Southwest Airlines When Southwest Airlines essay

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Category 1 APUs are installed where in-flight auxiliary power operation is necessary. Category 1 APUs are usually required for essential APU installations. These APUs have been shown to meet all of the test and analysis requirements of the Minimum Performance Standard (MPS) of TSO C77b, Appendix 1.

Category 2 APUs are installed where in-flight APU operation is not necessary (non-essential installations).

Both Category 1 and Category 2 APUs are acceptable for non-essential APU installations. Category 2 APUs are not required to meet all of the test and analysis requirements that Category 1 APUs are subjected to. (See TSO C77b, Appendix 1, for the detailed requirements). (Category 1 and Category 2 APU, 2005). (See Appendix a for another example of an APU)

History (may need something different for this part - raw research) significant early demonstration was of the first liquid-fueled, fuel cell APU on a vehicle. This was a methanol-fueled, proton exchange membrane (PEM) APU on a Freightliner® long-haul tractor. The system was developed and built by Ballard Power Systems and was first demonstrated publicly in March 2003. Collaborative R&D continued with several component development programs that sustained the development of fuel reformers for more complex and "JP-8-like" fuels.

The next major demonstration was a synthetic-jet-fuel-powered PEM APU on a Bradley M2A3 during February 2005 at the Association of the United States Army (AUSA) Winter Symposium in Fort Lauderdale, FL. This system was designed and assembled through collaborative efforts between United Defense, Battelle and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The PEM APU is significant because it is the first complex hydrocarbon-fueled APU and it is the first one installed in a military combat vehicle.

In addition to reformer-based systems, TARDEC continues to develop regenerative fuel cell auxiliary power. In this type of system, an electrolyzer uses vehicle power to decompose water into hydrogen and oxygen. The hydrogen is stored and is later used in a fuel cell for silent watch or standby electrical power generation. TARDEC has teamed with Hydrogenics to develop this concept, which was first demonstrated as a proof of concept in January 2004. The program's second phase began in early 2005 to integrate a regenerative fuel cell APU into a Stryker vehicle for demonstration in fall 2005. (Leathers, et al., 2005, History section).

Inspection for particular categories of civilian airplanes, the FFA requires a fire extinguishing system ("system") for each engine nacelle and auxiliary power unit (APU) compartment. ("Minimum Performance Standards...," 2006).


For main engine starting power, pneumatic power and electrical power generation, the highly reliable 131-9A series APU delivers robust performance, increased engine life, and easy maintainability for a lower cost of operation and ownership. The 131-9A provides quiet operation from noise reduction features integrated into the inlet, compressor and hot section design. (Honeywell APU, 2009)

Auxiliary Power Unit (Honeywell APU, 2009) two-stage axial turbine increases engine life and a single starter/generator that uses electrical power to start the APU, but then becomes a generator once the APU is running, the 131-9A provides a cost-effective APU solution for Airbus A318, A319, A320 or A321 aircraft (Honeywell APU, 2009)

Technical Features

Certified to start and operate at flight levels up to 41,000 feet.

Provides 154 lb/min of bleed air at 52 psi for main engine starting and environmental control.

Its 90 kW electrical power generator fully meets all system needs up to a flight level of 35,000 feet in the case of an emergency. (Honeywell APU, 2009)


Martin B. Hocking and Diana Hocking report in "Air Quality in Airplane Cabins and Similar Enclosed Spaces," that the APU may be located in the aircraft tail.



Maintenance One concern relating to the APU, the potential to overheat could be resolved by the passive cooling system provided for an APU installation on an aircraft. The U.S. Patent & Trademark Office reports that: "A passive cooling system for an APU installation on an for an auxiliary power unit having at least a compressor portion of a gas turbine engine and oil cooler contained separately within a nacelle" ("Canadian Inventor Develops...," 2008).

The Auxiliary Power Unit Passive Cooling System, developed by Luc Dionne of Candiac, Canada includes:

the auxiliary power unit housed within the nacelle of the aircraft, an engine exhaust opening defined in the aft portion of the nacelle and communicating with the gas turbine engine, at least a first air inlet duct communicating with a second opening defined in said nacelle and with said compressor portion and the oil cooler is located within a second duct communicating with an opening other than the engine exhaust opening of said nacelle and with the engine exhaust opening. Exterior cooling air and engine exhaust ejected through said engine exhaust opening entrain cooling air through said second duct to said oil cooler, and thus provide engine oil cooling. An exhaust eductor is also provided. ("Canadian Inventor Develops...," 2008).


Canadian Inventor Develops Airplane Auxiliary Power Unit Passive Cooling System. U.S. Fed News Service, Including U.S. State News. HT Media Ltd. 2008. Retrieved February 28, 2009 from HighBeam Research:

Category 1 and Category 2 APU. (2005, June 15). Retrieved February 28, 2009

Continued airworthiness assessments of powerplant and auxiliary power unit installations of transport category airplanes. (2003, September 8).$FILE/AC39-8.pdf

Cook, G. (1996, January/February). Uncle Sam's Not-So-Friendly Skies: The FAA Has a Good Safety Record, but it Could Do Much Better. Washington Monthly, 28, 9+. Retrieved February 28, 2009, from Questia database:

FAA Admits Controllers Wrongfully Blamed Pilots; Will Reform Supervision Procedure of Air Traffic. (2008, April 25). The Washington Times, p. A01. Retrieved February 28, 2009, from Questia database:

Gibson, J.W., & Blackwell, C.W. (1999). Flying High with Herb Kelleher: A Profile in Charismatic Leadership. 120. Retrieved February 28, 2009, from Questia database:

Haunschild, P.R., & Sullivan, B.N. (2002). Learning from Complexity: Effects of Prior Accidents and Incidents on Airlines' Learning. Administrative Science Quarterly, 47(4), 609+. Retrieved February 28, 2009, from Questia database:

Hocking, & Hocking, Diana. (2005). " Air quality in airplane cabins and similar enclosed spaces." Springer Science & Business. Retrieved February 28, 2009

Honeywell APU. (2009). Honeywell. Retrieved February 28, 2009

Honeywell Signs Extension With Southwest Airlines to Maintain Fleet for 10 Years. (2008). PR Newswire. PR Newswire Association LLC. Retrieved February 28, 2009 from HighBeam Research:

Leathers, Edwin Jr.; Berels,; Bradford,; Kallio. TARDEC forges technological advances in fuel cell auxiliary power unit (APU) development. Army AL & T. Superintendent of Government Documents. 2005. HighBeam Research. Retrieved February 28, 2009, at

Liou, K.T. (2000). Applying Strategic Management to Economic Development: Benefits and Challenges. International Journal of Public Administration, 23(9), 1621. Retrieved February 28, 2009, from Questia database:

Minimum performance standards for aircraft engine and APU compartment fire extinguishing agents/systems Draft). (2006, Sept. 26). Retrieved February 28, 2009

Minimum performance standards for aircraft engine and APU compartment fire extinguishing agents/systems (Draft). (2006, Sept. 26).

Taylor, C. (2003, October). Survivors: Training to the Rescue. T&D, 57, 29+. Retrieved February 28, 2009, from Questia database:[continue]

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