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The study also revealed that 9% of those still in active military service developed psychiatric disorders. It concluded that many of them displayed psychotic symptoms other than flashbacks and dissociative symptoms. These symptoms are essential parts of PTSD.
Most of the war veterans investigated exhibited psychotic symptoms of either depressive or schizophrenia. O the PTSD patients, 9% also suffered from major depressive disorder with psychotic features, while 11% had psychotic disorders. Many of them showed psychotic symptoms other than flashbacks and dissociative symptoms. Psychotic symptoms are essential parts of PTSD and relates to the trauma.
Personality disorders were found to be critical in developing PTSD after combat trauma. Alcohol dependence was often found in these afflicted soldiers. it, thus, presented as a risk factor to developing alcohol dependence after combat trauma. PTSD soldiers without personality disorders, on the other hand, confronted the risk of developing co-morbid depressive disorder and psychotic symptoms. This study suggested that psychotic symptoms differ from flashbacks and symbolically and strongly connect to the trauma. The findings also underscored the existence of complex PTSD. This type covers symptoms, which include changes in affect regulation, consciousness, perception of self and the offender, relationships, and one's set of meanings.
Lapp, K. et al. (2005). Lifetime Sexual and Physical Victimization Among Male Veterans and Combat-Related Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Military Medicine: Association of Military Surgeons of the United States study conducted by the authors found that the majority or 96% of the cohorts of veteran men with combat-related Post-traumatic Stress Disorder experienced a form of sexual or physical victimization at some point of their lifetimes. The experiences were highest during childhood at 69%, adulthood at 93% and in recent periods, such as the past year. These were in the form of sexual assault, which was common in childhood at 41% and 20% in adulthood, and physical assault, which was common in all life phases. They experienced physical assault in childhood at 60%, 93% in adulthood, and 44% in the past year. The specific types of abuse in childhood were hitting, choking, intentional burning, threatening with weapons, and sexual violations. Evidence also suggested that combat veterans with PTSD were more likely than those without to display aggressive behavior. They would get involved in physical brawls related to PTSD symptoms they experienced. Patterns of victimization could play a role in perpetuating the cycle of abuse. Almost half of all the surveyed veteran men said they experienced some form of assault in the past year alone. A similar study, on the other hand, strongly correlated child physical or sexual abuse and recent victimization. Recent assault was seen as potentially entailing ongoing physical and emotional danger, which could affect the course and severity of combat-related PTSD.
Leider, C. (2004). Deployment Takes Toll in Troops, Kin. The (Colorado Springs) Gazette: ProQuest Information and Learning Company
The Pikes Peak Mental Health extended treatment to 5,000 returning soldiers and their families and noted an increase in their number. The solders exhibited minor depression, difficulty re-integrating into society and their usual day-to-day living and developing PTSD. Pikes Peak Mental Health maintains an 18-bed mental health unit. The management said that most inpatients are diagnosed with less severe conditions, such as minor depression.
Most soldiers need help to readjust to life at home. Most of them return to wives who have already become independent or unfaithful or a financial problem presents itself. Some people change and the soldier may just discover that he has become a stranger in his own home.
Eisen, S.A., et al. (2004). Lifetime and 12-Month Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders 8.169 Male Vietnam War Era Veterans. Military Medicine: Association of Military Surgeons of the United States
Eisen discusses the findings of a study on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among Vietnam War veterans conducted by the National institute of Mental Health Diagnostic on 8,169 respondents. They served in the military during the 1965-75 Vietnam War era. It found that roughly 72% of them had a lifetime history and a 12-month history of at least one psychiatric disorder. The disorders were alcohol abuse or dependence at 54% lifetime and 17% 12-month; smoking at 48% lifetime and 22% 12-month; and PTSD at 10% lifetime and 4.5% 12-month. The study concluded that psychiatric disorders were prevalent among more than 8 million Vietnam War era veterans. This conclusion would strengthen the call and challenge to prevent, identify and treat these illnesses among American veterans.
Gerlock, a.A. (2004). Domestic Violence and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder for Participants of a Domestic Violence Rehabilitation Program. Military Medicine: Association of Military Surgeons of the United States
Gerlock describes the 62 male participants of a domestic violence program meant to keep them active within the program. Completers and non-completers were compared, based on the relationship established between PTSD and the severity of domestic violence. Forty-seven of them were veterans, 14 of them in active status. More than half of them or 55% were Caucasian, 29% were African-American, 6% Latino, 5% Asian-American, 3% Native American and 2% mixed races. Their age range was 20 to 62 years, with a median of 38.81 years. Completers were less than 35, gave higher self-ratings in relationship mutuality, less stress and post-traumatic stress and regularly court-monitored.
Non-completers tended to confront higher rates of repeated violence of up to a year more than completers. Those who commit domestic violence preferred to complete shorter programs. But shorter programs did not deal with the full range of abusive behaviors and thus were insufficient to impact these behaviors. Longer programs require them to travel for longer periods from work, hence approximately 2/3 of them dropped out from the programs.
In establishing the connection between PTSD from childhood and domestic violence in adulthood, the study correlated a child's witnessing domestic violence, PTSD and the severity and frequency of domestic violence in adult life. The strong concern of researchers behind this study was the relationship between the batterers' PTSD levels, the abuses they committed and their non-completion of the rehabilitation programs.
American Family Physician (2003). What You Should Know About Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. American Academy of Family Physicians: Gale Group
The magazine says that PTSD can develop from a traumatic experience. It may be a severe car accident, a natural disaster, military combat or a crime, such as rape. Although not everyone develops it after a traumatic event, those who do could feel alone or guilty that they survived while others did not. The anxiety could last for months or years. PTSD can be detected by the doctor if the consulting patient has clear nightmares, flashbacks and bad memories. The patient would not stop thinking about the event or events and cause him fear and panic in each recall. He would also have an upset stomach or a headache during the recall. He would avoid thoughts, feelings, persons and places connecting or reminding him of the event. He may find it difficult sleeping or remaining asleep. He may be irritable and prone to anger or fail to pay attention or concentrate.
For treatment, doctors prescribe a medicine for depression or anxiety. The patient is instructed to sleep at certain hours consistently. Consulting with a mental health professional may also be advised. Therapy is usually hourly sessions held weekly or monthly. If the treatment is adequate and followed consistently, PTSD symptoms should disappear within a few months. But the treatment takes long. In the meantime, patients can cooperate with the treatment by taking their medicines at prescribed durations; sleeping at the same time each night at a dark and quiet place with a comfortable temperature; refraining from food two hours before sleeping; exercising regularly; and eating a balanced diet.
MacDonald, M (2003). Evaluation of Stress Debriefing Interventions with Military Populations. Military Medicine: Association of Military Surgeons of the United States
The author discusses formal interventions used to mitigate the psychological impact of traumatic experiences in members of the military. Two of such interventions developed and implemented were the Critical Incident Stress Debriefing and Process Debriefing.
A study conducted on British soldiers who fought at the Gulf War under the Army War Graves Service found that only 25% of them sought help for their symptoms. Soldiers often believed that their symptoms were an inevitable consequence and part of their work. They felt that being strong and "tough" meant not seeking psychological help. Avoiding reminders of their trauma meant avoiding the help needed by those who suffered from the trauma. Current informal peer debriefings conducted during pre-deployment training appeared to have limited effects. There could be better results if these were conducted by trained peers with the same experiences. The recipients of the debriefings might also feel more comfortable revealing very personal emotions with a colleague than with outsiders in formal debriefings.
The study contended that many soldiers preferred the opportunity to express personal feelings of anger and guilt and recognize that these would be a normal emotional response to trauma. A study on the effects of stress training and the two formal interventions mentioned earlier was…[continue]
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It is difficult to get an accurate record of the actual number of children that have been sexually abused. Many cases never come to light and because of differences in definitions of sexual assault, some cases are missed (658). Researchers have begun to explore the concept of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder with children and adults that were victims of sexual assault. Many times people associate particular events with particular stimuli. For
, 2010). This point is also made by Yehuda, Flory, Pratchett, Buxbaum, Ising and Holsboer (2010), who report that early life stress can also increase the risk of developing PTSD and there may even be a genetic component involved that predisposes some people to developing PTSD. Studies of Vietnam combat veterans have shown that the type of exposure variables that were encountered (i.e., severe personal injury, perceived life threat, longer duration,
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Abuse This paper will highlight post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and its related causes such as abuse. The main idea here is to overview some of the causes of this disorder and to relate it with physiological and sociological aspects, some other important facts related to the topic will also be mentioned in order to give the reader a better idea about those individuals who are diagnosed
One important aspect was that research findings suggested that PTSD was more common than was thought to be the case when the DSM-III diagnostic criteria were formulated. (Friedman, 2007, para.3) the DSM-IV diagnosis of PTSD further extends the formalization of criteria as well as the methodological consistency for PTSD and now includes six main criteria. The first of these criteria qualifies the meaning of trauma. A traumatic event is
PTSD in Children of Hurricane Katrina What do you believe needs to occur in a counseling approach… There is much evidence that children who survived the 2005 Hurricane Katrina disaster are particularly vulnerable to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Researchers from the Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center surveyed nearly 7500 children (age 9-18) between 2005 and 2008 from the most heavily devastated parts of the Gulf region. Their findings indicated extreme PTSD
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Risk of Dementia among U.S. Veterans According to Yaffe et al. (2010), Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is a prevalent psychiatric syndrome linked to increased mortality and morbidity rates. This condition is among the most prevalent amid veterans returning from combat. Among veterans returning from Afghanistan and Iraq, the prevalence of post traumatic stress disorder is estimated to be about 17% (Seal et al., 2009). Veterans returning
For many reasons, children in such families are especially vulnerable (4). Many studies have established that, in comparison with children of combat veterans without PTSD, the children of combat veterans with PTSD have more frequent and more serious developmental, behavioral, and emotional problems (2,5-10). Some of them also have specific psychiatric problems." (Klaric et al., p. 491) It is thus that the discussion on PTSD must shift toward a more