as it helps in allowing the families and the mentally ill individuals to develop a socially strong relationship which is then used as the springboard to a healthier social and mental lifestyle (Herbert et al., 2008; taken from chapter 8).
Eight interlocking theoretical concepts
Differentiation of self
Bowen's theory of differentiation of self claims that an individual must differentiate between feelings and thinking and, while he dies not explain the difference between the two, the important thing to note here is that he claims that all individuals must separate their emotions…