Others -- other components of job specification are recurrent from the previous sections and may include the title of the position, ordinary and extraordinary characteristics required from the occupant of the position, the main tasks of the job, or the expertise required from the candidate
4. Job Design
Introduction to Job Design
A major part in conducting a proper process of talent management is that of creating an adequate environment in which the organizational staff members feel free to professionally express themselves. It is crucial to set the basis of an environment which fosters creativity, originality, hard work, collaboration and even competition. A working medium in which the employees are encouraged to express their views, opinions, satisfactions and dissatisfactions related to the job they are performing or the workplace is often promoted as an organizational incentive. Modern day companies forward the idea of a pleasant working environment as a means of attracting more employees and improving their reputation.
Examples from Today's Corporations
The Starbucks website for instance states that while being an employee within the coffee monolith, "it's like working with friends."
Another example, whilst the list is extremely comprehensive and a few pages would be insufficient to simply state them, is given by Wal-Mart, the largest retailer within the United States. Their website argues that "as our more than 2.1 million associates can attest, working for Wal-Mart is the chance to be a part of a company unlike any other in the world. it's more than a job; it's a place to develop your skills and build a career with competitive pay and health benefits for you and your family. To work for Wal-Mart is to be welcomed into a diverse family, where the individual contributions of every associate are respected and valued. Above all, it's an opportunity to join a team 1.9 million strong who is helping the world live better every day."
Importance of Job Design
All the efforts undertaken by modern day managers to create a friendly and stimulating working environment are organized under the generic concept of job design. Organizational leaders engage in processes of job design as a means of increasing company results. The relationship between job design and organizational outcomes is simply portrayed below:
The specialized literature offers a multitude of definitions of job design, but all of these definitions state the same things, within a different formulation however. For didactical purposes, we will hereby define the concept of job design as the series of operations undertaken by organizational leaders with the threefold objective of maximizing the utility of the consumed resources, increasing organizational revenues and creating a working environment which fosters productive activities on the part of the staff members.
How to Create Job Design
There are four generally recognized ways of achieving an adequate job design:
job enlargement -- sees that the employee will be asked to perform a wider palette of tasks, with the purpose of increasing his motivation, as well as reducing monotony job simplification -- this technique sees that the overall task is broken into smaller chores which require reduced mental and physical effort job enrichment -- similar to job enlargement, the enrichment assigns more tasks to the employee with the purpose of increasing his responsibilities; this procedure grants the staff member with more autonomy and control and increases his level of on-the-job satisfaction job rotation -- this technique sees that the company employees perform more tasks on a rotary basis in order to reduce the chances of going into a rut, as well as ensuring training in more than one fields
Two Factor Theory in Job Design
Frederick Irving Herzberg was a psychologist most famous for his work within the motivational field. Herzberg was in fact the creator of the concept of job enrichment and of the popular motivator-hygiene theory. According to the psychologist, people are motivated by two sets of incentives. The first set is called motivators and the second set is called hygiene. The motivators are the ones with the highest powers in actually changing the behavior of staff members in the direction desired by