Risk Assessment for a Water Company Research Paper

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Risk Assessment for a water company

Risk Assessment Report

Organization: Artesian Water Company

Table of Continent

Executive Summary 3 Table 4 Analysis

Problem & Solutions 6 Conclusion

Risk Assessment Report for Artesian Water Company

Artesian Water Company hereby presents their annual risk assessment report. Together with other companies, these reports are always presented to the Delaware Division of Public Health (DPH) and United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), as well as the public has the opportunity of reading the report to check contaminants. Therefore, this report presents information in regard to contaminants which might be found or not found in the Artesian's drinking water and ways in which they may affect health. It create awareness to our consumers on what it takes the company to deliver safe drinking water that can help our consumers make informed decisions about what they drink.

The report include table of results from the company's monitoring and testing data for the water source in 2013. As the company supply drinking water to more than 300,000 consumers, we need to regularly maintain and upgrade our facilities. In 2013, Artesian invested more than $20million in water utility infrastructure. It included $3million in water main extensions, $4.2 million has been used in main replacement and renewal projects, and $5.7 million was used in construction of new treatment facilities, improving the existing treatment facilities, and rehabilitating pumping equipment. The company is still going on with the regional approach of connecting existing supply infrastructure to available new developments, which has continued to offer an increased reliability to our consumers. Such efforts could be accomplished using an investment of $5.5 million. However, our consumers have only been required to pay a sum of about $1.5 in a day for every day supply. This is a very insignificant amount charged for receiving quality tap water which in addition also provides fire protection, public health protection, and support for the economy as well as quality life of our customers. The company has taken its given responsibility to supply quality water very seriously, and these best efforts will continue on behalf of our customers.

Water Quality Report for Artesian Water Company

Public Water System I.D. DE00663

Unit of Measure

Highest Level

Allowed

(MCL)

Ideal Goal

(MCLG)

Highest Level

Detected

Annual Range

Major Sources

Inorganic Contaminants

Arsenic

Barium

Chromium

Fluoride

Nickel

Nitrate

Selenium

Turbidity2

ppb ppb ppm ppb ppb ntu

10

2000

2

10

50

5

0

20008

28

1

6

5

2

7

7.8

6

3.5

nd -- 6

10 -- 196

nd -- 5

nd -- 2

nd -- 7

nd -- 7.8

nd -- 6

nd -- 3.5

Erosion of natural deposits

Erosion or discharge of natural/artificial deposits

Erosion of natural deposits

Erosion of natural deposits

Erosion of natural deposits

Runoff from fertilizer use/sewage or septic tank leaching

Discharge from mines/petroleum and metal refineries

Soil runoff

Organic Contaminants

2.4-D

Chloroethene

cis- 1,2-Dichloroethene

Di (ethylhexyl)adipate

Di (ethylhexyl)phthalate

Dibromochloropropane

Heptachlor Epoxide

Methylene Chloride

Methyl-t-butyl Ether

Pentachlorophenol

Tetrachloroethene

Trichloroethene

ppb ppb ppb ppt ppb ppb ppb

70

2

70

6

5

10

1

5

5

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0.1

1.2

1.4

0.2

4.1

1

30

2.7

1.8

0.5

5.79

2

nd -- 0.1

nd -- 1.2

nd -- 1.4

nd -- 0.2

nd -- 4.1

nd -- 1

nd -- 30

nd -- 2.7

nd -- 1.8

nd -- 0.5

nd -- 5.7

nd - 2

Runoff from herbicide used on crops

Remains of banned termiticide

Release from industrial chemical factories

Release from industrial chemical factories

Release from industrial chemical factories

Release from petroleum refineries

Banned termiticide breakdown

Release from industrial chemical factories

Gasoline additive

Discharge from wood preserving factories

PVC pipes leaching

Release from metal degreasing sites and other factories

Radiological Contaminants

Alpha emittters pCi/1

15

0

4.6

nd -- 4.6

Natural deposits erosion

Disinfection/Disifection By-Products

Chlorine (free / total)

Haloacetic Acids, total4

Dibromoacetic Acid

Dichloroacetic Acid

Monobromoacetic Acid

Monochloroacetic Acid

Trichloroacetic Acid

Trihalomethanes, total4

Bromodichloromethane

Bromoform

Chloroform

Dibromochloromethane

ppm ppb ppb ppb ppb ppb ppb

4(MRDL)

60

n/r

n/r

n/r

n/r

n/r

80

n/r

n/r

n/r

n/r

0

0

3.8

17.85

1.7

45.4

2.1

3.2

40

21.55

11.2

3.2

54.4

6

nd -- 3.8

nd -- 17.8

nd -- 1.7

nd -- 45.4

nd -- 2.1

nd -- 3.2

nd -- 40

nd -- 21.5

nd -- 11.2

nd -- 3.2

nd -- 54.4

nd - 6

Used disinfectants in drinking water industry

Drinking water chlorination's by-product

Drinking water chlorination's by-product

Lead & Copper3 2005 Data)

90th Percentile Lead

Number of Sites exceeding

Lead Action Level

90th Percentile Copper

Number of Sites exceeding Copper Action Level

ppb ppb

15

0

13008

3

0

0

nd -56

nd - 7546

Corrosion of household plumbing

Erosion of natural deposits

Corrosion of household plumbing

Erosion of natural deposits

Unregulated Contaminants

Acetone

Alkalinity, total

Alpha-Chlordane

Aluminum

Carbon dioxide, free

Chloride

Color, apparent

Conductivity

Dibenzo (a, h) anthracene

Dieldrin

Diethylphthalate

Di-n-butyphthalate

Di-n-octyl phthalate

Gamma-Chlordane

Hardness, Calcium

Hardness, Total

Iron

Manganese

One time high manganese reading. Closing of stations took place to allow well to rest pH, Field

0-14 scale n/r

6.5-8.5

9.7

6-9.7

Fluctuations related to pH adjustment in the system (short-term)

Phosphate ppm n/r 5.2 nd-5.2

Sodium ppm n/r 88 3-88

Solids, total dissolved ppm n/r 500-430 41-430

Sulfate ppm n/r 250 38.5 2-38.5

Sufactants, MBAS ppb n/r 500 20 nd-20

Tetrahydrafuran (THF) ppb n/r 1.5 nd-1.5

Trichlorofluoromethane ppb n/r 1.2 nd-1.2

Zinc ppb n/r 5000 338 nd-338

Microbiological Contaminants: Total Coliform

The highest percentage of positive samples in a month: 5% in May 6 positive out of 135 total sample.

Major sources include: Naturally present in the environment (All resamples absent for bacteria)

'E.coli' positive sample total number. 3(1February, 1 may, and 1 march)

Major sources include: Human and animal fecal waste. (The entire resample's absent for E.coli bacteria).

Negative outcome in 99.9% of total monthly samples. About 140 coliform samples are taken every month.

The Delaware Division used the sample results in May 2013 to issue a public notice to Artesian Water June 19; but the subsequent re-sampling by the date shown no traces of bacteria. Bacteria such as E.coli when found in water indicate that the water may be contaminated with human or animal wastes. Microbes found in such wastes may cause short-term effects like nausea, cramps, headaches, diarrhea, among other symptoms. There presence put infants, small children, some of the elderly, as well as people with severely compromised immune system at a risk of experiencing special health risk.

A Safe Water Source

Our company is continually supplied with water coming from 60 wells situated within the northern New Castle County. The 60 wells are found in Cockeysville Marble, Potomac, Columbia, and Mount Laurel formations. Artesian's ground water wells depend on natural filtering capability of the aquifer in removing harmful bacteria and other substances from the water. Our wells have been situated within confined aquifers that help to provide additional protection from surface-borne contaminants. The previous year, the company purchased an average of 4.0 million gallons every day of surface water from the Chester Water Authority as well as 0.8 million gallons from the City of Wilmington every day. The supply of the City of Wilmington comes from the Brandywine River basin while supply of Chester water originates from the Susquehanna River basin. The waters our company purchases are to the required standards by State and Federal regulations, and we use them to augment our supply.

The best available technology are used in our treatment in ensuring water provision either meets or becomes higher to the entire Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and State Division of Public Health water quality parameters. Continuous testing of the water also helps in maintaining the expected high quality. To prove the standards there are further evaluation of the state's water supply that is carried out by the Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control (DNREC), via a designed program that assesses the susceptibility of public water sources to contamination, and the company always makes it available to its consumers a complete DNREC's source water assessment plan that has been approved by the EPA.

Substances Expected and Health Risks

Every sources of drinking water may be at risk of contamination from man made or naturally occurring substances. Some of these substances include radioactive, inorganic or organic chemicals, or microbes. Every drinking water, even bottle water, may sensibly be found to have some insignificant amount of some contaminants. However, the fact that there might be contaminants does not qualify to say that water poses a health risk. For tap water to be always safe for drinking EPA comes up with the regulations limiting the amount of each and given contaminants that should be in water that is provided by public water systems. There are established limits for bottled water as provided by Food and Drug Administration regulations, which are to equally protect the public health.

A Special Health Concern

Different individuals become more vulnerable to contaminants in drinking water as compared to the general…[continue]

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