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My current level of job satisfaction is modest. There is a reason I am going to school and getting a better job is a big part of that! There are things that I like about the job, but as far as compensation and opportunity are concerned it is definitely lacking in those respects.
Landy and Conte (2013) note that there are several factors from the worker's perspective that can affect job satisfaction. Work-life balance is one of them. When a job does not pay much, you often need to work extra hours or have a second job in order to meet the financial needs of you and your family. This affects the work-life balance in that the balance is entirely tilted to work and never to life. For me, having more opportunity might not immediately pay dividends with respect to working less but it could, and I would…
Landy, F.J., & Conte, J.M. (2013). Work in the 21st century: An introduction to industrial and organizational psychology (4th ed.). Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons
Chapter 8: The Motivation to Work
Ealias, A. & George, J. (2012). Emotional intelligence and job satisfaction: A correlational study. Research Journal of Commerce and Behavioral Science. Vol. 1 (4)
At the level of the individual worker, motivation and job satisfaction among other things, generate a sense of security and confidence. Moreover, it offers them the opportunity for flexibility where they are able to apply varied approaches in meeting work requirements (Adeyinka et al., 2007, pp. 3-15). This makes the work environment interesting thus providing the employees with the pleasure and urge to facing their day-to-day lives at the workplace. Flexibility in the workplace comes in when worker is having permission to veer from the ordinary monotonous routines of accomplishing specific tasks with the view of creating excitement out of tasks that, in some cases, apparently challenging (Zaremba, 1978, pp. 58-66). More individual benefits which; motivated workers are in the form of the feeling of self-worth and optimism, which extends to situations outside work (Nedeljkovic et al., 2012, pp.105-107). With this regard, job satisfaction and motivation help employees develop a…
A, A.A. & Aktas, A. 2005, "Job satisfaction of managers in tourism: Cases in the Antalya region of Turkey," Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 479-488.
Adeyinka T, Ayeni, C.O. Popoola S.O.,2007, Work Motivation, Job Satisfaction, and Organisational Commitment of Library Personnel in Academic and Research Libraries in Oyo State, Nigeria, Library Philosophy and Practice
Adetule, J. (2011). Handbook on management theories. Bloomington, Author House
Ayub, M & Raffif, S, 2011, the relationshoip between work motivation and Job satisfaction, Pakistani business revikew, july 2011
According to (Hulin & Judge, 2003), job satisfaction is viewed a multidimensional psychological response one has towards a their job. The responses are affective, cognitive behavioral (Hulin & Judge, 2003). There is however no clear agreement of what job satisfaction stands for given the wide usage of the term. Vroom in his definition focuses on employee's role in the work place defining job satisfaction as the effective orientation of the employee towards their roles in current employment position (Vroom, 1964). A widely accepted definition of job satisfaction is one by Spector who acknowledges job satisfaction to be the feeling people have considering the respective aspects of their job. According to the Spector it has to do with how people dislike of like their job (Mullins, 2005).
Job satisfaction represents a combination of like and dislike feeling possessed by employees towards their work assignments. To some extent, it has…
Armstrong, M. (2006). A Handbook of Human resource Management Practice, Tenth Edition. London: Kogan Page Publishing.
George, J.M., & Jones, G.R. (2008). Understanding and Managing Organizational behavior, Fifth Edition. New Jersey: Pearson/Prentice Hall.
Gruman, Jamie, A., Saks, M., A., Zweig, & David, I. (2006). organizational socialization tactics and newcomer proactive behaviors; an integrative study. department of management, 69(1), 90-104.
Hulin, C.L., & Judge, T.A. (2003). Job attitudes. In W.C. Borman, D.R. Iligen & R.J. Klimoski (Eds.), Handbook of psychology: Industrial and organizational psychology New Jersey: Wiley.
There is a distinct difference between job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Job satisfaction relates specifically to the job. While this is influenced by organizational factors, the job itself can be satisfactory even when there is little commitment to the organization. Either one can be a source of motivation, but it is important for management of an organization to know which dynamic is at play, and which one might be more valuable as a motivating force.
Tella, Ayeni and Popoola (2007) studied the issue, and found that motivation was correlated with both job satisfaction and organizational commitment, but that the correlation with job satisfaction was strong and positive while the correlation with organizational commitment was weak and negative. This means that the job is more important to motivation than the organization. Intuitively, this makes sense. Motivation is related to the job, because that is what the person does on…
Moynihan, L., Boswell, W. & Boudreau, J. (2000). The influence of job satisfaction and organizational commitment on executive withdrawal and performance. CAHRS Working Paper Series #00-16, Cornell University.
Tella, A., Ayeni, C. & Popoola, S. (2007). Work motivation, job satisfaction and organisational commitment of library personnel in academic and research libraries in Oyo state, Nigeria. Library Philosophy and Practices. Retrieved November 9, 2013 from http://www.webpages.uidaho.edu/~mbolin/tella2.htm
Job Satisfaction and Disabled Workers Productivity
The theoretical frameworks this research will rely on are well-established. The theoretical framework in this study is constructed on Maslow's Hierarchy of Human Needs. Maslow proposed that unless the basic lower needs of the human being were met that the human would not even acknowledge the higher level needs. Maslow conceptualized this hierarchy as shown in the following illustration.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Human Needs
Personality & Spirituality (2012)
The bottom level is comprised by the short-term basic individual or physiological needs of the person, which include food, water, warmth, and sex.
The second level is comprised by safety needs including security, stability, and order.
The third level is representative of the individual's needs for social affiliation or love and belonging.
The fourth level is the need for esteem or the need to be recognized among social groups and peers.
The next to the top…
Definitions of Terms (2013) Retrieved from: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/disability
Drydakis, N. (2011) Health Impaired Employees' Job Satisfaction: New Evidence from Athens, Greece. Retrieved from: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1893929
Hall, ML, Gaunt, PM, and Brooks, AA (nd) Why Employers Don't Hire People with disabilities: A Survey of the Literature. Retrieved from: http://www.cprf.org/whyemployersdonthire.htm
The time frame was from one month February 1st to February 29th. Single-item questions were used while basing the question in terms of "how satisfied are you with your job?" Three response scales were used: normal, very satisfied, not at all satisfied. The framed question was to measure the independent variables, job satisfaction, based on level of job satisfaction from the time they have spent in their work place, (Scott Smith, 2013).
Several aspects of the work were considered, it covered areas like the workload, conditions of working (noise, heat, light), length of working time, confidence between managers as well as rank -- and file workers, organizational working time, competence of management, wages and rewards, training and requalification, opportunity for promotion, social care benefit, job security, and relationship with direct superior.
Single-item question were used such as: How satisfied overall are you with your job? The expected answers are…
Nguyen, A.N., Taylor, J. And Bradley, S., (2003a) Relative pay and job satisfaction: Some new evidence, Working Paper 045, Department of Economics, Lancaster University Management School. Retrieved March 13, 2013 from http://www.lums.lancs.ac.uk/publications/viewpdf/000187/
Scott Smith,(2013) Employee Satisfaction Survey Questions: 3 Sample Templates You Can Use Today. Retrieved March 13, 2013 from http://www.qualtrics.com/blog/employee-satisfaction-survey
Syptak, J.M., Marsland, D.W. And Ulmer, D., (1999) Job satisfaction: Putting theory into practice, American Academy of Family Physicians. Retrieved March 13, 2013 from http://www.aafp.org/fpm/991000fm/26.html
Job Satisfaction in Nursing
Levels of Job satisfaction in nursing in relation to generational differences
he contemporary society has suffered an acute shortage of nurses within the public and the government sponsored hospitals. Indeed the shortage is so intense that it was and still is viewed as one of the impediments that stand on the way of fully experiencing the positives of the Obama Healthcare program that was recently introduced. his has led to the interest of many scholars in finding out the reason why there is such a shortage yet the field of medical research is expanding each day with better equipment and medication coming into place each passing day. here could be a myriad of reasons behind the decline in the number of nurses but the primary focus of this paper will be to find out if the overall lack of interest is propagated by the levels of…
The writers look at the aspect of student nurses and what challenges they face. They also go further to show how these factors may end up affecting other people who are not aware of the challenges that the nursing students undergo. The writers go one to give suggestions of what should be done to check the attrition levels among students.
AMN Healthcare Inc., (2013). 2013 Survey of Registered Nurses: Generational Gap Grows as Healthcare Transforms. http://www.amnhealthcare.com/uploadedFiles/MainSite/Content/Healthcare_Industry_Insights/Industry_Research/2013_RNSurvey.pdf
This source looks at the already existing nursing turnover rates that are high and try to explain the reason behind them. More significantly it gives the costs that come with this high turnover and this is in terms of money as well as the human skills and humanitarian aspect of it. The source is significant since it gives the figures and numbers of the costs that are experienced due to high turnover.
Job satisfaction is not related to job performance, therefore, should managers be concerned about it or not?"A Give both points-of-view.A State and substantiate your opinion. A
Job satisfaction is one of the most important things within a company and organizational behavior regards this concept as a key aspect concerning work attitudes. Genetics plays a significant role when regarding job satisfaction as people are more probable to express interest in jobs that they identify with. Genetic factors apparently account for approximately thirty percent of people's interest in particular jobs, this making it possible for someone to understand why it is difficult for many individuals to appreciate certain jobs. The other seventy percent accounts for the role that a series of other factors play in a person's overall appreciation of his or her job. Managers can thus influence approximately seventy percent of their employees' job satisfaction because of the role they play…
Mennen, M. (2010). Applied Research Methods for Business and Management - Job Satisfaction. GRIN Verlag
Chapter 3 Values, Attitudes, and Moods and Emotions
Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment
Many people see job satisfaction and organizational commitment as being the same thing, but that is really not the case. They are two different sides to the same coin. Job satisfaction is based on the contentedness level a person experiences with his or her particular job or career (Spector, 1997). There are two different ways to look at the issue of job satisfaction, as well. People can have high scores with their overall job satisfaction, but may have low scores with specific areas of their job and how satisfied they are with those areas (Spector, 1997). This is something that should be noted, because numerous factors can affect a person's true job satisfaction. If he or she is happy with the overall job but unhappy with specific aspects of that job, that can lead to a lower level of satisfaction over time (Spector, 1997). In…
Behar, H. & Goldstein, J. (2007). It's not about the coffee: Leadership principles from a life at Starbucks. NY: Penguin Group.
Meyer, J.P. & Allen, N.J. (2007). A three-component conceptualization of organizational commitment: Some methodological considerations, Human Resource Management Review, 1: 61-98.
Spector, P.E. (1997). Job satisfaction: Application, assessment, causes and consequences. CA: Sage.
A task question aids in description. This might include a request to draw a map or show how a task is accomplished. Further data can be gleaned through extension questions such as "tell me more about…," encouragement comments such as "go on…, yes?, and Uh huh?" And example questions such as "can you give me an example of…"
Some preliminary interview questions developed for this study include: 1) Tell me about your work? 2) What do you like most/least about your work? 3) How do you think your family feels about your work? 4) What is the hardest thing about your job? 5) Why did you enter police work? A separate questionnaire may be incorporated into the study as well. Some preliminary questions might include - on a scale of 1 to 5 please rate: 1) How supportive do you feel your supervisors are? 2) How stressful is your work?…
Schwartz, a., (2005) . Advantages and disadvantages of the qualitative research methods. Retrieved June 10, 2010, from: http://www.articlesnatch.com/Article/Advantages-and-Disadvantages-of-the-Qualitative-Research-Methods/208266#ixzz0qbfUTDpQ
Smith-Tyler, J., (2007) . Inormed consent, confidentiality and subject rights in clinical trials. The Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society 4:189-193 (2007). Retrieved June 10,2010, from: http://pats.atsjournals.org/cgi/content/full/4/2/189
Stringer, E.T., (1999) . Action research:Second edition. Thosand Oaks, California: Sage Publications Inc.
Does the company offer plenty of opportunities for highly motivated individuals to move up the corporate ladder, or is it a more mundane type of company that picks its managers from already chosen, and groomed stock? If that is the type of company policy that is being implemented, I would probably be more interested in working somewhere else. Going hand-in-hand with that characteristic is the capability of the company to offer advancement in the first place. Is the company big enough to offer such advancement opportunities? Does it have enough offices in enough locales to constantly and consistently keep my interest? Does the company have enough products in those locations to ensure that the workplace environment will be exciting enough to motivate the employees (especially me) in regards to diligently working and progressing?
Overall, I would say that working for a company that displays the three characteristics discussed throughout this…
As pointed out in the Lacy, et al. article (Winter, 2001) in order for accurate conclusions to be drawn about any testable situation there must exist an adequate sample size as well as employing an appropriate sampling structure. Further, according to the authors a sample drawn at random is an unbiased sample in the sense that no member of the population has a greater chance of being selected than any other member. At the same time non-random samples are, unfortunately, over or under-representations of a population and have a tendency to skew measurement results. There, are, however, research situations wherein randomization is not possible but this does not necessarily negate the research effort. The implication behind non-randomization is that the results of the study, whether they are differences, relationships, or effects, cannot be levied against a greater population. The results must be solely directed toward the sample itself. In other…
Job Satisfaction in Nursing Related to Generational Differences
The research methodology that will be used is the observational research method since it will involve a phenomena being observed and recording of information acquired. It will also be largely qualitative in nature since it will be dealing with attitude on nursing as a career and the effect that the generational gap between the varying generations has on the attrition levels. This method will also allow the use of interviews and focus group studies unlike the other research methods like experimental methods that would be rigid on this.
Techniques of data analysis
Since this will be analysis of one variable, lack of job satisfaction among nurses, the grouped data approach will be most efficient and convenient in analysis of the collected data. There will be a use of drawing out of patterns in the responses that will be received through the various…
Thus among some of the factors that heavily influence job satisfaction is job autonomy i.e. The extent to which people have the freedom to make independent decisions at work. Several studies have already been conducted on the subject but there have been limitations attached to most of them. Some have specifically focused on employees working abroad (e.g. Bhuiman et al. 1996) while others have focused on psychological and sociological theories alone. Yet some others have failed to suppress other factors of job satisfaction while studying autonomy and its impact.
CHAPTE III: THEOETICAL FAMEWOK
Van Praag (2003) argued that personal well being is a multi-dimensional feeling which doesn't arise from satisfaction in one single area. He argued that a person's sense of well being comes from satisfaction in the areas of work, leisure, wealth and environment. Using the same framework, we believe that job satisfaction is also a multi-dimensional feeling…
Bhuian, S., Al-Shammari, E., Jefri, O., 1996. Organizational commitment, job satisfaction and job characteristics: An empirical study of expatriates in Saudi Arabia, International Journal of Commerce & Management 6, 57-80.
Freeman, R.N., 1978. Job satisfaction as an economic variable, American Economic Review 68, 2, 135-141.
Levy-Garboua, L., Montmarquette, C., 1997. Reported job satisfaction: What does it mean?, Cirano: Canada.
Spector, P.E. (1997). Job satisfaction: Application, assessment, causes, and consequences. Thousand Oaks, CA.: Sage.
Job Satisfaction in Nursing Related to Generational Differences
The proposal is based on the aspect of job satisfaction in the nursing sector taking into account the levels of satisfaction in relation to the age differences or the generational differences. The proposal highlights the major steps that will be followed and the approaches and the tools that will be used in finding out the background reasons causing the attrition in nursing relative to the different generations, the extent of the attrition, the trend among generations in relation to their perspective on nursing over the years. The paper highlights the relevant tools that will be used in the collection of the data and the modes of analysis that will be used.
Generations involved in nursing
In order to understand the entire possibility of the generational gap being a possible contributor, it is significant to understand the generations involved in the nursing…
Job Satisfaction in Nursing related to Generational age differences in free-Standing clinics and physician offices.
What is the relationship between generational age and job satisfaction in nursing and what measures are already put in place and can be added to meet higher satisfaction needs?
Going by the rate of drop out within nursing courses and the early retirement of nurses to other professions, specifically the IT and other technology oriented courses, the generational change and the generational difference has contributed a lot to the shift away from nursing related courses and careers. The Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Y have differing interests, some based around technology. Because Generation X makes up a quarter of the nursing population, it is important to meet their demands as they will soon become the majority population of nurses. Since the Baby Boomers nurses already have high job satisfaction, more focused should be placed on…
Career development helps workers grow their potential, gives them the opportunity to be involved when organizations change, and makes them happier and work more productively. It is show than ever before today's high school graduates need more education and highly technical skills for blue-collar jobs such as welding, manufacturing and fixing cars. In the economy of the 21st century, this is essential.
More importantly, all workers, including blue-collar ones, want to be valued. ecognition for good performance is one of the most important motivators for high performance and morale in general. It is a lack of this recognition that decreases the desire most workers have to perform. To gain recognition for personal achievements is one of the most basic of human needs and needs to be fulfilled. For example, it is being increasingly recognized how important it is to have participatory management opportunities for blue-collar workers. People want to be…
Leibowitz, Z.B., Kaye, B.L., & Farren, C. (1992). "Multiple career paths," Training and Development, 46(10), 31-35.
Loscocco, K.A. (1990) Reactions to blue-collar work. Work & Occupations 17(2):
McDonald, K., Hite, L., and Gilbreath, B. Nonsalaried U.S. employees' careers: An exploratory study (2002). Development International. 7(6/7): 398-406
Ridings, C.M., and Eder, L.B., (1999). An analysis of technical career paths and job satisfaction. Computer Pesonnel 20(2): 7-26.
Job Satisfaction vs. Big Five Traits
Over the last several years, the workplace has been continually evolving. This is because there are different age groups and demographics. These shifts are forcing employers to utilize numerous strategies in order to improve motivation and performance. In many case, the personality of the individual will have an influence in determining their success. (Cherry 2013) (Bass 2006) To fully understand they way this occurs requires carefully examining how these variables are interconnected. Together, these elements will illustrate the way employers are able to utilize them to continually adjust with the challenges they are facing.
Personality and job satisfactions are directly related to each other. Job satisfaction is when an employee will have positive or negative attitudes related to their work. This has an impact on their underlying levels of organizational commitment. Organizational commitment occurs after an individual feels a sense of respect, fairness and…
Bass, B, 2006, Transformational Leadership, Psychology Press, Mahwah.
Cherry, K, 2013, Hierarchy of Needs. About.com. Available from: [28 January 2015].
Cherry, K, 2013, Theories of Motivation, About.com. Available from: [28 January 2015].
Organizational Socialization and Job Satisfaction
Contemporary business managers understand that organizational culture and cultural socialization processes can play a significant role in promoting employee satisfaction in the workplace. That is an important issue from the perspective of business organizations because it contributes to retention and employee turnover rates; and in the so-called "information age," it can also affect the ability of the organization to recruit prospective hires. In general, happy employees perform better than unhappy employees; they stay with their employers longer; and business organizations that maintain positive internal cultures and cultural socialization processes are more competitive than business organizations whose internal cultures ignore employee satisfaction.
Contemporary Approaches to Maximizing Employee Satisfaction in the Workplace
As a general rule, happy employees perform better in their vocational roles and stay with their employing organizations longer than unhappy employees (obbins & Judge, 2009). Many factors contribute to employee happiness and vocational satisfaction,…
George, J.M. And Jones G.R. (2008). Understanding and Managing Organizational
Behavior. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Gove, T. (2008) "The Art of Managing Up." FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin 77(6).
Maxwell, J.C. (2007). The 21 Irrefutable Rules of Leadership. Georgia: Maxwell
Mastery and acknowledgment of continual improvement of performance is what leads to a growing level of job satisfaction over time.
While job satisfaction is the inward manifestation of an employees' mastery and recognition of continually improving and excelling at their work, motivation is the most outward manifestation of how an employee perceives the value of their work and contributions. As the article states, motivation includes the factors of how an employee chooses to use their time, their intensity of effort, and the persistence level that work is completed at. These are all outward manifestation of someone's job satisfaction, and often are predictors of how much ownership and mastery they feel over their jobs. What makes managing very difficult as a profession is the fact that the underlying motivators of what gets each employee to a level of performance on these factors varies significantly. As the article states, one cannot simply…
With this understanding, H departments can focus their hiring practices to highlight individuals with characteristics and personality traits that are correlative to the organizational culture (Liao & Chuang 2004). Moreover, finding a practical method for understanding this is needed to make implementation of H procedures more effective. A more effective model, which is still in the making, would be much more effective in helping H departments better clarify who to hire and how to encourage employee satisfaction within individual work environments.
Future research can definitely focus on exploring these gaps further in order to create a better understanding of how employee satisfaction impacts organizations as a way for H departments to create more effective hiring and organizational policies. Such research needs to focus on better examining personal characteristics. As of today, there is little understanding of how personal traits impact overall employee satisfaction. Thus, H departments may be hiring the…
Corporate Executive Board. (2003). Linking employee satisfaction with productivity, performance, and customer satisfaction. Corporate Leadership Council. Web. http://www.keepem.com/doc_files/clc_articl_on_productivity.pdf
Liao, Hui & Chuang, Aichia. (2004). A multilevel investigation of factors influencing employee service performance and customer outcomes. Academy of Management Journal, 47(1), 41-58.
Saair, L.M. & Judge, T.A. (2004). Employee attitudes and job satisfaction. Human Resource Management, 43(4), 395-407.
By getting these many lower-level needs out of the way Google can have its employees concentrate on the very complex and demanding problems the company is addressing in its product strategies today.
Alleviating the lower-level needs of the employees so they can concentrate their efforts on the more complex and time-consuming tasks of creating innovative new products is the goal of these services. They are consistent with the Maslow hierarchy of needs (ouse, 27) and do more than just satiate the employees' need for these services; they are the catalyst of greater innovation as jobs in the company have a high degree of autonomy associated with them. For the employee who continually cultivates his new product concept through the rule of 20% process, there is the potential to gain increased status and recognition in the company, and much internal recognition as a thought leader (Taylor, 23, 24). Google has found…
Machlis, S.. "Innovation and the 20% Solution. " Computerworld 2 Feb. 2009
Ramsey, R.. "Are you missing out on the power of purpose? " Supervision 1 Oct. 2010
Kimberly a Gordon Rouse. "Beyond Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs: What Do People Strive for? " Performance Improvement 43.10 (2004): 27-31.
Chris Taylor. "Democracy Works. " FSB: Fortune Small Business: SPECIAL REPORT: Tech Now 1 May 2009:
1. What is more important to you: job satisfaction or organizational commitment, and why?As a younger professional job satisfaction is the more important element. Job satisfaction is critical as it allows the individual to better leverage their skills and abilities in a manner that is beneficial for society at large. Research has shown that a satisfied employee is much more productive. They tend to innovate more and add more value to the organization (Altimus, 1973). In addition, most working adults will spend the majority of their time working, particularly during their early careers. As many Americans spend roughly 50% to 66% of their day working a sleeping, it is important to be satisfied with your job. Otherwise the quality of life of the individual will suffer. Alarmingly, roughly 75% of Americans are not satisfied with their current job (Bateman, 2019). Much of this dissatisfaction is related to various factors including…
1. Altimus, C. A. Jr. and R. J. Tersine. 1973. Chronological age and job satisfaction: The young blue-collar worker. The Academy of Management Journal 16(1): 53-66.
2. Benjamin, L. T., Hopkins, J. R., & Nation, J. R., (1990). Psychology (2nd ed.). New York: Macmillan
3. Bernstein, D. A., Clarke-Stewart, A., Roy, E. J., & Wickens, C. D. (1997) Psychology (4th ed.). New York: Houghton Mifflin.
As Moore and Anderson emphasize, "Another driver is that distance education students have as much right to expect effective library services as traditional on-campus students. Therefore, services have been enhanced to ensure easy access and equitable delivery of resources and services" (p. 384).
Clearly, then, although the mission of many university libraries to provide the resources and tools students need to achieve successful academic outcomes has not changed in substantive ways in recent years, technological innovations have demanded that they transform the manner in which they achieve these missions. A survey of university librarians conducted by Moore and Anderson (2003) determined that, "y far the major thrust of the libraries surveyed was the inclusion of information literacy skills into the curriculum, either imbedded into the discipline-specific information or as assessable tests within foundation or first-year subjects" (p. 382). The provision of these types of services, Moore and Anderson suggest, may…
Droege, S.B. And J.M. Hoobler. 2003. "Employee turnover and tacit knowledge diffusion: A network perspective." Journal of Managerial Issues, 15(1): 50.
Finnegan, R.P., F.D. Frank and C.R. Taylor, C.R. 2004. "The race for talent: Retaining and engaging workers in the 21st century." Human Resource Planning 27(3): 12.
Milgate, Michael a. 2004. Transforming Corporate Performance: Measuring and Managing the Drivers of Business Success. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Phillips, Jack J. 2005. Investing in Your Company's Human Capital: Strategies to Avoid Spending Too Little -- or Too Much. New York: AMACOM.
e., males and females per nurse specialty).
Variables & Measures
Variables for the study are as follows: workload management, work environment, burnout rate, and job satisfaction. In addition to these variables, instruments gauging the level of burnout experienced will be used, particularly the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). An index of attitudes and perceptions on workload management, work environment, and job satisfaction will also be formulated, and will be tested for internal and construct validity.
FGD Guide / Survey Instrument
The FGD Guide will have four (4) sections, focusing on the following broad themes/topics: workload management as experienced by the discussants, work environment, burnout (concepts and experiences), and job satisfaction (as related to burnout). The survey instrument or questionnaire will also have the sections used in the FGD guide, with an additional section allotted for the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI).
Data analysis will make use of both bivariate and…
Ablett, J. And R. Jones. (2007). "Resilience and well-being in palliative care staff: a qualitative study of hospice nurses' experience of work." Psycho-Oncology, Vol.16.
Browning, L., C. Ryan, S. Thomas, M. Greenberg, and S. Rolniak. (2007). "Nursing specialty and burnout." Psychology, Health & Medicine, Vol. 12, No. 2.
Gawel, J. (1999). "Herzberg's Theory of Motivation and Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs." ERIC Digests Website. Available at http://www.ericdigests.org/1999-1/needs.html .
Gustafsson, G., a. Norberg, and G. Strandberg. (2008). "Meanings of becoming and being burnout -- phenomenological-hermeneutic interpretation of female healthcare personnel's narratives." Scandinavian Journal of Caring Science, Vol. 22.
Gender on Leadership Style and Employee Job Satisfaction
"The glass ceiling" emerged as a widely employed metaphor in the nineties to account for inaccessibility of organizational leadership posts for females. Even today, females continue to encounter a number of challenges when aiming for leadership positions (Ayman & Korabik, 2010). Research scholars recognize the broad significance of culture and situational contingencies as contextual factors governing leadership, whilst also presenting leadership or governance as a largely gender-neutral phenomenon. As of 2010, the labor force of the U.S. comprised of approximately 72 million women (aged 16+); i.e., 58.6% of American females above 16 years were employed, with 40% of the working female population either in professional or managerial roles (Jackson, Alberti & Snipes, 2014). In this paper, gender's impact on personnel job satisfaction and leadership approach will be studied, by reviewing scholarly literature on the subject.
Gender Impacts on Leadership Approach and…
Leaders have important roles at different ranks in organizations. A manager's leadership style has an effect on the work and attitudes of employees. Leaders ought to lead their subordinates in a manner that makes them happy to carry out their responsibilities. The thesis statement for the purpose is given as follows. "Any organization should aim to acquire and retain the best talent and effective leadership ensures that good employees are kept happy and satisfied at their positions." (Shagufta Parvenn & Adeel Tariq, 2012).
Gender and sex are often viewed as interchangeable terms. This is not correct as there are nuances to the meaning of each word. The World Health Organization's definition of gender encompasses the roles, activities, attributes and behaviors that the society appropriates to men and women. Sex, on the other hand, is physiological and biological characteristics defining men and women. Sex is denoted by 'Female or…
Employees' job satisfaction and success is tremendously influenced by managers. Studies show that men and women have varying preferences for the choice of the gender of their manager. Several studies have concentrated on this matter. Unfortunately, the outcomes of the studies are inconsistent. This paper, therefore, seeks to review past findings of research with the intention of exploring and casting light on the relationship between the variables in the modern workplace (Jackson, Alberti, & Snipes, 2014).
Effect of Gender on Leadership Style
Available research shows that men and women face different evaluation parameters in their leadership roles. Success in performance for a man is often attributed to the internal characteristics of the man and his skills and abilities. On the other hand, success for a woman is attributed to external factors that relate to a situation. These include the simplicity of the task or chance. There is a general perception…
Employee satisfaction might be one of the most difficult measures in management to quantify. There are so many ways to judge this factor, from self-evaluation to independent evaluation to more concrete numbers like productivity, which has been linked to job satisfaction.
There is no industry-wide standard for assessing employee satisfaction, and yet it is one of the most important factors in a successful work environment. This paper will explore the influence of an individual's personality and character traits on their job satisfaction; instead of seeing job satisfaction as a result of outside influences, I hypothesize that an employee's individual personality and attitude are important factors in his or her job satisfaction. That is to say, an employee who is otherwise unhappy and gloomy will most likely not be happy in his or her workplace either, and conversely, an employee with a positive outlook and an upbeat personality will be satisfied…
Morrison, Reese, "How In-House Managers Can Profit from Diverse Satisfaction Surveys," Of Counsel, 21:3, 2002.
Bernthal, Paul. "Measurement Gets Strategic," T& D, published by American Society for Training and Development, May 2005.
"Management Communication: Unlocking Higher Employee Performance," Communication World, March-April 2005, pp. 18-22.
human resources and psychology is job satisfaction. Not surprisingly, people have noted that higher levels of job satisfaction are linked to improved job performance. Hackman and Oldham were some of the first researchers to really highlight the relationship between job characteristics and job satisfaction. "Their Job Characteristics Model (JCM) argued that, essentially, enriched or complex jobs are associated with increased job satisfaction, motivation, and work performance. More specifically, they assumed that five core job characteristics…influence three critical psychological states…which in turn affect work outcomes (Fried & Ferris, 1987). The five core job characteristics include skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback from job (Fried & Ferris, 1987). The three critical psychological states include the experienced meaningfulness of the work, the experienced responsibility for outcomes of the work, and knowledge of the actual results of the work activities (Fried & Ferris, 1987). The work outcomes that are impacted by…
Cengage (2010). Skills application 4.2: Job diagnostic survey. Retrieved January 18, 2012 from:
Fried, Y. & Ferris, G. (1987). The validity of the job characteristics model: A review and meta-
-analysis. Personnel Psychology, 40, 287-322.
The main objective of this research is to examine the various factors affecting job satisfaction given that satisfaction is a dynamic phenomenon that includes a person's attitudes and behaviors. The author also seeks to examine organizational injustices and how they affect job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Organizations in the modern business environment consider job satisfaction as a legitimate factor that has strong impacts on organizational commitment. In light of this significance, it's important for organizations to evaluate and identify factors that affect job satisfaction. Therefore, this research primarily seeks to study the various factors affecting job satisfaction.
Data Analysis Methodology
To achieve the aims of this study, the researcher conducted 26 surveys on 26 different employees to determine issues that are affecting the job satisfaction in their different working environments. The researcher developed surveys with open ended questions that act as a framework of understanding what employees want…
Lumley et al. 2011, Exploring the Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment of Employees in the Information Technology Environment, Southern African Business Review, vol. 15, no. 1, pp.100-118.
Research Methods Knowledge Base 2006, Deduction & Induction, Research Methods Knowledge Base, viewed 22 April 2016
Satterfield, LM 2015, Factors Affecting Job Satisfaction of Radiologic Sciences Faculty: Implications for Recruitment and Retention, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, viewed 21 April 2016,
Soiferman, LK 2010, Compare and Contrast Inductive and Deductive Research Approaches, Institute of Education Sciences, viewed 22 April 2016,
Human esources Management Employee Attitudes and Job Satisfaction
The research by Saari & Judge (2004) does lay the foundation of three specific gaps between the Human esources practice and the scientific research that support theories that provide insight onto how to properly integrate workers into a workforce to meet organizational goals and the mission. The gaps outlined by Sarri & Judge are below.
The Causes of Employee Attitudes
The esults of Positive or Negative Job Satisfaction
How To Measure and Influence Employee Attitude
The Causes of Employee Attitudes are a subdivided into core categories including Dispositional Influences, Cultural Influences, Work Situation Influences. The gaps are a function of these categories as the real job work environment is subject to differentiation and variation from the underlying theory. "In addition, one of the most important areas of the work situation to influence job satisfaction -- the work itself -- is often overlooked…
Sarri L.M., Judge T.A. (2004) "Employee Attitudes and Job Satisfaction" Human Resource Management Vol. 43, No. 4, Pp. 395-407. Wiley Periodicals.
Hence, a more corporate attitude is being embraced by pro-vice-chancellors, but the salient question in this article is this: will a university be better off with corporate-style, bureaucratic leadership, or with leadership that pursues academic excellence and a pure mission of educating students?
Wang, Yong, and Poutziouris, Panikkos. (2010). Leadership Styles, Management Systems and Growth: Empirical Evidence from UK Owner-Managed SMEs. Journal of Enterprising
Culture, 18(3), 331-354. Doi: 10.1142/So21849581000604.
What these authors bring to light in this article is that a higher rate of sales and growth for medium sized businesses can be realized when run by an owner that also manages the business. This survey of 5,710 respondents in the UK further pointed to the fact that when the owner-manager delegates authority, the operation is more professional and successful.
Webb, Kerry S. (2009). Creating Satisfied Employees in Christian Higher Education: Research
on Leadership Competencies. Christian Higher Education, 8(1), 18-31.…
Zembylas, Michalinos, and Iasonos, Sotiroula. (2010). Leadership styles and multicultural education approaches: an exploration of their relationship. Leadership in Education,
13(2), 163-0183, doi: 10.1080/13603120903386969.
In this article the authors surveyed 17 principals in multicultural schools in Cyprus in order to find out what leadership styles worked best. The issue is relevant because immigration means new challenges for education leaders. About half of the 17 principals embraced a transactional leadership and "conservative multiculturalism" although another group adopted a style more in tune with what the authors call "critical multiculturalism embedded in critical and social justice leadership."
What is the relationship between individual characteristics and job satisfaction?
Individual characteristics, or sometimes referred to as attitudes or behavior, are related to job satisfaction in the sense that they help in defining the goal of an individual within his job. Such goals, defining by the way of how they are achieved, can be used in turn as measures in defining job satisfaction.
The differing characteristics of individuals affect their job satisfaction. For instance, there are those who are positive thinkers and goal achievers, in that despite of the challenges in their job, they remain optimistic. This then causes them not to feel too many negative views about their jobs. Thus, when asked to rate the level of their job satisfaction, they are most likely to say that they are satisfied. On the other hand, there are those who have low fighting spirit. When faced by challenges, they easily…
Managing Job Satisfaction.
Retrieved on 30 Nov 2004, from Bavendam Online.
Web site: http://www.employeesatisfactions.com/
Age Groups and the Nursing Profession
Job satisfaction in nursing related to generational age differences
Attrition among nurses has been a worrying topic to not only the society but the government and the related agencies in specific. This is due to the evident lack of interest in the nursing related field in the recent years, as more students opt for courses that are IT related rather than the nursing related courses. With the generation Y increasingly ignoring the nursing related courses and the baby boomers retiring each day, there is bound to be a gap in the nurses' numbers within the health care facilities, a trend that medics foresee just getting worse each passing year. Apparently, there is a generational influence or trend noticed in the perception of the nursing profession as will be further portrayed in the research data herein. This trend has led to a dire need for…
KaiserEDU.org. (2012).Nursing Workforce. Retrieved August 30, 2014 from http://www.kaiseredu.org/Issue-Modules/Nursing-Workforce/Background-Brief.aspx
Spetz J., et.al, (2002). Minimum Nurse-to-Patient Ratios in Acute Care Hospitals in California.
Orton Sophie (2011). Re-thinking attrition in student nurses. Retrieved August 30, 2014 from https://wlv.ac.uk/PDF/Rethinking%20Attrition%20in%20student%20nurses%20Sophie%20Orton.pdf
According to both testimonials and statistics, educated people report higher levels of personal happiness and job satisfaction. In her book, Nickel and Dimed, comfortably wealthy author Barbara Ehrenreich reports being taken out for a "$30 lunch and some understated French country-style place" and discussing "future articles I might write for [the editor of Harpoer's] magazine" (1). It is lunching with this editor from Harpers that she decides to take on a monumental task: leaving her posh environment and working in a blue collar job in order to prove, or not prove, that such one can get by making so little.
It is not only her work, but also her ability to take on such a task that proves the importance of education in both personal happiness and job satisfaction. Here, in the first few lines of the introduction, Ehrenreich alludes to her education and the choices it has allowed her…
Ehrenreich, Barbara. Nickel and Dimed. New York: Holt Paperbacks, 2002.
Gamoran, Adam. Standards-Based Reform and the Poverty Gap. Washington D.C.:
Brookings Institute Press, 2007.
In this report on the No Child Left Behind Act, author Adam Gamoran looks
Dong et al. is a published study which examines the nature of job satisfaction and its correlative relationship with job turnover. It examines specifically the trajectory of job satisfaction as it relates to causing worker turnover in a number within the hospitality industry. The study focused on 5,270 participants within the industry that worked at 175 different businesses. esearchers uncovered an interesting relationship between turnover and job satisfaction. There was a higher turnover rate with job dissatisfaction, which has been proven by prior research in previously published studies and empirical evaluations. Yet, this research uncovered that even positive changes in job satisfaction did not directly lead to a decrease in individuals leaving their current positions. The research uses the theoretical concept of Gestalt's characteristics theory to form a foundation for understanding how job satisfaction would be related to potential turn over rates. Overall, Dong et al. (2012) describes the concept…
Liu, Dong, Mitchell, Terence, Lee, Thomas W., Holtom, Brooks C., & Hinkin, Timothy R. (2012). When employees are out of step with coworkers: How job satisfaction trajectory and dispersion influence individual and unit level voluntary turnover. Academy of Management Journal, 55(6), 1360-1380.
International Organizational Behavior-Cultural Differences in Job Satisfaction and Motivation
As the forces of globalization continue to reshape the international marketplace, understanding cross-cultural differences in job satisfaction and motivation has assumed new importance and relevance. To this end, this paper provides a comparison of the United States with two of its major trading partners, China and Canada, drawing on Geert Hofstede's five cultural dimensions. A comparison of the U.S. with these two countries using Hofstede's five cultural dimensions is followed by an analysis concerning how various job factors contribute to satisfaction in different cultures. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning the implications of cross-cultural factors for international organizational behaviorists in promoting job satisfaction and motivation are presented in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
While it is reasonable to suggest that the overwhelming majority of people in the world work to earn a living, making pay and benefits…
Kim, Y-J & Na, J-H (2007, July). Effects of celebrity athlete endorsement on attitude towards the product: The role of credibility, attractiveness and the concept of congruence. International Journal of Sports Marketing & Sponsorship, 8(4), 310-314.
Sablosky, T. L. (2009, May). Did you get the message? In this era of far-flung branch locations, new methods of internal communication-such as teleconferences, videoconferences and intranets-are growing in popularity. ABA Bank Marketing, 37(4), 26-29.
The employee does, however, receive recognition and has the possibility of extrinsic rewards such as pay raises and promotions.
The relative lack of positive goals for the cashier/finisher position is ineffective. Employees are not encouraged to seek new, higher standards of performance because they face limited advancement and pay raise prospects. The company's emphasis on minimum standards works well, but the bagel example shows how better use of positive goal-setting can help to unleash the full potential of Dunkin's front-line customer service staff. If these employees working towards positive goals can bring the chain to be the number one bagel seller in the country in less than a year, then clearly the firm's day-to-day performance is underperformance and this is largely due to the lack of such rewards.
The cashier/finisher position at Dunkin' Donuts can be difficult to fill. As such, the company's job design, rewards and motivations systems…
Job Posting: Dunkin' Donuts Crew Member. Snagajob.com. Retrieved October 17, 2009 from http://www.snagajob.com/job-seeker/jobs/job-details.aspx?postingId=1308092&ref=vseindeed
No author. (2007). Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. NetMBA.com. Retrieved October 17, 2009 from http://www.netmba.com/mgmt/ob/motivation/maslow/
No author. (2008). Dunkin' Donuts rewards "brilliant bagel behavior." Incentive Performance Center. Retrieved October 17, 2009 from http://www.incentivecentral.org/employees/casestudies/Dunkin_Donuts_Rewards_Brilliant_Bagel_Behavior_.836.html
The last step is rating the elements on the constructs based on a 5, 7 or 10 point rating system Smith, 1980()
Another method is work sampling whereby the proportion of time a worker spends on a particular activity such as fixing a machine or designing a new system is measured. Hierarchical task analysis is another method and it involves giving a description of the performance of the employee based on the organization's hierarchy. This method involves describing the interactions between the employee, their supervisor and other managers in the hierarchy Shepherd, 1985()
Problems with job analysis
The job analysis process involves a variety of methods, detailed plans, tools and human effort which makes it prone to problems and challenges. One major problem that comes with job analyses is the lack of support by the management team. This is a huge problem that arises when the job analyst is unable…
Carter, R.C., & Biersner, R.J. (1987). Job requirements derived from the Position Analysis Questionnaire and validated using military aptitude test scores*. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 60(4), 311-321. doi: 10.1111/j.2044-8325.1987.tb00263.x
Dessler, G., Griffilhs, J., & Lloyd-Walker, B. (2007). Human resource management: Theory, skills & application (3rd ed.). Australia: Pearson.
Muchinsky, P.M. (2011). Psychology Applied to Work. Summerfield, NC: Hypergraphic Press.
Nel, P., Plessis, A. d., Fazey, M., Erwee, R., Pillay, S., Mackinnon, B.H., . . . Millet, B. (2012). Human Resource Management in Australia and New Zealand. Victoria, Australia: OUP Australia & New Zealand
This research was done to identify any relationship to job satisfaction and a recent company outing to Camp Feel Good. Essentially, the manager is doing this experiment to determine how effective Camp Feel Good attendance is on employee's attitudes.
u1= mean of employees who attended meeting and did not increase job satisfaction u0 = mean of employees who attended meeting and increased job satisfaction
u1 > u0
Null: H0: u1 / u0
Meeting attendance: This variable is discrete since it can either be yes or no, with no in between. This is a quantitative measurement and is the independent variable.
Job Satisfaction Score: This variable is continuous and is nominal. It is a qualitative variable that needs to be converted to understand its meaning. It is the dependent variable in this analysis.
The descriptive statistics infer some important points about the research question posed.
Week 3 SPSS Output. Provided by student.
National Atlas.GOV. (nd). Understanding Descriptive Statistics. Viewed 22 July 2013. Retrieved from http://nationalatlas.gov/articles/mapping/a_statistics.html
This sense of authority also enhances feelings of autonomy.
3. Feedback is available at all levels: from the supervisor, clients and co-workers. Performance is clearly observed and attributed to the employees, facilitating a fair performance appraisal and development of an incentives program.
Such processes are made even more efficient by the implementation of an efficient goal-system. As suggested above, the goals are established at individual level, at the group of employees performing similar tasks and at the level of the supervisor and departmental level.
The implementation of the new positions inside the department should be performed by taking into consideration employees' skills and motivation. The progress of the job redesign project should be monitored closely. Feedback sessions may be held in order to examine the challenges and progresses faced. Training should be offered to employees if necessary. The process completed, it can be examined and extended to other departments.
Summary report from account http://online.onetcenter.org/link/summary/13-2011.01
Armstrong, M. (2006), a Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice, Kogan Page, 10th edition.
Hackman R, 1980. Work Redesign and Motivation, Professional Psychology Vol. 11, No.3
Slocum, John W., Jr. Job Redesign: Improving the Quality of Work Life, available at www.sbaweb.wayne.edu/~absel/bkl/.%5Cjels%5C3-1b.pdf
job redesign approaches to revise the selected position.
There are various job redesign approaches that can be adopted in order to revise the role of the supervisor at GM. Grant & Parker (2009, p. 5) pointed out that job design describes how various jobs, roles and tasks are structured, modified and enacted. It also describes the impact of the structures. Job design has also been pointed out by Strumpfer (2006) to be of increasing importance to various organizations. This is because a well designed job results in an improvement of employee well-being. And yet again, it can observed as the process in which a given supervisor makes up his/her mind to change an element of the job, roles as well as tasks of a given individual (Tims and Bakker,2010)
The proposed and improved Job edesign system
General Motors should redesign their jobs to follow the framework of job…
Armstrong M. And Murlis H. (1994) Reward Management. A Handbook of Remuneration
Strategy and Practice, Third Edition. Kogan Page, London.
Grant, A.M., & Parker, S.K. (2009). Redesigning work design theories: The rise of relational and proactive perspectives. The Academy of Management Annals, 3, 317 -- 375.
Gross.,S. (1995) Compensation for teams: How to design and implement team-based reward programs, American Management Association. New York. NY
When most people think of Anheuser-Busch, they will often associate it with a large multinational company that produces Budweiser. While this is true, the firm has operations in 23 countries and employs 116 thousand people worldwide. This means that they must utilize different strategies for attracting and retaining key personnel. To fully understand how this takes place there will be a focus on: recruitment strategies, the way the organization classifies job opportunities, factors for determining the right mix of local / international employees, the benefits and expatriate programs. Together, these different elements will provide the greatest insights as to how the firm is able to locate and hold onto critical talent. ("Anheuser-Busch," 2012)
Outline the recruitment strategies the organization uses.
The basic recruitment strategy at Anheuser-Busch is focused on locating individuals who are coming out of college. During this process, they will talk with them about their future…
Anheuser-Busch. (2012). Anheuser-Busch. Retrieved from: http://www.ab-inbev.com/go/about_abinbev/our_company/ab_inbev_company_profile.cfm
Explore AB. (2012). Anheuser-Busch. Retrieved from: http://www.ab-inbev.com/go/careers/explore-ab-inbev-careers
Our Graduate Recruitment Programs. (2012). Best Beer Job. Retrieved from: http://www.bestbeerjob.com/global_management.html
Our People and Culture. (2012). Best Beer Job. Retrieved from: http://www.bestbeerjob.com/ourpeople.html
job is largely an outgrowth of the industrial revolution's efficiency demands. There was a widespread notion of substitution of machine power for people power, management specialists Adam Smith and Fredrick Taylor have given their remarkable contribution in creating positive correlation between specialization and efficiency (Litterer, 1969). Among the management experts and managers the popularity of specialized and short cycle jobs have climbed its peak. Job specialization was initiated in organizations by breaking down jobs into its lowest level and designing jobs for each part. It evolves specialization, expertise and improved quality. Job specialization implication is seen in workplace in manufacturing and assembly lines where workers were specialized for specific task for the whole shift.
In job specialization the same task is repeated whole day long. The benefits of job specialization can be drawn from the concept of 'Division of labor' proposed by Adam Smith. Smith had a strong conviction that…
Litterer, Joseph (1969) Organizations. Published by New York John Wiley & Sons.
Niederhoffer, Victor (2006) Specialization and the Division of Labor. Retrived on 22nd August
edesign and Workplace Assessment
What goes into the accountant profession? Are many responsibilities placed on the individual as well as the business? How does one remain motivated through his or her daily work activities? Will he or she become a success through these endeavors? One will discuss job redesign and workplace rewards.
Certified Public Accountants (CPA) have an impact at every organization they work at on a regular basis. Many in this profession rely on their firm to teach them the necessary information needed in order to understand what is required of them, such as ethics and culture. Training is involved for a new employee as well. In order for a CPA to do their job effectively, he or she has to follow a code of ethics. This lies with the individual rather than the company (Colson, 2003). "Professionals are expected to follow their profession's ethical codes even when these…
Colson, R. (2003). Principles of professional conduct. Retrieved May 15, 2011, from The CPA
journal: http://www.nysscpa.org/cpajournal/2004/104/text/p80.htm .
U.S. Department of Justice. (2011). Careers. Retrieved May 15, 2011, from U.S. Department of Justice: http://www.justice.gov/.
Job Stress Levels and its Effect on Production
Mitsuka Technologies Inc.
Mitsuka Technologies Inc. is involved in the manufacture of auto parts and components for one of the major automobile manufacturers in the world. As part of a quality and efficiency audit, a team has been assembled to assess the areas that need improvement to increase production, and ultimately profitability. Job stress is a concern for all levels of an organization, individual, group team, and the organization as a whole. This study will assess the level, sources of job stress and the effects that it has on Mitsuka Technologies Inc. In terms of quality, efficiency and productivity.
Studies have shown that stress effects an organization in many very real and measurable ways and that identifying the sources of stress and developing a plan to eliminate or reduce these stressors can have an impact on productivity and profitability. On an individual…
Carey, Allen D. (1997). Ways to Deal with Stress. ESU Online Management Journal. http://www.emporia.edu/ibed/jour/jour13ob/allencob.htm Accessed October 2002.
Douglas, Max E. (1996) Creating Employee Stress in the Workplace: A Supervisor's Role. Supervision. Oct 1996 p. 6-9.
Shellenbarger, Sue. (2001). Savvy Professionals Cope With Good and Bad Stress. Wall Street Journal Online. July 26, 2001. http://www.careerjournal.com/columnists/workfamily/20010726-workfamily.html Accessed October 2002.
Spiers, Carole. (2002) Stress Management. Training Journal. April 2002. www.csa-stress.co.ukOrganisationalstress:a management perspectiveSpiers / Accessed October 2002.
Job Characteristics Model focuses on five core job dimensions. The purpose of the characteristics model is to encourage workers to have greater job satisfaction through understanding their psychological needs. The five-core dimensions include the following characteristics. Skill variety: which dictates that a job design should challenge a number of skills and abilities that a worker possesses. Task identity: a job should require attainment of a complete and exclusive portion of work; the work must not be a small part of the project as a whole. Task significance: the job has to be significant to people's lives. Autonomy: the worker is self-governed when designing a work schedule and choosing how the work will be completed.
Feedback: the workers receive a response about the work completed that details the effectiveness of the job. (Notes on the Job Characteristics Model)
Job Enrichment firm's ability to understand these five characteristics can greatly enrich jobs…
Hackman-Oldham Job Characteristics Model and Job Design. http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Forum/1650/hackmanoldham.htm
Influencing Work Behavior. http://sominfo.syr.edu/facstaff/rchesser/mbc637mc/Present/Wkdesign.ppt
Job Characteristics model. http://www.siu.edu/departments/cola/psycho/psyc323/chapt07/sld020.htm
Notes on the Job Characteristics Model. http://www-rcf.usc.edu/~fulk/jcm.html . The
Discuss the factors causing the employee's dissatisfaction.
There are several reasons the employee could be dissatisfied; Malik will need to speak with her first thing in the morning to find out why she is unhappy. Only when he knows the reasons for her dissatisfaction can he begin to address the problem. He may find out that factors are completely out of his control.
The employee stated she feels she has both too much and too little to do. It is possible she feels that much of her work has little relevance with respect to her training, education and experience. She may feel overwhelmed with tasks that are beyond her expertise, with too few tasks requiring the kind of work she is comfortable doing. She may feel bored by work much of the time because it is not sufficiently challenging.
It is also possible that the employee does not…
Stewart, G.L. And Brown, K.G. (2009). Taken from Human Resource Management: Linking
Strategy to Practice, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Son, Inc.
Nothing is really work," states an old adage, "unless you would rather be doing something else."
In today's times of economic uncertainty, rapid employee turnover and more trade union disputes, the issue of worker satisfaction has become even more important. In addition to salary, many workers point to the need for a good quality of worker life. They need to feel that their personal needs are being met in their professional careers.
This paper examines factors which relate strongly to worker satisfaction. These factors include greater communication, opportunities for advancement and a sense that their work is "meaningful." In the last part, the paper also makes suggestions regarding how employers can both ensure motivation on the job and address factors that give rise to job dissatisfaction.
The question of employee satisfaction has come to gained greater attention especially in this new century. A survey commissioned by the Pitney…
Bodek, Norman. "The quality of work life." Industrial Engineer. March 2003. Proquest Database.
Giving employees meaningful work is the best way to keep them." New Hampshire Business Review. December 1, 2000. Proquest Database.
Greater expectations." People Management. September 11, 2003. Proquest Database.
Meta-Analysis Stages and Practices
(based on Figure 1, p. 307, Kirca & Yaprak, 2010)
The Causal Relation Between Job Attitudes and Performance:
A Meta-Analysis of Panel Studies
How Important Are Job Attitudes? Meta-Analytic Comparisons Of Integrative Behavioral Outcomes And Time Sequences
Identify and read relevant theoretical and empirical articles
studies were utilized.
Contextual performance and focal performance were the two main factors on which the studies were based
Identify important, common variables, study, and measurement characteristics to assess
The two variables being studied were job attitudes and job performance
Job attitudes were linked to different factors that came under the category of contextual and focal performance
Identify contradictory findings
Decide on meta-analysis objectives
To fill the gap between the relationship of these two factors.
To fill the gap between the relationships of these two factors.
Develop preliminary theoretical framework
Job attitudes were defined as a person's affective and…
American today, works more that an American worker of even a generation ago. A 1999 Government report stated that workers worked 8% more hours than the previous generation. This translates to an average workweek of 47 hours. Twenty percent of workers today work more than 49 hours. The work place has been constantly changing -- the revolution from agronomies to industrialization having had its origins in the industrial revolution. Most of the industrialized regions of the world have attained better standards with significant improvements in quality of life as a result of the industrial revolution. In turn, however, the workplace became more formal and restrictive. Any personal skills of an individual worker were generally ignored. These abilities were not essential a worker's role in the "new" work environment.
Mass production was the next phase of change in the workplace. It made standardization the norm. Greater emphasis was placed on conforming…
Armour, Stephanie. "Workers Seek Compensation from Employers for Job Stress." USA TODAY May 15, 2002.
Barsade, S, and B. Wiesenfeld. Attitudes in the American Workplace Iii. New Haven, CT: Yale University School of Management., 1997.
Bond, J.T., E. Galinsky, and J.E. Swanberg. The 1997 National Study of the Changing Workforce. New York, NY: Families and Work Institute, 1998.
Briggs, Susan. To Think or to Do? 2001. Available. December 8, 2002. http://www.pacpubserver.com/new/business/3-12-01/motivation.html
.....jobs that I had that were not motivating, but one in particular was an office job that involved mind-numbing work. It checked a lot of boxes for jobs that you don't want to do and I could not get out of there quickly enough. The office was a large, open space, a true cubicle farm, but without partitions, more open. So it was noisy. The lighting was terrible fluorescent. Everybody there was a lifer. I have never heard so much complaining about Mondays, and talk about Hump Day, and that sort of negativity. Nobody really wanted to be there but nobody seemed all that motivated to leave, either. For a young person looking to build something, it was just awful.
Barrick, Mount and Li (2013) wrote a paper discussing the role of personality, job characteristics and experienced meaningfulness. They argue that "personality traits initiate purposeful goal strivings" and essentially make…
93). This approach allows members of the team to act autonomously; that is, once the supervisor is selected each member of the team has their own target to hit, and their own method or tools for realizing their target or goal. When they achieve this goal, they are rewarded through recognition of their efforts and greater autonomy or a promotion. This in turn may lead to increases in status or pay within the organization, which improve motivation and fulfills any financial goals a team member may have.
Goal setting theory needs to be strengthened as it promotes knowledge sharing in the organization. eeve (2001) notes in his goal setting theory (p. 199) that setting goals is critical to the success and productivity of an individual and team members. When people act as part of a group they form an alliance, one that collaborates and overcomes obstacles to success, which may…
Reeve, Johnmarshall. (2001), Understanding Motivation and Emotion 3rd Ed. New York:
Job Analysis Selection InterClean merged EnviroTech, a result, a strategic direction. The company longer sell cleaning products, provide full-service cleaning solutions organizations health care industry.
Job analysis and selection
As InterClean merged with EnviroTech, the resulting company is one with an increased operational complexity. Specifically, instead of simply selling cleaning products, the new firm would also be offering cleaning services to customers in the health care industry. This specifically means that the quality of the products and services delivered has to be of the utmost highest standards, in order to serve the extreme hygiene needs of the medical field.
In order for the company to succeed in its endeavors, it is necessary for it to adequately staff, train or otherwise manage the human resources. This necessity is pegged to the fact that the employees are the ones who create and sell the products, and also the ones who deliver the…
Gross, J., 2009, What is workforce planning system? PayScale, http://blogs.payscale.com/compensation/2009/10/what-is-a-workforce-planning-system.html last accessed on December 20, 2010
Heathfield, S.M., Hiring employees: a checklist for success in hiring employees, About, http://humanresources.about.com/cs/selectionstaffing/a/hiringchecklist.htm last accessed on December 20, 2010
Employee selection process, Management Study Guide, http://www.managementstudyguide.com/employee-selection-process.htm last accessed on December 20, 2010
Practical steps to employee selection, University of California, http://cnr.berkeley.edu/ucce50/ag-labor/7labor/02.htm last accessed on December 20, 2010
Job Analysis Selection • Conduct a job analysis. • Outline a workforce planning system. • Create a selection process staffing. Course Assignments 1. eadings • ead Chapter 5 -- 7 Managing Human esources.
Job Analysis Selection
As InterClean and EnviroTech completed their merger, the operational complexities of the resulting companies significantly increased. At the primary level, one could observe the fact that the organization would no longer simply offer cleaning products, but also cleaning services to the local health care institutions. As a specification, these institutions require the highest possible quality cleaning products and services. Nevertheless, the ability to kill as many germs as possible does no longer represent the main competitive advantage.
The modern day society is extremely dynamic and continually challenges the economic agents to rise up to amounting expectations. While a high quality of the manufactured products and delivered services is imperative, it is no longer sufficient…
Jobber, D., Lancaster, G., 2009, Selling and sales management, Pearson Education
2010, Sample job analysis, Staffing and Recruiting Essentials, http://www.staffing-and-recruiting-essentials.com/Sample-Job-Analysis.html last accessed on December 21, 2010
Business open learning archive, The BOLA Project, http://www.bola.biz/jobs/salesjob/salesrep.html last accessed on December 21, 2010
Job Task Analysis -- Customer Service
Job Task Analysis Customer Service
Location: Corporate Office
shifts, 8-5, 4-12
Sat/Sun -- 9am-6pm
Hourly (Entry 10.00/hour, range to $14.80/hour)
Call Center Agent
Preparation / Prerequisites
High School Diploma or Equivalent
Excellent Interpersonal Skills
Working Knowledge of Basic Computer Operations and MS Word and Excel
Must pass a background and drug screen
Ability to Multi-Task effectively
Clear speaking voice and good command of English
Typing skills of 25-30 wpm or greater
One year experience in Customer Service or Sales
Ability to problem solve and find win-win solutions
Pleasant "can-do" attitude
Excellent listening and empathy skills
Work in a call center environment
Maintain customer service targets
Sales and Sales support
Consistently meets established guidelines
Effectively communicates with customers, coworkers and managers
Demonstrates accuracy and thoroughness to Quality Programs
Ability to service…
Job burnout has been defined as "a psychological syndrome in response to chronic interpersonal stressors on the job. The three key dimensions of this response are an overwhelming exhaustion, feelings of cynicism and detachment from the job, and a sense of ineffectiveness and lack of accomplishment." (Maslach, 2001)
Maslach describes exhaustion as stemming from the chronic stress of feeling burned out. The employee feels overextended, and lacks the emotional strength to overcome the hurdles he or she faces. It involves negative feelings of incompetence and lack of productivity.
Musick (1997) looked specifically at the medical profession, noting trends that have been seen in other fields as well. Management, in an effort to increase productivity, sometimes increases demands and arbitrarily changes job descriptions in ways that stress the employees. Musick reports one interviewee as saying, "People can do more for brief periods of time," but noted that sometimes people feel the…
Maslach, Christina. 2001. "Job Burnout." Annual Review of Psychology.
Mashlach, Christina. September, 1999. "Take this Job and... Love It! (6 ways to Beat Burnout)" Psychology Today.
Musick, Janine Latus. April, 1997. "H (Wellsley, 2000) ow Close Are You to Burnout?" Family Practice Management.
Wellsley, Kristin. August 21, 2000. "Are You Suffering The Symptoms of Burnout?" Los Angeles Business Journal.
XML is used not only to represent the data but also as a messaging protocol called SOAP; and (6) Portal Integration is another popular integration methodology in use today. It doesn't involve expensive and time consuming technologies and processes that EAI and data warehousing require. Also, it is the most customer-facing of all the methods described in this section. This means that it can be highly personalized and customized to the customer's requirements. In future, portals will present their functionality as web services so that multiple portals from different vendors can be integrated.
Architecture of Portals
The portal, when speaking technically, is "a framework that enables developers to plug various software components called portlets, and then deliver the aggregated content to multi-devices." (Mohan, 2003) Integration may be accomplished through using HRML, JSP, Java eans, Java servlets, XSL that transforms XML through XSL transformation or even CGI. Sun Microsystems' Java Community…
Mohan, Sajeev (2003) Mechanics of Oracle Portal and Identity Management. Online available at http://download.oracle.com/owsf_2003/36786_Mohan.doc
Reducing the Costs of it Security Management (2006) Sumner Blount eTrust Solutions Online available at http://i.cmpnet.com/ittransformationcenter.techweb.com/pdfs/reducing_costs_security_mgt.pdf
Building a Portal? Vive La Difference (2001) Information Week. 5 November 2001 Online available at http://www.informationweek.com/news/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=6508083
Oracle Solutions for Workforce Excellence - HR Transformation: Transform HR from an Administrative Function to a Strategic Partner. http://www.oracle.com/global/uk/hcm/9575%20Transformation-2-9-4.pdf
Job edesign and Workplace ewards Assessment:
Advertising art director at an advertising agency
Job components, tasks, or responsibilities
Employees whose work focuses on designing the content of advertising often have a greater deal of leeway in terms of governing their day than other types of employees. Advertising professionals are 'creatives,' meaning that their output is more subjective in its value than, say, a factory employee that must produce so much of a particular product per diem or even an accounting professional that must perform an audit. An advertising art director's role is serving the customer. "An art director usually works alongside a copywriter to form a 'creative team'. Traditionally, the copywriter produces the words to go with the visuals created by the art director" (Advertising art director, 2014, AGCAS). Working with the client closely from the beginning to gain a sense of what the client needs from a particular project;…
Advertising art director. (2014). AGCAS. Retrieved from:
Cutler, Z. (2014). The best ways to reward employees. Entrepreneur. Retrieved from: