Scientific Knowledge Research Paper
- Length: 7 pages
- Sources: 7
- Subject: Astronomy
- Type: Research Paper
- Paper: #11338397
Excerpt from Research Paper :
There lies question on whether scientific knowledge is able to answer all the questions that relate to physical reality. For many years, people have wondered what the earth is composed of, leaving them wondering if the nature's secrets will one day be revealed (Grant 64). However, it is notable that since Galileo discovered the moon in 1608, there has been a remarkable move by his fellow scientists.
A lot of studies in science including the origin of the solar system, sonata of the stars, how matter changes to energy, and detailed works of an atom, among others has not fully exposed the science knowledge. However, the human culture seems to change with science. Worldview patterns prove that complex systems studies by working from their smallest constituents meaning from bottom up. These paradigms also confirm that the laws of nature pounce from deep symmetry writs in to the basics of time, space, and matter. In other words, physical reality bases on the relationship between symmetry and reductionism.
Challenges on the mystery of creation
The mystery of creation is a major question that no one seems to answer. The human origin is a mystery to every past creature. Most people have used the faiths and beliefs of the community to justify creation. The power used here is superpower that is not only questionable, but exists beyond the limits of time, space, and matter. God is supernatural, and cannot be limited to the physical laws. That is why human has assumed a subsistence of a parallel reality that exists outside but directly interacting with the human race.
Scientists through supernatural entities cannot define the mechanism of the natural world. Before science, the Ancient Greece' natural philosophers tried to make sense on the same issue of creation. Before Socrates, the philosophers believed there was a single explanation to all this. The first western philosopher according to Aristotle was Thales who believed water was the original substance. There is a belief that water can change itself, and cycle all the way through earth and sky, and that nature is active vivacious in the rhythm of creation and destruction. The problem comes in constructing an argument explaining an absolute. The question of where the primal or the water came from is still unanswered.
Aristotle is a philosopher who studied the earthly realm that consisted of water, air, and fire, under the lunar sphere, and heavens, planets and the stars. His space included the giant system of spheres from inner planetary sphere, to the outer sphere of the set stars where movement imparted from the outside in. However, Aristotle believed in the supernatural or the absolute power that survives beyond the space of causation.
With the rebirth, nature is described by scientists in a more mathematical and quantitative method. Galileo is among the philosophers who believed the possibility of constructing empirical laws, which described a specific way of unfolding the physical occurrence whether on earth or heaven. Newton publishes on the law of motion saying matter behaves in conventional ways due to the laws of gravitation and motion. Napoleon made a remark on the absence of God but Laplace did not see the need for that hypothesis. Through the construction of the nebula, he had confidence in the origin of the solar system, and he used Newton's physics to include the momentum. However, Laplace did not have the nebula, neither its rotation, although he never mentioned it to napoleon.
By the twentieth century, the mystery of creativity had changed with Einstein's relativity showed space-time is plastic (Sproul 98). The quantum procedures have also proved that there are basic limitations when observers try to obtain information about the material earth. Cosmology being the science involving the origin of the universe depends on a series of untested theories (Grant 64). There are some physical laws like preservation of energy-momentum and charge, or lessening of special degrees of autonomy when using super space models in order to get reasonable solutions past the current known limit of validity. This means it is the theoretical framework that is used, and it depends on the general theories on quantum mechanics and reality beyond the scales of where these theories are known to work (Smollin 2).
This problem is unresolved despite of the new technologies in application. Science may be progressing radically as it strives to test different theories, but this does not mean its business as usual. Science requires scaffolding or a platform from which to operate. Otherwise, it is not able to explain creativity because it cannot explain itself. It is not conclusive that the sequence landscape contains all the possible cosmos including the earth. The question on where the multiverse originated from will always be there, and how quantum integral path arose. There have been arguments on weak anthrop arguments on constraining the universe that we live in. First is by acknowledging an existence of physical viewers. A scientific model of creation will formulate one day, but the question of explaining its own structure will remain.
Second challenge on construction of knowledge
The other big challenge lies in the question of how people acquire the knowledge of physical reality around them. This is where science comes in again as quantitative theories are constructed to forecast the existence of unknown phenomenon. It involves getting answers from the community in order to extend the knowledge of nature. The theories tend to come within and beyond their limits. Mostly the new knowledge springs from old ones. Every idea has to test before its acknowledgement. Measurement is a vital key during advancement of knowledge although it is forgotten during theoretical speculation.
There is uncertainty in the principle of quantum mechanisms that places basic limitations to what we know. However, the instruments made to measure spatial positions and rapidity, or energy and time scales limits by it. This limitation of information, and has a great impact on the results because it changes with time. An example is a scientist wanting to collect data from an unknown tribe. The longer he stays and connects around them, the more the chances of corrupting or changing their behavior. The quantum scientist is disadvantaged because he has to live within the community to gather information. This is to his disadvantage, and the quantum world involves contacts that interrelate irreversibly with the system observed. This means the knowledge attained in the quantum world is not intact, and it is incomplete. It is a biased because it is observer-dependant.
Quantum limitations have not only affected knowledge but also the measuring devices. Heisenberg relations have put a limit to how much we can improve the accuracy of the measuring devices. If scientists can know what to measure, and quantum indeterminacy limits the measuring, they will not measure the physical reality. This means the scientists will never know if the theory is final. They will always have the question of what lies beyond the limited precision
Human centric science
This is an argument based on the humankind and has least been considered regarding final questions. The origin of the universe is defined differently from timeless realm, and quantum mechanically jumping into this conventional time evolving theory of the universe' origin, still is dependent on creation of models, which depend on several hypothesis. There is no way a theory can be stimulated without them. In every construction, there is a need for materials and construction rules. Otherwise, beyond that, there is no realism. In addition, the information of physical reality depends on the measuring devices applied. The universe is forever changing, from the sun-centered to the earth, and is basically tool-driven according to Dyson (11) who believes that as the tools evolve, so does our vision. This is seen as true in all planets regardless the size. However, this confirms only through tests, and the question on what lies beyond the measurement ability remains.
The world physically describes as evolving, and self-correcting story. Nevertheless, this is not a conclusive theory since physics has no end in a reductionist theory caused by complexity in the interactions among elementary particles. It is difficult to attain a totality in knowledge, and this is a predicament in the human race that only dreams the infinite but are not able to embrace it. Any theory looking for final answer is only trying to embrace the impossible. The western philosophers have tried hard to get the answers in vain. They should embrace the idea of not knowing, where questions have no answers.
Science is believed to be the supreme figure of all knowledge. This is because it bases on theories and facts, and its results are acquired through approved methods. In addition, it looks impartial making it seem reliable and truthful. Nevertheless, they are people who feel that science is misunderstood. Therefore, the question of other types of knowledge similar to science exists. History and biology are the main areas where science knowledge is tested. These are compared in different ways including reasoning, perception, language, and emotion in order…