Test Tube Babies
Huxley opens his novel describing a world that is built around "…the production line of products and services, including human reproduction," writes Coleman Carroll Myron in the book Huxley's Brave New orld: Essays. Huxley's narrative has scientists propagating the human species through a process which creates "standardized human beings in an assembly-line, conveyor-belt-like system" (Myron, 2008, p. 12).
In his book (p. 7) a young student was "fool enough" to question how test tube babies were an "advantage" to society. The Director immediately replied, "Can't you see? Can't you see?" The process being used is "…one of the major instruments of social stability!" The Director insisted (Huxley, 2010 / Reprint). The author was putting forward the science fiction-like idea that "Standard men and women; in uniform batches," was a better idea than humans engaging in normal intercourse, with an uncertain outcome as far as the quality of…… [Read More]
Simply put, as test taking strategies grow more sophisticated the validity of language tests becomes increasingly threatened, and new test designs are responded to by new strategizing. A lack of cohesion in the approaches used to study test taking strategies and to practically apply knowledge obtained through academic research is also cited as problematic (Cohen, 2006). Without an appropriate way to measure and assess test taking strategies and their impact on test validity, more valid language testing methodologies cannot be developed.
Internal measures of construct validity have grown more sophisticated as a means of addressing both test taking strategy concerns and other potential issues when it comes to language test validity, but these have been far from entirely successful in making assurances against the erosion of test validity in the face of test taking strategy implementation (Goh & Aryadoust, 2010; Lee, 2011). Test taking strategies such as clue-word orientation, multiple…… [Read More]
To me, test anxiety is something more than a feeling of mild nervousness or stress when taking a test, which is a normal emotion. For many people, this nervousness can provide a type of inspiration or energy needed to perform well on a test. However, test anxiety is not a normal reaction to a test-taking situation, and goes beyond normal feelings of anticipation. In fact, for many people, test anxiety reflects a serious enough condition that it might actually impede test performance so that test results show little relationship to either actual knowledge or ability.
I am fortunate in that I do not generally experience test anxiety. Generally, tests make me feel a little bit of nervous energy, which tends to dissipate when I sit down to take the test. I try to be very prepared when I sit down to take a test, so that I am…… [Read More]
Abdal-Haqq, I. (1995, June). Professional standards development: Teacher involvement. Retrieved July 28, 2009, from ERIC Digests - ED383693: http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/13/fd/a6.pdf
AIR. (n.d.). Making research relevant. Retrieved July 28, 2009, from Assessment institutes for research (AIR): http://assessment.air.org/default.aspx
Downing, S., & Haladyna, T. (2006). Handbook of test development. New York: Routledge.
ETS. (2009). Frequently asked questions about standardized tests. Retrieved July 27, 2009, from Educational Testing Service (ETS): http://www.ets.org/portal/site/ets/menuitem.c988ba0e5dd572bada20bc47c3921509/?vgnextoid=312caf5e44df4010VgnVCM10000022f95190RCRD&vgnextchannel=8b0d253b164f4010VgnVCM10000022f95190RCRD#aretestsfair
GAO. (2007). No child left behind act. Washington D.C.: Government Accountability Office (GAO).
La Marca, P. (2001). Alignment of standards and assessments as an accountability criterion. Practical assessment, research, and evaluation, 7(21). Retrieved July 28, 2009 from http://PAREonline.net/getvn.asp?v=7&n=21
Peterson, ., & Neill, M. (1999). Alternatives to standardized tests. Retrieved July 27, 2009, from Rethinking schools.org: http://www.rethinkingschools.org/archive/13_03/assess.shtml
Toppo, G. (2004, October 12). An answer to standardized tests. Retrieved July 27, 2009, from USA today: http://www.usatoday.com/news/education/2004-10-12-tests-usat_x.htm
Walther, S. (2009, April 8). Test after development…… [Read More]
High School Longitudinal Study Dataset Using SPSS Software
This section determines African citizen's perceptions about their current level of democracy. The study uses 2015 Afrobarometer data to determine whether the current level of African democracy is statistically different from the value of 6.
Have series of reforms increased African views on the level of democracy?
The study uses the following variables to answer the research question:
Level of democracy: ten years ago (0-10 scale)
Level of democracy: today
The paper uses One-Sample Test statistics to answer the research question. The procedure is as follows:
In the SPSS Version 21, Start by Clicking:
Analyze ? Compare Means ?One Sample T Test
In Test Variable box:
Q46b. Level of democracy ten years ago
Q46a. Level of democracy: today and Click OK.
The output of the One Sample T Test is as follows:
DATASET NAME DataSet1 WINDOW=FONT.
T-TEST…… [Read More]
With online classes, the internet has become important in effective writing because of the sources that it provides. The Internet is gaining popularity in second language teaching while reshaping computer mediated communication in language learning. Students will need to learn how to deal with large amounts of information and be able to communicate across languages and cultures. From there, teachers are no longer the only source of information so that students can actively interpret and organize the information they are given, fitting it into prior knowledge (Dole, Duffy, Roehler, & Pearson, 1991). With that, the New Perspectives on CALL for Second Language Classrooms is a good choice for teacher trainers, students, or professionals interested in exploring technology-based teaching and learning. The section, "Implementing CALL in Institutional Settings," examines the many c-onsiderations for setting up a CALL facility (REVIEW OF New Perspectives on CALL for Second Language Classrooms). The internet and…… [Read More]
Administering the tests developed and formulated for the nursing-based curriculum entails providing reliable test items. eliability is important because it helps counteract human error both on the part of the student taking the test and the person grading the test. "eliability is the quality of a test which produces scores that are not affected much by chance. Students sometimes randomly miss a question they really knew the answer to or sometimes get an answer correct just by guessing" (KU, 2016). By increasing the reliability of the test items, the quality remains consistent in the test and offers a superior level of testing that avoids the pitfalls of unavoidable human error.
For instance, there are different ways to construct a test. With each different way, there are various measuring methods to help provide reliable outcomes. Essay questions and multiple-choice questions can contain qualitative or quantitative data that are measured differently. Multiple-choice…… [Read More]
There have been many definitions of a test. For example, Kline (1993, P. 16) defines a psychological test as a standardized measure of behavior. Hogan (2007, p.41) considers such definitions lacking and instead offers a more comprehensive definition, "A test is a standardized process or device that yields information about a sample of behavior or cognitive processes in a quantified manner."
Categories of Psychological Tests
According to Hogan (2007) there are five categories of psychological tests. The first category consists of mental ability tests (Hogan, 2007, p. 5). Mental abilities can include a wide variety of cognitive functions such as memory of creative thinking, but most often these are classified as intelligence tests. These tests can be administered in individually, in groups, or other formats. One of the most common individual mental ability tests is the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale -- IV (WAIS-IV), whereas Hogan (p. 5) states…… [Read More]
Teach to the Test
As William Hatfield presciently warned in 1916, when the ultra-efficiency of industrialization first begin threatening the independence of educators to craft curricula, "an education that focuses on memorising information to ensure reaching a single benchmark is an inadequate measure of success" because while "twelve years of school life has made [students] adept at memorizing & #8230; many of them are novices in thinking" (Mills, 2008). Since disastrous passage of the No Child Left Behind Act in 2001, which mandated standards-based educational practices and required states to devise testing devices to gauge student achievement, Hatfield's admonition has been proven to be disturbingly accurate. Since standardized testing became standard operating procedure for America's public school system, countless teachers have expressed their mounting dissatisfaction with the rigid and formulaic curriculum structures imposed on school districts by state legislatures. As an education major anxiously awaiting my opportunity to teach South…… [Read More]
Chi-Square Test Study
The focus of the research is to use the Chi-Square analysis to test whether the use of marijuana is less dangerous than alcohol. Over the years, there is high number of related deaths linked to alcohol in the United States, and comparably, there are no related deaths linked to the Marijuana use. A report from Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2013) reveals there is no category of marijuana related deaths. In California where marijuana use is legalized, there were over 9,000 alcohol related deaths between 2001 and 2005 and no record of marijuana related deaths recorded during the period.
Is the use of Marijuana less dangerous than alcohol in the United States?
Statistical Test to the esearch Question
The chi-square is chosen to the research question because it is appropriate to test the hypothesis. Typically, the chi-square is used to determine a significant difference between the…… [Read More]
orschach inkblot test is a projective personality test that has been one of the major projective personality assessments used by psychologists since the 1940s (Aiken & Groth-Marnat, 2006). The test is named after Hermann orschach who developed the inkblots in 1921. The orschach inkblot test consists of 10 cards with inkblots on them (five black and white and five colored) and is currently marketed by Pearson Assessments. The test is designed to be used with individuals five years of age and older (Exner, 2002). The test is reported to generally take about an hour to administer, although it certainly can take significantly longer than that.
The major assumption of projective tests is that environmental stimuli are organized by a person based on their own motives, needs, perceptions, and conflicts. The need to organize environmental stimuli becomes more salient when the stimuli are ambiguous and do not have culturally or socially…… [Read More]
SAGE Cognitive Test for Detecting Early Signs of Alzheimer's
The Self-Administered Gerocognitive Examination, also known as the SAGE test is meant for at-home administration by older adults in order to test the strength of their memory and other cognitive functioning. It was originally designed by researchers at Ohio State University's Wexner Medical Center. Dr. Douglas Scharre from the Wexner Medical School created the test and published it in early 2014. Essentially, it is "designed to detect early signs of cognitive, memory or thinking impairments" (Scharre, 2014). It is meant for individuals to self administer at home when they feel they may be worried about loosing cognitive functioning, which can be a sign of early Alzheimer's disease or Dementia. The test takes roughly about 15 minutes to complete and can be used as a way to start a dialogue with one's physician regarding potential for such conditions and how…… [Read More]
In other words, instead of simply asking the patient what he sees in the inkblot, the clinician will say something like 'To you does this image look more like a person, an animal, a flower, or a food?' Juni (1993) asserts that this approach reduces the need for "trained judges" to interpret the results, and also provides a sense of standardization that maximizes the projective content.
The phenomenon known as the "expectancy effect" is also pertinent to issues of validity and reliability. The expectancy effect is based on the idea that the administrator of the test consciously or subconsciously emits signs of how he expects the subject to respond. For example he may raise his eyebrows while waiting for a response, which could in turn have an influence on how the subject answers. According to Silverstein (1993) this is a particularly important consideration in relation to the orschach test. The…… [Read More]
Automated est Form Generation
Critique of the Journal Article "Automated est Form Generation" by Wim J. van der Linden and Qi Diao
Van der Linden, J.M. & Diao, Q. (2013). Integrating test-form formatting into automated test assembly. Applied Psychological Measurement, 37(5) 361 -- 374
he ordering of items in test forms and the selection of test items from a database can be extremely tedious and laborious when done manually. It would be extremely advantageous to be able to do both simultaneously using automated test form generation (AFG). But the AFG process can be unwieldy and cumbersome given the number of variables the creator must tackle. For example, "for an item bank of size 2,000, test length of 50 items, and upper limit of the number of pages in the test form equal to 15, the number of variables in the model is equal to 1,500,000" (Van der Linden…… [Read More]
scale (along with the other instruments) often carry character traits of: nurturance, affiliation, altruism, tender-minded and social and religious values." (Watkins, 2000, p. 116)
Occupations that are interesting to people in this category include; "social service, counseling, religious activities, teaching, health care and other occupations where one can work with other people." (Watkins, 2000, p. 116)
The remaining categories are reflective of how an individual responds to or reserves from the outside world and the inner world. The "attitudes" that Jung describes, as extroverted (outward-turning) or introverted (inward-turning) are two of the most common observations of personality made in and outside the field of psychology with regard to personality characteristics. "Most other researchers who have tried to describe human personality comprehensively have measured -- or discovered -- extraversion and introversion." (Watkins, 2000, p. 116)
Watkins describes extroversion (E) as having an attitude where energy flows out from the individual into…… [Read More]
However, domestic violence has been more appropriately described as domestic terrorism, and the heightened fear and heightened awareness experienced by victims has an undeniable impact on their reasoning skills. As a result, it is important that battered women who use deadly force against their batterers when they are not in an immediately life-threatening situation be able to demonstrate that their behavior was reasonable without resorting to a quasi-insanity plea, like battered women's syndrome. Instead, if someone who has consistently battered and abused someone threatens to hunt a victim down and kill them, that victim can reasonably believe that nothing short of the batterer's death will save the victim's life. This changes how the victim views other legal terms, and can make them feel like the threat of death is imminent and unavoidable, even if there is no overt threat of violence. This is an important consideration, because it allows a…… [Read More]
I have both an MA and an MS from accredited universities. It would seem as though having a Masters level degree would be enough to excuse a person from taking the test, but with two Masters degrees I certainly feel as though I have proven myself academically. Having me take the GRE test for placement and for proof of academic abilities would be very redundant and would waste valuable time and resources. The university would have room for someone else to take the GRE test, and I would not be required to spend further money to prove myself when I believe that my advanced degrees have already done that. In addition, I will be spending a great deal of money at the university based on the tuition fees and the books, so it is not as though a waiver of the GRE in my case would cause a hardship for…… [Read More]
utility of the GET test as a measure of entrepreneurial potential.
Why are People Entrepreneurial?
In order to evaluate the general entrepreneurial tendencies (GET) test it's important to understand the evolving theories that try to explain why people are entrepreneurial. Theory and research in the social sciences support a model of dynamic interactive processes between individual characteristics and the environment which lead to complex behaviors such as the creation of new ventures and other entrepreneurial activities (Huefner, 1991). Neither the characteristics of the individual nor the characteristics of the environment (social, physical, financial, etc.) are sufficient in themselves to explain the phenomenon of entrepreneurship (Huefner, 1991). There is not one set of factors that appears to come together to explain the entrepreneurial person or why they are different from non-entrepreneurs. Past research on the entrepreneur has been primarily based on the assumption that stable personality characteristics can explain how entrepreneurs…… [Read More]
marketing -- Test marketing is a way to take a specific group and test the viability of a product or service for that group. This may be done in many ways, through focus groups, home use, trials, short or long tests. There are numerous advantages and disadvantages to test markets. For our purposes, three disadvantages are:
Lack of broad enough test -- the product may be a prototype and not mature enough at the point of testing to give the company viable information. Or, the information gleaned may not be applicable after the test.
Group not indicative of users -- the demographics and/or psychographics of the test group are not really indicative of the prime potential user(s) of the actual product; or the audience may be inappropriate.
Risk vs. time -- test marketing may give the competition an edge, and too much retooling or redesigning might allow the product to…… [Read More]
Kuali Test Drives
The Kuali Financial Systems (KFS) are a select grouping of software applications that are financially-based to meet the needs of all Carnegie Class Institutions (colleges, universities, and organizations that share a vision for open source-based software solutions.) It is based on Indiana University's Financial Information Systems and is unique because, like some open source software, it is a collaborative effort and approach to financial needs, design, and reporting of financial documents. The software is free, in use by institutions of all sizes, has been proven in the marketplace to comply with professional auditing standards, and may be implemented and supported by various commercial partners. The key concepts for the overriding software paradigm, eDocs and Workflow, transcend into the entire model from initial data entry (general ledger, receivables, payables, reporting, etc.). (Kuali Foundation, 2011).
An important element of the software is the way that it is built in…… [Read More]
Implicit Association Test for Nurses
Values and Belief Systems a. query key cultural informants regarding values, beliefs and practices of community members: I could benefit from gaining knowledge in this subscale by improving my general cognizance of cultural practices among diverse groups, especially those that that I regularly encounter. Specifically, I need to take more of an active role in asking various populations what their beliefs are regarding the credibility they assign to health care practitioners, and what the typical family dynamics are that comprise their familial structures. The same holds true for their views regarding spirituality and diet.
Discern cultural group norms and group differences: I can benefit from this aspect of this subscale by making more of an effort to stay abreast of the cultural differences in the groups I see vs. those of mainstream westernized culture. At this point I am largely unaware of these differences.
Cultural…… [Read More]
experiment design test for DUI
Experiment to test DUI Task Force
Police departments today must be very careful about how they spend their scarce resources. This experiment is designed to assess the efficacy of the DUI task force, specifically to see if random DUI checks reduce the number of alcohol-related accidents. "Unlike a regular traffic stop, police do not need reasonable suspicion to stop or question suspects at a sobriety checkpoint. While the driver is still in the car, the police officer will look for signs that the person may be intoxicated. For example, the officer may take note of slurred speech, smells of alcohol, or uncoordinated physical movements" (DUI sobriety checkpoints, 2013, Legal Match). This is assuming that the task force is located in one of the 38 states in which such stops are legal (Sobriety checkpoint laws, 2014, GHSA).
The number of citations issued for DUI…… [Read More]
Test 1: Kindergarten Readiness Test, Second Edition
Author: Scholastic Testing Service, Inc.
Grade/Age: Preschool, Pre-Kindergarten, Immediately after Kindergarten enrollment
Purpose: Determining “readiness” for Kindergarten
Description: Individually administered, or administered in small groups, ideally over two sessions
II. Mental Measurements Yearbook (or Tests in Print)
A. Volume 20: J.F.Carlson,K.F.Geisinger,&J.L.Jonson(Eds.),The twentieth mental measurements yearbook. 2017.
B. The strength of the KRT is that it is easy to administer, and therefore useful for screening purposes. The main weakness with the KRT is its validity and reliability; the authors provide little empirical evidence for the test variables selected and their efficacy in determining the dependent variable, which is readiness for Kindergarten.
III. Publisher’s Website
A. Website: http://www.ststesting.com/krt.html
B. Pricing: $62.50 for starter set including user manual, answer key, and 20 test booklets
C. The publisher does not provide any specific information that distinguishes this from other tests.
IV.…… [Read More]
Tests and Measurements
The activities of the classrooms are revealed to the learners, instructors and the institutions through administering normalized tests. They encompass gathered knowledge in reading, mathematics, and English for learners starting from kindergarten up to the high school level. Several instructors detest from organizing and evaluating tests and a majority of the students are scared of appearing in them. ut tests are potent didactic instruments which provide at the minimum four tasks. First of all, tests assist in judging pupils and evaluating if they are receiving their education as per our reckoning. Secondly, properly planned tests provide inspiration and assist pupils to systematize their educational pursuits. (Davis, 1993, p.19)
Learners undertake their lessons in manners that show how they imagine their tests will be like. When they anticipate that a test is going to ascertain their knowledge about facts, they will get by heart the particulars; when they…… [Read More]
tests are regularly used nowadays to measure intelligence Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon invented in 1905 what has come to be acknowledged as the first scale. This initial test was aimed at ?identifying children who were mildly or perhaps more seriously retarded? (Mackintosh, 2011, p. 5) by evaluating their performance and delegating specific task sets so as any average child pertaining to a given age group could solve approximately 50% of the test. Thus, based on the number of tasks that a child could solve, the scale ?would classify children's levels of mental functioning. (Urbina, 2011, p. 23). For example, if a six years old was able to solve 50% of the test that had been delegated to this particular age group, his mental age was set at six years old. f he was able to solve above the average expectation, then he would have been attributed a superior mental…… [Read More]
While the medical field agrees that prolonged suffering is not a desired product of medical care it has not yet reached the point of accepting that it is actually torture.
When we are at war we have soldiers how are standing trial for the torture and inhumane treatment of prisoners of war, however, we are not allowed to prevent that same level of torture from being thrust upon our loved ones who are ill / this makes no sense. Making someone endure the fevers, the pain, and the physical maladies that come with many of the life ending diseases today is actually a form of torture. It makes a person suffer against their will and at the hands of someone else, in this case the medical community.
More recently there have been strong arguments in courtrooms regarding Euthanasia and the right to choose to die now rather than later after…… [Read More]
Purpose: The Woodcock-Johnson III Diagnostic eading Battery's designation is for assessment and measurement of the important dimensions of phonological oral language abilities and phonological awareness, both in adult and children.
Population: Both adults and children (age of 3-80 years).
Date of Publication: 2004.
Acronym(s): WJ III (DB).
Score Scales: eading Comprehension, Basic eading Skills, Phonics Knowledge, Broad eading, Brief eading, Total eading, eading Fluency, Spelling of Words, Oral Comprehension, eading Vocabulary.
Time: 50-60 minutes.
Author (s): Fredrick, S.A., Nancy, M. & Woodcock, .C.
Publisher: iverside Publishing, Inc.
Comments: Software Scoring and Paper-and-Pencil.
Sub-tests: Passage Comprehension, Word-Letter Identification, Sound Awareness, Spelling of Sounds, Oral Vocabulary, Sound Blending.
elated eview: 1713318.
The Woodcock-Johnson III Diagnostic eading Battery is for the assessment and measurement of the important dimensions of phonological oral language abilities and phonological awareness, in both adult and children (Brande, 2008). By utilization of software scoring and the…… [Read More]
Drug Tests and Government Benefits
Recently, there has been discussion regarding government benefits, such as unemployment. This discussion has focused on a new, potential requirement to receive benefits such as welfare: drug testing. People who are applying for benefits like welfare or unemployment would have to be tested for illegal drugs (Alcindor, 2012). If they were found to use drugs, they could be denied benefits. This would seen to make sense, because those who are out of work and needing government assistance should not be spending the money they do receive on illegal drugs or other nefarious activities. However, the American taxpayers are concerned about where the money for the drug tests will come from, and the federal government is already stating that states which pass this drug testing law for benefits will be in violation of federal law. That means these states could lose out on millions of dollars…… [Read More]
tests (CTs) and scales vs. norm-eferenced
Criterion-referenced tests (CTs) are often the preferred method of assessing the performance of many practitioners in the healthcare and 'helping' professions such as nursing. An example of a criterion-based objective is that a student mastered 90% of the terms on a particular test (McDonald 2002). The NCLEX (National Council Licensure Examination) for nurses is an example of such a test: all nurses that pass the test can obtain licensure. The test is deemed to be both reliable and valid. "The reliability of the NCLEX examination is assessed via a decision consistency statistic. This statistic is used instead of a traditional reliability statistic such as Cronbach's alpha because it captures the reliability of dichotomous pass/fail decisions rather than the reliability of continuous scores or ability estimates" (eliability of NCLEX, 2013, NCSBN: 2).
In terms of the NCLE, the exam attempts to ensure content validity; face…… [Read More]
For example, at the end of a history class' unit on the Revolutionary ar, a summative test would asses how much the student had retained about this critical period in the nation's history. It would measure the student's effort and the teacher's relative success in imparting knowledge to the student.
In contrast, a formative assessment like a quiz measures what is currently being taught in class. It measures the student's learning as a work-in-progress, to show the teacher what the student does or does not understand. It functions as a potential wake-up call for the student, in terms of his or her present state of learning. In math or foreign language classes, it is essential the teacher knows if the student is uncertain about a particular concept, given how learning is scaffolded upon previous knowledge in these subjects. Formative assessments are particularly critical in these two areas of teaching.
Survey…… [Read More]
1). One potential criticism of the MMPI-2 is that although it is only supposed to be scored by a trained professional, the multiple choice "objective" format can lead to cursory diagnosis and analysis.
hile the MMPI-2 is used on many different types of patients, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) "is a series of questions developed to measure the intensity, severity, and depth of depression in patients with psychiatric diagnoses" (BDI, 2009). It is specific to a singular category of diagnosis (depressive illnesses) and is only use on patients with psychological disorders. It consists of 21 questions or items, each with four possible responses on the subjects of depressed mood, pessimism, sense of failure, feelings of dissatisfaction, guilt, desire for self-punishment, self-dislike or self-hared, self-blame, suicidal ideation, frequency of crying, feelings of irritability, social withdrawal, distorted body image, work difficulties, insomnia, fatigue, appetite, weight changes, bodily preoccupation, and sexual desire (BDI,…… [Read More]
workplace are job knowledge tests, cognitive ability tests, and personality tests.
Job Knowledge Tests
Achievement tests or job knowledge tests are composed of questions designed to measure technical or professional expertise in a specific area of knowledge. Therefore job knowledge tests assess the knowledge of the test taker at the point in time of the assessment. Job knowledge tests are most often utilized in conditions that require applicants to possess a specific set or type of information prior to being hired (Dye, eck, & McDaniel, 1993). Job knowledge tests are useful for positions that require some type of specialized skill or technical knowledge. Typically this type of skill or knowledge has been acquired over a long period. Given this, job knowledge tests are not appropriate to use when the applicants will are going to be trained in the areas tested following their selection. The most common format of job knowledge…… [Read More]
Psychological tests are an important aspect of clinical psychology. Psychological tests are normally administered by professional psychologists as a way of learning fact on how people function or in predicting their future. The paper will look at the definition of the term test, give a description of the major categories of tests while identifying the major uses and users of these tests. There will also be comparing and contrasting the concepts of validity and reliability and a discussion of how they affect the psychological testing field.
Definition of tests
A test or examination is defined as an assessment aimed at measuring the knowledge, aptitude, skill, physical fitness or classification in other different topics. Tests can be administered orally, by use of a paper, computer or in the confinement of a specific area which requires the person taking the test to physically perform a specific set of skills. Tests…… [Read More]
There are, for example, many ways for a student to present an understanding of the causes of the U.S. Civil War" (1999, p. 35).
The research showed high stakes standardized testing approaches are becoming increasingly commonplace in the nation's schools, and the outcome of these testing regimens has enormous implications for the students involved, as well as for their teachers and schools. The research also showed that by formulating standards to match these standardized tests, teachers run the risk of "teaching to the test" rather than providing their students with the type of education that is needed in the 21st century. While they are more complex and difficult to administer, the research also showed that portfolios and other assessment techniques such as capstone projects provide a more comprehensive and accurate way to determine how well students are learning and where they may need help.
Blasi, M. (2005). Standardized…… [Read More]
Psychological tests are pompous procedures of intellectual performance. A good number are objective as well as medical; nevertheless, definite projective tests might engross various height of prejudiced elucidation. The main aim of this paper is to clearly bring the meaning of the term test, describe the main classifications of tests and show the main or significant major uses as well as those who use the varied forms of tests, also offered here are the comparisons and contrasts of the concepts of reliability as well as validity of the methods of tests and how they affect the field of psychological testing.
Tests can be defined as verbal, visual or written assessments administered to evaluate the cognitive as well as emotional performance of individuals regardless of their age. The main purpose of these processes is to evaluate a multiplicity of intellectual capabilities as well as characteristics such as attainment as well as…… [Read More]
Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test
It is assessed that at least 20 out of a hundred of adults who visit a physician have had an alcohol issue at one time. Also, in a survey of patients self-proclaimed to an inpatient service, 15 to 30 out of a hundred screened definitely for alcoholism. However, numerous recent studies designate that physicians in numerous health care settings often do not identify and treat alcoholism (Drake, 2013). These answers underline the need for effective and correct events that will allow clinicians to screen for alcoholism. One of these test are used to do this are the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test. Established in 1971, the Michigan Alcohol Screening Test (MAST) is one of the most accurate and oldest alcohol screening tests accessible, effective in classifying dependent drinkers with up to 98% accuracy.
Purpose for the instrument
It is evident the MAST is considered to be one…… [Read More]
inferential statistic tests used in study. What were these tests typically used for? Why were they chosen here?
The objective of the study was to analyze the true costs of hypertensions. The researchers did this by analyzing the data of four patient groups using propensity score matching to control for possible bias in cost estimates. The regression model that followed estimated for costs of hypertension by controlling for sex, length of hospital stay, Charlson comorbidity index, region of residence, and urbanization of residence.
Researchers used the 2005 MarketScan CCAE database, that contained information about hospitalized patients who belong to more than 100 health insurance plans offered by about 40 employers, in order to estimate hypertension associated hospitalization costs for patients with hypertension as a secondary diagnosis.
The problem was that since more than 95% of the hypertensive patients in the CCAE study had hypertension as secondary rather than primary diagnosis,…… [Read More]
The implication of this hypothesis, and research into the subject in general, shows that test outcomes do reflect at least in part cultural factors. There are "cultural differences in valued and therefore trained strategies to solve certain cognitive tasks" as well (Ibid). That these differences have been identified within cognitive science illustrates that cultural bias does not simply reflect differences in cognitive potential among members of certain groups, but rather that it reflects differences in the ways that cognitive potential is operationalized.
Shiraev and Levy (n.d.) argue this case further. They cite research that shows that people adapt the way that they operationalize their intelligence to their local setting. They cite the examples of an Indian chess master, who uses the same psychological mechanisms in playing chess as a farmer would use to secure a deal on a new tractor. The example is apt -- chess-like problem solving strategies are…… [Read More]
1. The taster determined 11 of the 14 samples correctly. Three samples were incorrectly identified. Thus, the taster received a statistical score of 88%.
2. The results failed to support the null hypothesis. There was obviously a difference between the organic and conventional food items.
3. This output indicates that while there is a difference, the margin of 10% is too small.
4. The test indicated that for greater than 50% of the time the taster was able to identify the differences between organic and conventional foods.
5. For the next test, I would most likely use one fruit and run multiple tests with a single piece tasted each time.
Fullion, Laurence & Arzai, Stacey (2002), Does organic food taste better? A claim substantiation approach. Nutrition & Food Science, 32(4): 153-157.
Padel, Susanne & Foster, Carolyn (2005), Exploring the gap between attitudes and behaviour: Understanding why…… [Read More]
The Jungian personality inventories are to some degree 'Westernized' one could argue, in the sense that they were originally developed by the psychoanalyst Carl Jung, around Western archetypes of personality. The MMPI also makes use of such tests in its more extensive survey, but more flexible use of the Jung system has yielded less dogmatic career recommendation and personality type instruments. After answering a series of questions, the tester receives a certain personality 'typing,' based upon whether he or she is primarily extroverted or introverted, sensing or intuitive, thinking or feeling, judging or perceiving. The tester can use this typology as a guide, not a diagnosis set in stone, on his or her path to achieve clearer self-understanding.
Jungian psychological typology. (2009). Personality tests. etrieved October 20, 2009 at http://www.mypersonality.info/personality-types/… [Read More]
The resulting legal ramifications have created an environment of sensitivity to all types of potential discrimination through pre-employment testing procedures.
The ADA Act of 2008 became effective on January 1, 2009. A significant change in the way "disability" is defined is incorporated in the language, so the EEOC is preparing to evaluate the impact of how the language affects the ADA and how it is enforced. Pre-job testing, even though it is done for the right reasons, may now be affected.
The National Institute on Disability and ehabilitation esearch (NID) has established 10 regional centers providing information, technical assistance and training to people with disabilities, employers, and others having responsibilities under the ADA (Nester, Mary Ann, 2008). Even though historically, job applications and interviews could request information concerning an applicant's mental and physical condition, because it was used to discriminate against and even exclude applicants with disabilities, it has created…… [Read More]
All of these students will have different educational needs, even if they have the same numerical IQ. Thus, "the discrepancy," of a score below 100 or average, will not tell educators "anything about what kind of intervention might help the child learn" in a fashion that is useful to the educators. (Benson, 2003)
Binet, the originator of intelligence testing, evolved his test to identify if students had normal intelligence and could enter the French school system -- a child either passed or failed this early test. Later, he saw the tests as a way of identifying weaknesses or strengths, which the educational system could address. (Benson, 2003) But while some of the information gleaned from contemporary IQ tests can be useful, data from intelligence testing has been used to validate racial theories of innate, or genetically passed along intelligence. Early classification of students with low IQs can ignore what is…… [Read More]
There are numerous reasons why so many movies fail the Bechdel test. Most of these reasons directly correspond to the exact nature of this assessment, and what it reveals about society. Still others of these reasons pertain to the function of films within society. For the most part, they are used to reinforce societal values and mores. To a lesser extent, this medium is also widely deployed as a means of introducing new societal norms which will one day become part of the social establishment. Finally, still other reasons directly correlate to the notion of gender and gender constructs in Westernization today. A thorough examination of these different reasons reveals so many movies fail the Bechdel test because they reflect the values of a male-dominated society.
In examining the specific way in which this this thesis applies to some of the theorists analyzed within this class, it is first necessary…… [Read More]
The construction/validation sample of 96 juvenile sexual offenders ranged in age from 9 to 20, with an average age of 14. To administrate the exam, the test is not directly administered to the juvenile: instead the trained professional calculates the boy's relative risk factors, based up his past history, such as a history of violence, of being a victim of abuse himself, caregiver consistency, and history and preoccupation with sexuality. The problem with the test is that it to some degree stereotypes the boy and tries to predict the likelihood of negative behavior based upon negative past and family circumstances. However, it can be useful in family court settings for flagging 'at risk' teens who have already entered the system and may be helped by receiving additional social support to prevent future acts of violence.
Multiphasic Sex Inventory (MSI). Tacoma, A: Nichols & Molinder Assessments.
Prentky, Robert.…… [Read More]
For instance, a decline in peripheral vision may impact the ability to pass approaching vehicles safely, and the decreased range of motion in an older person's neck may impair the ability to look behind when backing up. Also, reaction time decreases by almost 40% on average from age 35 to 65 (Jackson, 1999).
It also appears that the aging process may affect cognitive skills. Short-term memory loss, for instance, can decrease driving skills by interfering with an individual's ability to process information effectively when merging onto a highway into traffic or changing lanes. Such issues are magnified when driving under stressful situations. The higher incidence of cognitive impairment, particularly dementia, among older men and women leads to an increased risk of accident involvement (Jackson, 1999).
According to AAP, as a group, persons age 65 and older are relatively safe drivers. Although they represent 14% of all licensed drivers, they are…… [Read More]
learning style assessment test on the Internet to see if they agreed with what I thought my learning style was. The site was called the Learning Styles Online and the price was just right for me -- it was free. This report is a quick summary of the test results and my opinion if they were accurate or not. Learning styles are simply different approaches or ways of learning. (Learning Styles Online, 2004)
The sight was very informative in the sense that they also provided detailed explanations of the various learning styles and also insights into what each personnel style might strive to become when they grow up. To begin with, there are specific types of learning styles to further provide detail and insight into the subconscious.
The types of learners fall into three categories: Visual learners who learn through the visual aspects of sight and interpretation of body language…… [Read More]
The ad also says that it is America's #1 weight loss patch. Says who? Just them. There does not appear to be any proof that backs up any of the claims that they make in regards to this product.
Advertising is an essential part of marketing. The intention of an ad campaign is to reach a lot in order to increase the demand for the products being endorsed. In this campaign the advertisers used Highlighting Features. The features of the product should be clearly stated. An advertisement campaign that talks on and on about a product without affirming its features will fail to do any good. A high-quality weight loss product campaign should start by discussing about that the weight loss product has been designed to help people lose weight fast, or lose weight safely or lose weight without regaining the lost weight. People who are troubled about losing weight…… [Read More]
Further, the subjectivity in scoring and interpretation is a huge issue (Sutherland, 1992). For example, if one believes that a relationship exists between say, a Rorschach feature such as color and a personality trait such as emotional style, then one's prior beliefs can bias judgment (Vyse, 1997). As evidence, psychologists were prone to say a relationship existed between a test response and a psychological condition -- if it accorded with their prior beliefs -- even when none actually existed (Chapman & Chapman, 1971, cited in Vyse, 1997).
Arnheim, R. (1974). Art and visual perception (rev. ed.). erkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Groth-Marnat, G. (1997). Handbook of psychological assessment (3rd ed.). New York: Wiley.
Lilienfeld, S.O. (1999). Projective measures of personality and psychopathology: How well do they work? Skeptical Inquirer, 23(5), 32-39.
Sutherland, S. (1992). Irrationality: Why we don't think straight! New runswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Vyse, S.A.…… [Read More]
The petit theft of the second degree charge will stand as well. Larceny in old common law was classified as compound or simple. Simple larceny was called grand larceny when the value of the stolen property was more than 12 pence, and petit (petty) larceny when the value was less. Compound larceny was the taking and carrying away of property from the person or house of the owner. In the U.S. today, the various criminal codes of the states generally define larceny and classify it as either grand larceny or petit larceny. Under these codes, property is stolen and larceny committed when, with definite intent to deprive oneself or a third person, one wrongfully takes, obtains, or withholds such property from an owner of it. In New York State, for example, grand larceny is classified as a felony. It is characterized as first-degree if the property is obtained by extortion…… [Read More]
It used to be that only young people wanting to buy alcohol were interested in fake driver's licenses, but now with terrorism and other problems on the rise there are many other reasons that individuals can find to obtain a driver's license in a name other than their own. ecause of this, some 'discrimination' can be expected but it must be utilized very carefully so as not to cause more harm to the individuals that it singles out than the good that it creates for the society as a whole that it is trying to protect.
deFiebre, C. (2002). Court challenge filed to new driver's license rules. Star Tribune. Retrieved January 16, 2007, from http://www.jewishcommunityaction.org:80/organize/media.htm.
Hall, D.E. (2004). Administrative law. ureaucracy in a democracy. 3rd ed. Pearson Prentice Hall. Upper Saddle…… [Read More]
Executive Function Performance Test (EFPT) for healthcare practitioners who deal with mild and moderate-severity stroke patients. Executive function is important to overall health because it allows us to regulate our actions, plan our behavior, and set goals. Stroke patients frequently suffer from executive-function related losses; this study proposes a measure that will help quantify the extent of executive function loss.
The design of this study was a basic experimental 3x1 design. The authors compared three groups on their performance of the EFPT. The three groups were: mild stroke, moderate stroke, and age-matched control (no stroke). All participants performed the EFPT and stroke group participants were tested 6 months after the stroke event to allow for an even amount of healing time.
The EFPT is noticeably different from other performance-based measures because unlike the Kitchen Task Assessment (its closest relative), it records cues from experimenters that support patient performance. Support cues…… [Read More]
marketers should test advertising or not. Ad-pre-testing is a necessary, even vital part of the successful marketing campaign, because it allows marketing professionals to analyze and alter campaigns according to the public's reaction to the advertising, allowing marketers to avoid costly ad campaigns that do not get the results they thought they would.
Ad pre-testing provides a significant function for marketers, allowing them to assess and analyze the reaction to advertising before they commit to a large, costly campaign. The effectiveness of this procedure is illustrated by special software developed by advertising experts to help analyze and assess data from ad pre-testing. For example, OTX, a consumer research and consulting firm, has developed specific software called AdCEP (TM), which "achieves a balanced view of ad effectiveness by measuring multiple key criteria that line up with campaign objectives" (Harbeck 2009). This illustrates just how significant ad pre-testing is for successful advertising,…… [Read More]
The use of the word MY also suggests that the speaker feels a sense of possession towards the assistant, thus the assistant's departure is seen as a loss of control, not merely a setback to the project as he says.
7. it's an animal urge, Puff. it's nothing to be ashamed of (65)
The word Puff suggests an animal, even if Puff is not an animal -- Puff is being assured that acting like an animal is natural, and not worthy of shame, despite Puff's feelings to the contrary and the ambiguous quality of Puff's name.
8. Remember, when in doubt: don't ever do what you really want to do (69)
This statement goes against the assurances of the naturalness of human behavior and impulses -- go against one's human or animal nature, it suggests, and repress and resist gut instincts. Instead, follow societal dictates and one's own superego.
9.…… [Read More]
Oral and Written Language Scales, Second Edition: eading Comprehension and Written Expression
eading Comprehension and Written Expression subtests can be used to provide a composite score for Written Language.
Describe the age range: Ages 5-21
State the purpose of the instrument: The purpose is to provision an individual comprehensive measurement of writing and reading language skills for children.
Describe the examiner qualifications: Examiners need experience in "psycho-educational assessments for children" (de Fur, 2014)
List the types of scores (such as standard scores, percentile rank, etc.) that are available:
aw scores are convertible to standard scores for percentile ranks, confidence intervals and grade scores. There are also composite scores.
6. List the instrument's technical data regarding validity, reliability and standardization / normative process: Standardization data was based on 2,123 English speaking students aged 5-21. This data was gleaned from 31 states in all of the regions of the major regions of…… [Read More]
Psychology is an ever evolving science. While some still feel it is a pseudoscience, many researchers have shown the benefits of applied psychology and the effects mental health can have on an individual. However, because problems of the mind are not so easy to measure as they would be in biology, there tends to be a lot of guessing and misinterpretation. Businesses, schools, and the government use personality tests to understand a person and their motives. First developed in the 1920's personality tests have grown in popularity, giving rise to debunking the validity of such tests. Are personality tests like orschach Inkblots, MMPO-2, and brief anxiety scales valid? No, they are not valid. This essay will show why these kinds of tests are not valid and reliable measures of personality and psychopathology through studies revealing accuracy rates from personality test results.
Personality tests first originated in the 1920's and are…… [Read More]
T-tests in Quantitative Doctoral Business Research
Quantitative research is one of the methodologies that is commonly used in doctoral business research. The use of this approach is attributable to the availability of more data that requires analysis to help generate competitive advantage in the business field. The use of quantitative research entails conducting statistical analysis, which involves the use of different methods such as t-tests and ANOVA. T-test is used in hypothesis testing in quantitative studies to determine whether variations between the averages of two groups is unlikely to have emerged because of a random chance in selection of a sample. In essence, t-tests help to compare whether two groups have varying average values. In light of the role and significance of the assumptions underlying each parametric test, this paper provides a comparison of one-sample, paired-samples, and independent-sample t-tests within the context of quantitative doctoral business research. The comparison is…… [Read More]
6). This graduate indicates that rather than relying on the innate abilities identified by the career aptitude test, she "worked realistically with the grit and gumption I possessed, as opposed to counting on my talent to pave the way" (quoted in Bell & Short, 2003 at p. 6).
Some commonly used career aptitude tests include the ACT's (formerly American College Testing) EXPLOE testing regimen that examines 8th and 9th grade students' career aptitude using a battery of tests that provide a range of potential occupational choices. According to ACT's promotional material for the EXPLOE test, "This information can help you learn more about careers, clarify your goals, and begin to plan your future -- including your high school courses and, perhaps, a college education" (Your future, 2010, para. 2). Likewise, the EXPLOE handbook for 2009-2010 states, "With thousands of occupations in the work world, where do you begin? Your EXPLOE…… [Read More]
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
The TAT (Thematic Apperception Test) has long been used to assist psychoanalysts elicit fantasy material from their patients (Morgan & Murray, 1935). According to Belleck and Murray (1973), the TAT was designed to bring forth interpretations by subject of social situations. Stories and pictures reveal some of the dominant drives, emotions, sentiments, conflicts, and complexes of a personality. The original cards used in the test were drawn or painted in color (Morge, 1995), but over time and much use, they became more and more achromatic. This achromatic appearances of the cards has caused many to speculate about their validity, especially, in patients suffering from depression. The question being asked by some researchers was, "would the achromatic appearance of the cards cause a depressed story whether or not the subject was depressed?
The Thematic Apperception Test is an untimed, individually administered psychological test used for personality assessment.…… [Read More]
108, that it is all too common for educators to uncritically accept the assertions of test creators. For example, ESL students may have difficulty with language comprehension on a science achievement test, but that does not mean that the students have difficulties with comprehending the scientific method or other grade-level scientific concepts. Despite Cantor's caveat about using individual tests as one of many forms of assessing student ability, Gardner suggests is very easy to give too much priority to specific scores. While it may seem obvious that scores should be understood in terms of range, rather than individual status, consider that to many people, 580 'sounds' less 'good' than 600 as an SAT subset score, even if the two testers might be of relatively similar ability and have taken different versions of the test. Subjective test scores, like essay tests, are even more prone to error and variation because of…… [Read More]
The Scholastic Aptitude Test has been a method of assessing and bringing equality to all high school students across the world who want to attend an institution of higher learning. This test is an attempt at bringing all potential college students to the same level so that they could all have one thing in common that could be analyzed in terms of scholastic ability and as a way of providing some insight into how a student could potentially perform in a university setting. The problem with this issue is that not all students are adequately prepared for such a test (Freedle 2003). This test defines what institution of higher learning a student can attend, yet it does not bring everyone to an equal level when some students who are smart and can potentially excel in college, do not do well on the test, and limits their choices. This is…… [Read More]