Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formattingExcerpt from Term Paper:
Tests and Measurements
The activities of the classrooms are revealed to the learners, instructors and the institutions through administering normalized tests. They encompass gathered knowledge in reading, mathematics, and English for learners starting from kindergarten up to the high school level. Several instructors detest from organizing and evaluating tests and a majority of the students are scared of appearing in them. But tests are potent didactic instruments which provide at the minimum four tasks. First of all, tests assist in judging pupils and evaluating if they are receiving their education as per our reckoning. Secondly, properly planned tests provide inspiration and assist pupils to systematize their educational pursuits. (Davis, 1993, p.19)
Learners undertake their lessons in manners that show how they imagine their tests will be like. When they anticipate that a test is going to ascertain their knowledge about facts, they will get by heart the particulars; when they are hopeful that a test will need problem solving or assimilating knowledge, the students will stress upon comprehending and using information. Thirdly, tests can assist you in appraising how effectively you are portraying the content. Lastly, tests can strengthen learning by giving pupils with a guide of the subjects or aptitudes they have not so far attained expertise and must pay attention to. In spite of all these advantages, examination is also psychologically stimulating and concerning. Each of the tests endeavors to present correct grading of students and useful data on performances of the students of common educational goals. (Davis, 1993, p.20)
Among the regular tests that were held during the initial years are the TerraNova CAT, the TerraNova CTBS, the SAT-9, the MAT-8, and the ITBS and these are prevailing ones even today. These tests like the CAT or the Iowa test of Basic Skills (ITBS) are everlasting, created by the business houses are firmly based on psychometric theory. (Burley, 2002, p.44) On the validity aspect of psychometrics, concept maps will possess extremely high construct validity, meaning they can actually gauge an individual's intensity of knowledge in every sphere. A higher level of inter-relational validity are present in them while someone is able to get a different yardstick for correct comprehension, like appreciation of the person's proficiency by several specialists. A majority of the evaluation ranks higher on consistency and efficiency on getting marks, however they accord lower importance on construct validity.
Regular performance tests are normalized with the logic that they are required to be executed, allotted marks, and construed in a usual, prearranged method. In order that the normalized performance examinations present minute judgments, they should be capable to generate enough assortments of scores that a test usually gives. Those test matters that offer the most excellent to the making of the score-stretch are the ones solved rightly by nearly fifty percent of the candidates appearing of the test. To prevent mishandling of the normalized examinations, school districts ought to: Administer tests first of all to analyze learning requirements of every student and reform the programs; Hold examinations on a yearly basis during the autumn semester hence results assist in directing learning plan for pupils; Assign instructors and administrators to assessing the capability and specialized values set up by the professional bodies; Shun the Lake Wobegon Effect, wherein every state asserts that its pupils are more compared to the national average. (Popham, 2002, p. 23)
The Guidance Framework, relevant to the 50's and 60's, stressed the recognition and cultivating the aptitude of the student by way of analysis and segregation. The tests endeavored to gauge the performance and competence. The learning theory inbuilt in this milieu was that the capability of the students establishes the amount and extent of the learning content of students. Schools are held to be slightly influencing the outcome of the students. (Grant, 2001, p.401) Common sense coupled with an idea of two distinctive features of every quality tests, gives the outline that instructors employ to arrive at the most excellent selection while making student evaluation.
An evaluation system, on the basis of the commonsense principles regarding how pupils progress and are induced to better their performances can be taken up by the instructors. A better receptive arrangement built on cooperative response to enhance learning; a system which renders regional work and instructor decision more vital to affirm responsibility; a system put in place to give enticement for school restoration and innate professional development every year for the entire teachers; and an arrangement that will enthuse greater inventive teaching and not greater apprehensive submissive conduct can be grown. (Marsh; Roche, 1997, p.1194)
More than a third of the instructor's professional time period is devoted to the classroom evaluation which is a vital component of education. Teaching and learning are only enhanced through classroom evaluation and beyond this it serves no other objective; the teacher works out the approach and gains from the information she collects. The purpose of classroom evaluation is aimed at collecting information from the pupils regarding their knowledge and what is their feeling about the process of learning. Of the two vital causes for which pupils are judged are to apprise and enhance the outcomes of every student and to inspect or estimate performance of system. The review in the classroom is implicated with the appraisal and enhancement of every student performance and is extremely contextualized to the experiences of the students during learning in particular classrooms. (Shea, 1990, p.36)
The outcome of this type of evaluation normally is not typecast outside the framework of the classroom in issue. But teachers and students get instant and exhaustive response regarding the efficacy of the students in comprehending the theme of the subject. As per Angelo and Cross, evaluation in the classroom functions at the optimum level when the pupils are keenly engrossed in the system of making response policies and when teachers discuss the outcomes with them and answer to their apprehension. In this manner, classroom review can give opinion in an on-going and iterative manner in the gamut of the learning atmosphere. Several diverse classroom evaluation techniques are existent for use of the instructors, every one offering distinct learning chance and response for students. (McGilly, 1994, p.72)
While the instructors choose within these alternatives, they judge which appraisal is ideally suitable for their function and the impact that evaluation might put on student learning. For instance, a science laboratory can be utilized to give the students practical learning skill, besides evaluating the knowledge of the pupils regarding the scientific guidelines associated with the tests. Likewise, a writing effort may be utilized to assess the technical competence of a student in writing an essay or thesis paper, and also her precise awareness of an episode, individual, or matter. (Jacobs; Chase, 1992, p.80)
Evaluation procedures in the classroom can be exercised in each class, every week, or during specific points all through the semester. Whereas terminal assessments bring out student responses which might impact the preference of an instructor in the subsequent occasion when she administers a course, classroom evaluation gives the teacher with the responses she can take action at once. Majority of the classroom evaluation entails tests, which have been made by the teachers. These tests designed by the teachers can even be separated by when they are administered and the manner of using the results. Examination involving writing, and further evaluations which the teachers give continually in their classrooms are the evaluative tests that are preeminently appropriate in directing enhancements in student learning. (McGilly, 1994, p.76)
The instructors rely on the outcome from these evaluations due to their direct relationship to instructional objectives imparted in the classroom. Add to this, the outcomes are instantaneous and simple to examine at the own student level. Instructors grow to be further systematic regarding their conjecture and purpose in respect to student awareness or comprehension. They confirm frequently the extent of the working of their plans for learning of the students. The advantages of classroom evaluation are that instructors turn into extra perceptive spectators of pupils and grow to be more enlightened regarding student learning; students happen to be more involved in the learning procedure and more insightful regarding themselves as learners-they visualize themselves as furnishing to the learning atmosphere; classroom evaluation enhances collaboration among teachers and students and speaks to pupils that teachers are dedicated to their scholastic accomplishment. (Sanders, 2001, p.62)
In order to employ classroom evaluation to create progress, nevertheless, teachers ought to transform their outlook regarding evaluation and their understanding of the outcomes. Particularly, they are required to notice their evaluation as an essential component of the teaching procedure and as vital for assisting students' study. (Shea, 1990, p.41) Tests administered at the end of a chapter or semester or following the commencement of the learning are known as summative tests. The rationale is to evaluate learning and performance and normally influences the rating assigned to the student. The tests that are administered concurrently with the learning are known as formative tests. The objective is to give opinion;…[continue]
"Tests And Measurements" (2004, July 11) Retrieved October 21, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/tests-and-measurements-174907
"Tests And Measurements" 11 July 2004. Web.21 October. 2016. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/tests-and-measurements-174907>
"Tests And Measurements", 11 July 2004, Accessed.21 October. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/tests-and-measurements-174907
1). One potential criticism of the MMPI-2 is that although it is only supposed to be scored by a trained professional, the multiple choice "objective" format can lead to cursory diagnosis and analysis. While the MMPI-2 is used on many different types of patients, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) "is a series of questions developed to measure the intensity, severity, and depth of depression in patients with psychiatric diagnoses" (BDI, 2009).
Individuals scoring high on this scale are preoccupied about their health, tend to exaggerate symptoms, and are considered to be demanding and immature. Scoring high on this scale is associated with complaints of chronic pain, fatigue and weakness. Individuals scoring low on this scale are held to be: "Healthy, insightful, and optimistic" (MMPI, nd) Scale Two - Depression: This scale is used for assessing symptomatic depression exhibited as poor morale,
Measurements and Instruments for a Quantitative Research Plan The topic for this paper is: To what extent do African-American men who live in an urban setting and exhibit aggressive behavior due to early development factors associated with depression receive a diagnosis at local medical facilities of conduct disorder as opposed to depression? In this paper, we will discuss the method most appropriate to cover this topic and provide support for its
Measurement and Statistics Intelligence: Definition and assessment Two major interpretations of intelligence exist -- the concept of 'general intelligence,' which is often pitted against the concept of 'multiple intelligences.' For many years, it was though that only one kind of intelligence existed, known as the 'g-factor,' or general intelligence. "In recent decades, psychologists have devoted much effort to isolating that general factor, which is abbreviated g, from the other aspects of cognitive
Measurement Validity and Reliability Reliability and Validity Gomez, D., Haas, B., Ahmed, N. Tien, H., & Nathens, A. (2011). Disaster preparedness of Canadian trauma centres: the perspective of medical directors of trauma. Canadian Journal of Surgery, 54(1): 9-17. The dependent variable examined in this study was the disaster preparedness of trauma centers. The dependent variable was measured using a questionnaire which was distributed to twenty-nine trauma centers in Canada. The medical director of each
Protecting children from the effects of second-hand smoke and the extent by which the government can mandate repulsive images on the cigarette boxes are two cases which are causing controversy. The "Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) released data claiming that one in five middle and high school students are regularly exposed to secondhand smoke while in cars." (Yahanda, 2012, p. 1) Thus there are many proponents of
measurement? Nominal Ordinal Interval/ratio Experimental The researchers analyzed the data as though it were at the interval/ratio level since they calculated means (the measure of central tendency that is appropriate only for interval/ratio level data) and standard deviations (the measure of dispersion for interval/ratio data) to describe their study variables. What was the mean posttest empowerment score for the control group? Mean = 97.12. Compare the mean baseline and posttest depression scores of the experimental group. Was