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It's long been a challenge in pedagogy to find a way to meet the needs of a diverse classroom; students have always presented a range of different cultural, linguistic, social and socioeconomic needs and backgrounds. In fact, in the academic research paper, "Culturally esponsive Differentiated Instruction" by Santamaria, it was found that ultimately, "The best teaching practices are those that consider all learners in a classroom setting and pay close attention to differences inherent to academic, cultural, linguistic, and socioeconomic diversity. Through a closer examination of two different, seemingly distinct, theoretical models that have rarely been linked or reconciled, educators may be able to determine what is appropriate for particular groups of students in particular classrooms in particular locales" (Santamaria, 2009). This means that engaging in proactive, culturally responsive forms of decision-making and classroom management can have a marked and profound impact on students and the overall effectiveness of teachers.…
Gere, A. (2009). A Visibility Project: Learning to See How Preservice Teachers Take Up Culturally Responsive Pedagogy. American Educational Research Journal, 816-852.
Lansford, J. (2005). Physical Discipline and Children's Adjustment: Cultural Normativeness as a Moderator. Child Development, 1234 -- 1246.
McKevitt, B., & Braaksma, A. (2004). Best Practices in Developing a Positive Behavior Support. Retrieved from Nasponline.org: http://www.nasponline.org/publications/booksproducts/bp5samples/735_bpv89_44.pdf
Santamaria, L. (2009). Culturally Responsive Differentiated. Teachers College Record, 214-217.
..control the environment by implementing a logical system (the teacher's, of course) of conditioning." (Tauber, 1999, p. 19) in this context the teacher is seen as an "interventionist" in that he or she has to control and dictate the learning and behavioral environment. "By accepting a position as a teacher, a person has not only the right but an 'obligation' to modify student behavior" (Axelrod, 1977, p. 158). In essence the interventionist approach is a direct behavioral approach which is described by Tauber as the "carrot-and-stick approach." (Tauber, 1999, p. 19)
This form of discipline is based on a reward and punishment system which is seen as the main method of motivating students. The essence of the approach is that discipline is essentially a form of behavior modification. "A student's behavior must be modified, be shaped. Interventionists would argue that this directing of a student's actions is being done for…
Axelrod S. (1977). Behavior modification for the classroom teacher. New York:
Burke J. And Gahan B. Preservice.Teachers' Beliefs about Discipline Before and After Student Teaching. Retrieved September 20, 2006 at http://220.127.116.11/search?q=cache:apP-4ESdBN0J:www.uscupstate.edu/uploadedFiles/academics/Education/bailey.johnson.pdf+Burke+J.+and+Gahan+B.+Preservice.Teachers%27+Beliefs+about+Discipline+Before&hl=en&gl=za&ct=clnk&cd=1&lr=lang_en
Canter L. Discipline: You can do it! Instructor. 1979, 89, 108-111.
Cook-Sather, a. (2009). "I'm not afraid to listen: Prospective teachers learning from students."
Theory Into Practice, 48(3), 176-183.
Cook-Sather's article describes a teacher education program she conducts at Bryn Mawr College and the results of a survey of teachers who went through the program. The program is called the Teaching and Learning Together (TLT). Through TLT, secondary education students at the college have substantial interaction with high school students from area high school, including frequent email correspondence and meetings facilitated by a trained teacher. The interactions focus on the content of the curriculum that is geared towards giving pre-service teachers direct access to the points-of-view of high school students. The pre-service teachers are learning by listening to the classroom experiences of these students. Cook-Sather's literature review shows that her project is one of few attempted in the United States but that the use of students as teacher educators…
Students with special needs are at an increased risk fro having low self-esteem which can often impact their potential for achievement. The best way to overcome this is to reinforce students with positive behaviors and help them work through challenges they may be facing daily.
Glasser (1984) developed a theory that suggests that students need to be taught to control their behavior in order to succeed, and thus the role of the teacher is in part to help students learn control through decision making that is positive. Working with special needs populations, I have learned how to help guide students in a manner that encourages control and self-reliance. My work has led me to the general belief that students can learn to control their behavior when they are mentored more so than 'lectured' to, as students often model the behaviors they admire in others. The teacher in every situation possible…
Edwards, C. (1994). Learning and control in the classroom. Journal of Instructional
Psychology, 21(4), 340-346.
Glasser, W. (1984). Control theory. New York: Harper and Row.
ITC. (2004). "Classroom Management: A Positive Approach." Innovative Teaching
Creating the Ideal Learning Atmosphere
Classroom environment is an often overlooked but critical component to the learning experience at all levels of education. The proper classroom design serves four functions within the academic environment: to help focus and guide initial planning discussions for users and design professionals; to avoid reinventing the wheel for each new construction or renovation project; to standardize the inventory of classrooms by size and capabilities; and to guide educators in the detailed design of key elements of learning spaces in order to ensure optimization for lighting, acoustics, and educational technology. Most guidelines are based on achieving efficiencies in terms of floor space and ceiling height, the goal being to accommodate the largest number of students comfortably in the least amount of space. In the last decade, much has changed in the way classroom-based learning is accomplished. As a result, there is a…
Berger, K. (2008). The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence. New York: NY: Worth Publishers.
Bjorklund, D. (2011). Children's Thinking. New York, NY: Wadsworth Publishing.
Bronfenbrenner U., & Morris, P.A. (1998). The ecology of developmental processes. In R.M. Lerner, Handbook of Child Psychology (Vol. 1:993 -- 1028). New York: Wile Publishing.
Downer, J., Rimm-Kaufman, S. And Pianta, R. (2007). How do classroom conditions and children's risk for school problems contribute to children's behavioral engagement in learning? Social Psych Review. 36(3): 413-422.
Classroom Management study conducted by the Utah State University shows that the primary concern of new teachers is classroom management, maintaining an atmosphere of learning and containing discipline problems in the classroom environment.
I believe that the first key to successful classroom management is being pro-active, preventing these problems before they occur. Effective teachers should be able to establish harmonious personal interactions with their students. They understand that the behavior of students is a product of the immediate environment. It is therefore the teacher's task to take a leadership role in establishing a learning atmosphere that minimizes behavior problems, one that encourages instead a cohesive and supporting class.
Towards this, teachers should first take the time to teach their expectations to students. These expectations include the classroom rules, learning expectations and procedural expectations. The classroom expectations should be specific and when possible, worded in a positive manner. For example, they…
This technology would also be useful for exploring history and anthropology and sociology classes, because students from around the world would have an opportunity to provide their opinions and ideas about culture, sociology and the world in which we live. Students would have an opportunity to provide information that detailed how technology and modernization have affected their culture and their way of life. These are all important considerations in modern society.
Question # 4.
Would you be willing to share this technology with another classroom near your room?
Yes. It would be easy to share this technology with other classrooms. In fact, the units could be assigned to a classroom rather than to an individual so that all students had an opportunity to participate with and interact with each other using this unique and informative technology.
Question # 5.
Will this technology decrease your need to photocopy materials? If yes,…
hile many entering college freshmen lack effective studying habits, those enrolling in community colleges are likely to have even worse study skills and habits since many of them had no other option than community college in the first place because they failed to gain admission into any 4-year institutions.
The Responsibility of Instructors for Causing and Preventing Classroom Incivility
According to Morrissette (2001), academic instructors also play an important role in connection with student incivility, especially with respect to certain specific types of incivility, such as disrespect, disruption, and defiance on the part of students, in particular. That is because statements by faculty members in class can provoke negative responses by virtue of triggering retaliation for perceived insults or humiliation experienced by students because of the instructor. As Morrissette outlines the problem:
"Faculty can inadvertently provoke a violent cycle by publicly debasing, humiliating, or invalidating students (e.g., remarking that a…
Gonzalez, Virginia and Lopez, Estela. "The Age of Incivility: Countering Disruptive
Behavior in the Classroom." AAHE Bulletin (April 2001). Accessed 9 December,
2011 online from: http://www.aahea.org/bulletins/articles/incivility.htm.
Morrissette, Patrick J. "Reducing Incivility in the University/College Classroom."
Disruptive students also automatically receive greater attention in this schema, making it undesirable in most typical situations.
Morrish's eal Discipline
Dealing with disruptive incidents is a secondary function of this system -- preventing these incidents from occurring in the first place is the primary goal.
Designing the learning environment and lesson plans in a manner that will encourage the enforcement/fulfillment of expectations rather than requiring the enforcement of consequences allows the students to find their own non-disruptive way to learning, rather than having this foisted upon them.
Strengths of this system include a much greater flexibility in terms of dealing with different learning styles and potential problems, the ability to allow for the simultaneous engagement in different tasks/the same task in different ways, and a generally calmer and less discipline-focused atmosphere, which is more conducive to learning.
Greater effort is needed in the planning stages to ensure the success of…
Collins, J. (2007). "Classroom management plan." Manchester college. Accessed 12 October 2010. http://users.manchester.edu/Student/JLCollins/ProfWeb2/CM -- Classroom%20Management%20Plan.pdf
Heaston, J.; Jagger, D. & Alva, S. (2008). "Kagan, Kyle, Scott Win-Win discipline presentation." Manchester college. Accessed 12 October 2010. http://users.manchester.edu/Student/DCJJagger/CRWebsite/ClassroomManagementPresentation2Handout.pdf
TCI. (2009). "Ronald Morrish handouts." Thistletown collegiate institute. Accessed 12 October 2010. http://www.mta-aeem.com/en/res/en/28.pdf
To create a positive classroom environment for my second graders, I try to frame everything in terms of what they should do, rather than what they should not do. We use the Responsive Classroom approach in our school, so the first six weeks is devoted to establishing classroom rules and procedures. The children are encouraged to take an active part in this process. During the first week of school, we create a big poster that shows the classroom rules. Each child signs it before it is put on permanent display, so it serves as a contract as well. By second grade, students understand that teachers have expectations. Children know how they are supposed to conduct themselves in the classroom, in the halls, in the lunchroom and on the playground -- even if they do not always do as they should! We spend time at the meeting circle discussing…
Classroom Management Plan for Responsibility
It is obvious to say that the main goal for anyone who is trying to manage a classroom of students is to encourage responsibility and accountability for all those involved - student and teacher alike. For instilling responsibility, especially in younger students, I believe that it would be most helpful from day one to establish ground rules and expectations for the students, no matter what age group you may be dealing with. Students tend to learn well in a structured environment and while it is important to bring variety into classrooms, it is also important for students to know what is expected and what the ground rules may be.
In creating a structured learning environment it is possible to maximize time spent on learning while also minimizing disruptions. The working environment should be one of respect for student and teacher, with a friendly leaning approach.…
Bennis, W.G., & Nanus, B. (1985). Leaders: The strategies of taking charge. New York: Harper Perennial
Canter, L. (1988). Assertive discipline and the search for the perfect classroom. Young Children, 43(2), 24.
What is the most challenging aspect of these scaffolding and leaning stategies fo students including Neal is the need fo ovecoming esistance to change. The fea of the uncetain and the need fo finding a geate level of owneship in the leaning pocess must tanscend just the child and also include the paent is the scaffolding stategies ae to be effective (Dawson, Williams, 2008). Studies conclusively show that thee is a definite need to ensue a high level of paent involvement in the assimilation pocess, and that it must become a family-based objective ove one that is meely enfoced by the Austalian school system. Ensuing that thee is a high level of paental involvement ensues scaffolding stategies will succeed. The second lesson plan defined includes having a multi-cultual day in class so that students fom diffeent nationalities can have thei paents in to speak about the specific natue of thei…
references between each culture (Vance, Fitzpatrick, 2007). In the case of Neal, his father, studying veterinary science, could discuss how he chose this as a profession and how daily like in their Maori village is heavily dependent on livestock for their livelihood for example. This would be an excellent learning experience for the other students who may have been raised in urban or suburban areas. To them, animals are more like pets than vital members of the local economy. This could also assist in easing the ethnocentrism both Neal may feel and sense and his classmates as well. The development of teaching strategies specifically aimed at breaking down these barriers with the parents' assistance also gives the parents themselves ownership in seeing their students improve and become more conversant in English. Being able to assist student and their parents internalize learning objectives is crucial if scaffolding (Wallace, 1994) strategies are to be effective in breaking down barriers to learning (Dawson, Williams, 2008). The classroom context must also change after the visits from parents of other cultures, as having continual reminders of the diversity represented in the classroom is crucial for Neal and his fellow students learning English to be successful in accomplishing their learning objectives. For the entire series of strategies to work, scaffolding must be continually relied on to give Neal and students like him and opportunity to see progression in their English language skills and gain a sense of mastery over them.
LESSON PLAN TEMPLATE for the THREE LESSON PLANS
Level: Grade 1
Topic/Theme/Focus: Learning English
Certainly, there is a difference between mastery and expertise, but depending on the curriculum the idea of mastery goes beyond Bloom's rote memory and moves so that student's can demonstrate competence and an ability to synthesize past information (Lalley and Gentile, 2009, 29-30).
The idea, though, is to ask ourselves as educators what the point of assessment is: grading for parents and administrators, checking progress, or as a learning tool to help both students and instructor gague how much of the material has been mastered. Effective teaching is dependent upon a number of different factors and cannot easily be quantified. These factors include a number of qualitative issues (cognitive skills, maturity, demographics, etc.), content area, expertise in subject matter, and so forth. However, regardless of the stimuli given, it is possible to use planning, pedagogical technique, and certain activities to make any lesson more effective. To make skills more embedded,…
Lalley, J.; Gentile, J. (2009). Classroom Assessment and Grading to Assure Mastery.
Theory Into Practice. 48 (1): 28-35
The above plan may establish a challenge to a teacher's capability in setting an organized method that can effectively bring proper learning and proper behavior in students within the classroom environment. For instance, implementing discipline techniques is the foremost challenge, and may also be a problem, because students have different personalities. One may be open to discipline while another may be stubborn.
The implementation of technological methods of teaching and learning can similarly become a challenge and a problem. It is a challenge because both the teachers' and students' capability to use technology will be encouraged. On the other hand, depending on the motivations established in both the teachers and the students, and on their interest in technology, problem in applying advanced and technological methods in learning may cause problems.
It is common that challenges and problems in any classroom management will exist. The important thing is that the teachers…
Classroom experience and assessment are often issues that are struggled with by every level of education including but not limited to higher education. The goal of all assessments be they classroom, institutional or even national level is to have a measure that is comparable among students so as to record and gage learning outcomes. The problem is that not all assessments are equal or as useful as others. While personalized assessments are useful for instructors they are hardly comparable outside of the single classroom, standardized tests or even trade level licensure exams (i.e. standardized tests) are highly comparable but often do not express the breadth of learning. As a student the experience of assessment has been broad with some seemingly being very effective and other assessment feeling like a waste of time, or at the least a form of hoop jumping that did not aide the student learning or more…
Glenn, D. (2011). Online Learning Portals: Customizing Colleges Right Out of Higher Education?. Chronicle Of Higher Education, 57(38), A22-A23.
Strudler, N. (2011). Electronic Portfolios in Teacher Education: Forging a Middle Ground. Journal Of Research On Technology In Education, 44(2), 161-173.
The school administration is headed toward the preparation of their students' future in the information technology. They have made careful and thorough planning, with constant communication and commitment to raise the technological bar of the school. All members, administrators, and teachers were provided with laptops so that they could familiarize themselves and adopt with the technological life that their students do each day. Together with the extensive trainings of staff members, the school was able to effectively integrate technology into all curricular areas. It was followed by the provision of other technology that is necessary for the integration and learning. Years thereafter, it was noticed that the elementary students excel and take ownership in their work. They also become responsible individuals. The school continues to envision the initiative by expanding the technology throughout other schools.
E-Technology. (2008). Easton Area School District. Retrieved on 21 April 2008 from website, http://www.eastonsd.org/technology/Technology.html.
E-Technology. (2008). Easton Area School District. Retrieved on 21 April 2008 from website, http://www.eastonsd.org/technology/Technology.html.
On the micro issue, within the classroom, most experts say that overcrowding can be better managed if the instructor is positive, engaging, and committed to teaching with whatever extremes occur. Keeping lessons relevant and interesting, modeling empathy and courteous behavior, and changing the classroom set-up to reflect openness whenever possible will, in the long run, improve many of the general problems engendered by too many students in a class (Green, 2010).
The more engagement from either the parent, para-professional, or teacher, the less the ramifications are from overcrowding. Many researchers recommend dedicated aides in overcrowded situations, so that students can break out into groups that are more skill level appropriate for their learning needs. However, this assumes that paraprofessionals are trained and that there is adequate opportunity for teacher's to engage with any aide or help that might be necessary for their classroom. It is thus important that the teacher…
Classroom Overcrowding at 10-Year High, Union Says. (September 22, 2011). The New York Times. Retrieved from: http://cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/09/22/classroom-overcrowding-at-10-year-high-union-says/
The Crisis: Overcrowding in California's Schools: An Epidemic That Is Getting Worse. (2011). Just Schools: California. Retrieved from: http://justschools.gseis.ucla.edu/crisis/overcrowding/index.html
Global Enrichment Solutions. (2010). The Overcrowded Classroom. Retrieved from: http://www.myglobalenrichment.com/OVERCROWDED_CLASSROOM.html
Green, T. (2010). How to be Successful in Your First Year of Teaching Elementary School. Ocala, FL: Atlantic Publishing Group.
According to Bales, 1999, the concept ehind SYMLOG is that "every act of ehavior takes place in a larger context, that it is a part of an interactive field of influences." Further, "the approach assumes that one needs to understand the larger context -- person, interpersonal, group, and external situation -- in order to understand the patterns of ehavior and to influence them successfully." With SYMLOG, measurement procedures are used to assess individual ehavior patterns and values, as well as to oserve these patterns and values in their larger context (Bales, 1999).
The theory is ased on findings that are the result of systematic oservation of real groups, and performing research to oserve the ways in which individuals with different kinds of personalities affect each other in task-oriented groups. This research was conducted over a long period of time with usiness teams and organizations in the United States and other…
bibliography included 15 current research publications centered on the concept of classroom management in elementary schools. Most of the publications were journal articles, with a few reports and dissertations.
The literature review paralleled the theories in many ways. The strategies and methods being used are widely varied and inconsistent. There are many wonderful ideas and similar approaches, but overall, there is still not a single method that has been thoroughly tested and implemented across the elementary school environment.
Many of the studies indicated positive results but the methods still required further testing and validation. Some of the research articles offered specific guidelines on how to improve classroom management while others were in the beginning phases of testing. The downside is that classroom management is a concern to many teachers, and it is considered to be the main cause of teacher stress and low retention. There is a need for concrete methods and training, but at this point, the methods being offered are fairly new and inconsistent.
Above them all, however, one strategy stood out. What was interesting is that it was not highly proven or rooted in theory. Yet, the overall themes it touched on were very much in alignment with systems theory as well as common sense classroom management techniques. An article by Kerri Ullucci focused on her direct observations of six teachers in urban elementary schools. The teachers were well-recognized and respected and therefore Ullucci participated in their classrooms to understand what they were doing right. What she discovered were six different approaches that all reflected many of the same core components.
First, beyond the other research findings, this was the only article that used the word "family" in the title and expressed a sense of warmth. Just by reading the article, the reader could remember back to his/her childhood and favorite teacher. The other publications focused on handling "disruptive behavior" and the stress related to classroom management. These are still very real issues, however, Ullucci's article was less about classroom management and control and more about what it takes to be an amazing teacher. Through her observations, she saw that students who were treated with respect and honored as individuals were more likely to perform, and to feel good about themselves. Ullucci witnessed multi-cultural classrooms that celebrated the cultural diversity of the class through pictures, books, artifacts, and art. These classrooms were also open to freedom of expression, talking about feelings and open communication. Students were also encouraged to speak different languages, which is not typically the norm in standard classrooms. In many ways, these teachers broke the rules. And yet, they also had specific classroom management techniques.
Citizens in Twenty-first century find the technological advancements as an inexorable support. Justified access; connectivity to technological advancement along with adequate training need to be provided to teachers in order to make them capable of utilizing the available technology to the fullest possible utilization of skills. Naisbitt states that Computers provide a cost effective method of personalizing education even though its capital intensive nature cannot be denied. Simplifications of the large-scale manual record keeping through computers electronically and skills involving management of computers have become an added advantage and being treated as marketable skill.
James A. Garfield, a graduate of Williams College, who later became the twentieth president of United States, had propounded the core hypothesis of refinements in Higher education in the year 1871. Fredrick Rudolph, a renowned historian retrieves; Garfield defended the complaints of professor about the incapability of the Williams College to cope with…
Black, John; Swan, Karen; Schwartz, Daniel. Computing and education: The second frontier. New York: Teachers College Press, 1988.
Battersby, Mike. Using Internet to Improve Teaching and Learning. Northampton: Paragon,
Brooks, Jacqueline Grennon; Brooks, Martin G. In search of understanding: The case for constructivist classrooms. Virginia, Association for the Supervision and Curriculum Development Press, 1993
Cotton, Eileen Giuffre. The Online Classroom: Teaching with Internet. Bloomington, EDINFO Press, 2000
Introduction- The way humans communicate and share ideas and concepts in society is complex. How are ideas conceptualized -- how are they explained -- how does discourse relate- and how do humans understand messages -- what is true about language- what is not? These are just some of the issues surrounding theories of language acquisition and development. However, a full review of all current linguistic theories is out of the realm of this paper, thus we will concentrate on a single theory of language acquisition. First, though, it is useful to understand the basic themes of theoretical linguistics, a branch of the science of speech concerned with the way humans use core factors of language, and how those core precepts are developed within a particular culture. Regardless of the language grouping, human languages have three major commonalties: articulation (the production of speech sounds, sometimes including non-verbal cues); perception (the…
Anthony, L, Palius, M, Maher, C & Moghe, P 2007, 'Using Discourse Analysis to Study a Cross-disciplinary Learning Community', Journal of Engineering Education, vol 96, no. 2, pp. 141-52.
Blommaert, J 2005, Discourse, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Bloome, D 2005, Discourse Analysis and the Sudy of Classroom Language and Literacy Events, Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ.
Brown, G & Yule, G 1983, Discourse Analysis, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Classroom: Teaching Utopias, Dystopias, and the American Dream
This article published in Teaching American Literature: A Journal of Theory and Practice in 2011 examines the advantages and pitfalls of democracy in the classroom. The author, Rebeccah echtold, tells of her attempt to create a utopian classroom by enabling students to design and implement their own syllabus. The class was designed so students were included in deciding "a majority of the classroom policies, grading procedures, and assignments" (2).
echtold states, "My hope was to create a space where teaching and text crossed, to create a learning space where our class would think about the core issues that the texts had in common and actually experience similar concerns and questions" (3). Initially the author had to address issues of trust between the students and herself. In essence she was asking her students "how would you teach the class?" (5). This question contains…
Bechtold, Rebeccah, 2011. No place in the Classroom: Teaching utopias, dystopias, and the American dream. Teaching American Literature: A Journal of Theory and Practice (4:3) (Spring), http://www.cpcc.edu/taltp/spring-2011-4-3/201cno-place201d-in-the-classroom-teaching-utopias-dystopias-and-the-american-dream/view (accessed March 30, 2013).
classroom lessons can be designed in diverse manners to drive all students' achievement. It looks at findings from previous studies and the limitation of not classroom application in previous studies.
The study is for designing lessons that drive achievement among diversified students.
Teachers face challenges with synthesizing standards where students can understand. The challenge is synthesizing standards in student-friendly language to define explicity (D'Annolfo, 2012). This is especially difficult where teacher perceptions play a part (Pirrone, 2012). Teachers tend to perpetuate stereotypes of failing students, however.
How a child learns can be influenced by people around them. "Mental schemas are influenced by our academic formations" (Tokuhama-Espinosa, 2011). The way education gets presented to students can determine what they need to know, understand, and do, however.
Researchers have argued the problem may be in the classroom. It could stem from lack of deep learning experiences connected to a…
D'Annolfo, S.D. (2012). Looking Through the eyes of the Learner. AASA Journal of Scholarship and Practice, 9(3), 32-40 Retrieved from http://www.aasa.org/uploadedFiles/Publications/Journal_of_Scholarship_and_Practice/JSP-Fall2012.pdf .
Hall, T. (2002). Differentiated Instruction Effective Classroom Practices Report. NCAA.
Kennedy, A. (2003). Pathways to early literacy: What can we learn from families? Curriculum Leadership.
Pirrone, C. (2012). The Influence of Teacher' Preexisting Notions about Students on Scholastic Achievement. Journal of Scholarship and Practice, 9(2), 18-30.
Grade level: 6th and 7th Subject: Literature
For this assignment a Literature Unit on Short stories for a 6th-7th grade combined classroom has been chosen. The purpose of 6th and 7th grade literature is to introduce and study various genres of literature, literary devices, and analytical techniques challenging students to develop advance literary skills including the ability to think critically about what they read and to develop advanced composition skills. Through this unit, students will examine fundamentals of literature through short stories, drama, and poetry from their classroom text and outside sources.
The challenge in teaching literature to a 6th/7th combined class is the range of cognitive ability and relative experience with critical thinking found among the students. This challenge can be addressed by careful observation and evaluation of the student's abilities. One approach would be to begin the year by offering all students the same text, since their…
Audio Recording of "The Way Through the Woods:" http://www.associatedcontent.com/audio/12462/nature_poem_audio_the_way_through_the.html?cat=42
Collection of Kipling Poems:
Just So Stories:
Describe societal technological ways adjusted adjust classroom instruction address. Based, skills students develop order prepare world classroom. Explain extent evidence skills students
Two societal or technological changes: Adjusting classroom instruction
Younger and younger students are entering the classroom having already been exposed to technology. Many parents say that their children are better able to navigate their smartphones than themselves. Using this comfort with technology can excite students about a wide variety of subjects. Creating a webpage designed to showcase the knowledge the class has gained about a historical or literary topic, for example, can make the past seem relevant. Technology also gives access to data students would not have been able to retrieve in the past. For example, to make a math lesson more relevant, teachers could ask students to calculate how many calories they eat over the course of a week, using an online calorie counter, add up…
Conlon, Mike. (2009). U.S. school children need less work, more play. Reuters. Retrieved:
Klopfer, Eric, Scot Osterweil, Jennifer Groff, & Jason Haas. (2012). Using the technology of today, in the classroom today. Education Arcade. Retrieved: http://education.mit.edu/papers/GamesSimsSocNets_EdArcade.pdf
Erik does a lot of very detailed sketchings and appears to have a good comprehension of mathematics and reading, though he is not always able to share this comprehension with others. He has shown a great deal of progress working with computers, and in fact seems to understand them better than many normally functional adults that are trying to learn the technology, so it is especially important to incorporate computers into his education. In fact, I believe that all classrooms should have at least one computer reserved for that class alone. In the instance that for some reason the school computer lab is not available for Erik's use, I would acquire a computer for the classroom. Understanding that school funds are stretched thin, I would appeal to the community and to companies to contribute to our technology needs. An ideal computer for him to use would be a Macintosh, and…
Bower, Bruce. "Remodeling the autistic child; parents join clinicians to transform the tragedy of autism." Science News. November 11, 1989. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1200/is_n20_v136/ai_8125185
Cook, Albert & Hussey, Susan (2002) Assistive Technologies: Principles and Practice. 2nd ed. St. Louis, MO. Mosby. ISBN 0-323-00643-4
Fisher, James. "Charlie's World: A Family Battles Autism." Commonweal. September 8, 2000. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1252/is_15_127/ai_65329649
Lemer, Patricia. "Diagnoses: Autism. What Families Can Do." Mothering. May-June, 2000. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0838/is_2000_May-June/ai_62141698
Designing a Classroom
The way a classroom is designed can impact the way students learn (Gray & Feldman, 2004). When designing a classroom, a number of factors are important to consider, such as the diversity of the class; the development of students’ moral, social and cognitive skills; learning theories; and how misbehavior can best be managed. This paper will provide a description of a classroom design that incorporates these factors into the planning and development of the classroom.
One of the challenges of a diverse class of students is that a teacher is likely to have to deal with attempting to close the achievement gap. Schools that are poorly-funded and overcrowded present a major obstacle to closing this gap. However, designing a classroom to address it can help to mitigate the risk of the gap widening. By personalizing learning and allowing students to decorate their own spaces in their classroom,…
Gray, P. & Feldman, J. (2004). Playing in the zone of proximal development: Qualities of self-directed age mixing between adolescents and young children at a democratic school. American Journal of Education, 110(2), 108-146.
Guardino, C. A., & Fullerton, E. (2010). Changing behaviors by changing the classroom environment. Teaching Exceptional Children, 42(6), 8-13.
McGuinness, C. (1999). From thinking skills to thinking classrooms. Research Brief, No. 115.
McLeod, S. (2016). Bandura—Social learning theory. Retrieved from https://www.simplypsychology.org/bandura.html
Parker, A., Rakes, L., & Arndt, K. (2017, July). Departmentalized, Self-Contained, or Somewhere in Between: Understanding Elementary Grade-Level Organizational Decision-Making. The Educational Forum, 81(3), 236-255.
Paras Shah wrote an opinion article on the need to include kids with disabilities in classrooms in order to benefit all learners. The article’s main idea is to demonstrate that all learners benefit when students with disabilities are included in the classroom. This is an important aspect of enhancing students’ achievements because students with disabilities usually attend segregated schools as they are isolated from their peers and the society (Shah par, 6). Due to the segregation, many learners with disabilities end up not attending school at all. As a result, the personal and professional development of students with disabilities is significantly affected as they are unable to enroll in colleges or learn professional skills. The inclusion of students with disabilities in the normal classroom setting helps to enhance their personal and professional growth and benefits other students as well.
Shah examines how students with disabilities are engaged in normal…
Shah, Paras. "Opinion: When Classrooms Include Those with Disabilities, All Kids Benefit." Newsela. Newsela, 20 June 2016. Web. 10 Oct. 2018.
Should Teachers Allow Students Access to Internet in Classrooms
Why Kids in Classrooms Today Do Not Need Any More Wild West in Them: “Trading Classroom Authority for Online Community” is a Bad Idea
As Rorabaugh notes, the Internet has evolved from a once “primitive” place to a kind of digital Wild West. To maneuver one’s way through the digital world, one must be able to navigate platforms and forums, where civility is often lacking and where shocking surprises always await. Some see this as a danger and two hundred years ago they likely would have been the same ones warning others not to venture to the frontier or try to tackle the Wild West. Yet, as Perkins-Gough, Tough and Domhardt et al. all point out, children cannot succeed—academically or professionally—without developing grit, resilience, and determination. Rorabaugh’s argument is that bringing the Internet into the classroom and allowing students to engage…
Is Talk Cheap?
The feedback that these Spanish learners received in the course of a conversation with a native speaker may have contributed to increased noticing, attention, and intake on the part of the language learner precisely because it was in a real-world situation and not in learning lab. Practice makes perfect is the saying, and learning on the job is a common enough practice that the expression is also popular. Language learners learn best when they are obliged to actually use the language and start to make sense of it. However, getting good feedback helps and in this case it helped because it was instructive in that it brought to the attention of the language learners mistakes they were making in a real-world way, which is shown by Call and Sotillo (1995). By engaging directly with another person, they make themselves open to feedback in a way that they…
Call, M.E., & Stillo, S.M. (1995). Is talk cheap? The role of conversation in the acquisition of language. Hispania 78, 1, pp. 114-121.
The way in which I would begin a grammar lesson would be like this: first, I would define the subject that we would be studying. For example, if I was introducing an idea such as a part of speech like an adverb can be used to modify a verb, adjective or other adverb, I would define this concept for the students. This would be a form of direct teaching. Then I would give some examples of the concept, using real sentences on the board. Finally, I would diagram the examples, so as to provide a visual aid for the students.
I tried to engage the students, in this manner, in different ways—appealing to their intellect, their visual sense, and their auricular sense. I would activate their prior knowledge by building on concepts that they had already learned—such as, what it means to be an adjective, or what it means to…
Folse, K. S. (2009). Keys to teaching grammar to English language learners: A practical handbook. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
Mills, G. E. (2014). Action research: A guide for the teacher researcher (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.
For decades, paraeducators have been contributing to special education by participating fully with general education teachers in the co-creation of inclusive classrooms. Paraeducators and other paraprofessionals working in education specialize in assistive services that improve the quality, standards, and outcomes of special education. Assistance with instructional design and content helps general education teachers become more adept in making adaptations and accommodations for students with special needs. The use of paraeducators in inclusive classrooms is strongly recommended by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). However, the role of the paraeducator is not always clearly defined, leading to workplace conflict. The relationship between paraeducators and general educators may sometimes be strained due to the lack of role clarity and corresponding lack of coherent standards for becoming a paraprofessional in special education. An observation of a paraeducator working with sixth graders provides a case study insight into the roles and functions…
Breton, W. (2010). Special education paraprofessionals. International Journal of Special Education 25(1): 34-45.
Douglas, S.N., Chapin, S.E. & Nolan, J.F. (2015). Special education teachers’ expereinces supporting and supervising paraeducators. Teacher Education and Special Education 39(1): 60-74.
Downing, J.E., Ryndak, D.L. & Clark, D. (2000). Paraeducators in inclusive classrooms. Remedial and Special Education 21(3): 171-181.
Giangreco, M.F., Broer, S.M. & Suter, J.C. (2011). Guidelines for selecting alternatives to overreliance on paraprofessionals. Remedial and Special Education 32(1): 22-38.
Lane, K.L., Carter, E.W. & Sisco, L. (2012). Paraprofessional involvement in self-determination instruction for students with high-incidence disabilities. Council for Exceptional Children 78(2): 237-251.
Parenting is a complex yet exciting adventure for many parents because of the multifaceted experience of raising a child. The virtual child program in this course has given the opportunity to experience this journey of parenting and develop my skills. This adventure of raising a virtual child has given me the opportunity to utilize conceptual knowledge gained in the classroom. I started my journey in the virtual child program by raising a boy named Mason from 2 to 6 years old. This experience is substantially different from raising an infant who expresses himself through crying, especially at night.
At 2 years of age, Mason would play a lot with his peers and share his toys. Mason would occasionally cry when interrupted from playing with his peers or when something wrong/unpleasant would happen. Mason seemingly used play as a means of creating relationships and emotional attachments with his peers. This is…
Classrooms are diverse environments, characterized by students from varying backgrounds, and with varying needs and skill levels. It is from this diversity and the recognition of how it contributes to the richness of a learning environment that the concept of differentiated instruction arises. Through differentiated education, students representing diversity have the opportunity to learn in environments that promote inclusion, unity, and understanding. An investigation into the effects of differentiated instructional curriculum for a fifth-grade science class demonstrated that both teachers and students reported a significantly higher degree of satisfaction with methods and materials used in differentiated instruction as opposed to typical instruction (McCrea et al., 2009). Similar results were found in a study that investigated the effectiveness of differentiated instruction in the realm of physical education curriculum (Kriakides & Tsangaridou, 2008).
Developing and putting into practice differentiated instruction curricula involves shifts in planning, execution, and assessments that require flexibility and…
Hall, T., Strangman, N., Meyer, A. (2011). Differentiated instruction and implications for UDL implementation: effective classroom practices report. National Center on Accessing the General Curriculum, retrieved 19 October, 2011 from http://aim.cast.org/learn/historyarchive/backgroundpapers/differentiated_instruction_udl .
Holloway, J.H. (2000). Preparing teachers for differentiated instruction, Educational Leadership, September, 82-3.
Kyriakides, L. & Tsangaridou, N. (2008). Towards the development of generic and differentiated models of educational effectiveness: a study on school and teacher effectiveness in physical education. British Educational Research Journal, 34(6), 807-38.
Lawrence-Brown, D. (2004). Differentiated instruction: inclusive strategies for standards-based learning that benefit the whole class. American Secondary Education, 32(3), 34-64.
Classrooms for Army Noncommissioned Officer Academy Students
Educational Environment for Amy Noncommissioned Officer Academy Students
Education is important in any environment. The same goes for military training. Noncommissioned Officer Academy Students must experience a well balanced blend between military field training and academic proficiency in order to succeed in their military careers and in life outside of the Army as well. The learning environment in such contexts holds true to the strict regulations of the military, but allows for students to benefit from low student to teacher ratios with highly trained education staff and enjoy participation with their classmates that augments their education and training.
Classrooms in NCO contexts are still a military environment. As such, they do still carry with the very strict and rigid military themes and tones. All students are expected to carry with them their military discipline within the context of the classroom. Thus, the maintenance,…
Classrooms That ork
The paragraphs below respond to the text and look at alternative ways to demonstrate reading comprehension to students. These paragraphs will offer new ways to look at ways to enhance students' reading experience.
Reading comprehension is an important part of developmental learning for young students. It helps build confidence and an eagerness to acquire knowledge. Reading is important because it expands the mind and promotes creativity. Promotion of comprehension furthers the learning experience because by understanding one concept, a student can understand others more easily. This is not just about retention of subject matter or a student moving onto the next level. For teachers, it is acquiring the tools to know how to access the strengths and weaknesses for each student to cater an individual strategy. A teacher needs to have the skills to know that each student works at their own pace regardless of making the…
Cunningham, P.M., & Allington, R.L. (2002). Classroom's that work: They can all read and write (3rd ed.). Boston: Pearson Allyn and Bacon.
This is an approach that is not current nor balanced. By echoing the importance of race and its ability to transcend the individual, soon all students will be able to belong to a single race of beings, the human race.
The literature extant on the ideas of culture and its impact on teachers ability to communicate successfully in the classroom has wide appeal to my specific research question. The aforementioned research will successfully contribute to my larger arguments about the situation while providing precedent and argument useful in presenting a compelling and rhetorically sound hypothesis.
Banks, J.A. (2001). Cultural diversity and education. Foundations, Curiculum and Teaching (4th ed.). London: Allyn. etrieved from http://pcsocialstudiesmethods.pbworks.com/w/file/fetch/68301852/Banks%20article.pdf
Bireda, S., & Chait, . (2011). Increasing Teacher Diversity: Strategies to Improve the Teacher Workforce. Center for American Progress. etrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED535654.pdf
Gao, W., & Mager, G. (2011). Enhancing Preservice Teachers' Sense of Efficacy and…
Banks, J.A. (2001). Cultural diversity and education. Foundations, Curiculum and Teaching (4th ed.). London: Allyn. Retrieved from http://pcsocialstudiesmethods.pbworks.com/w/file/fetch/68301852/Banks%20article.pdf
Bireda, S., & Chait, R. (2011). Increasing Teacher Diversity: Strategies to Improve the Teacher Workforce. Center for American Progress. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED535654.pdf
Gao, W., & Mager, G. (2011). Enhancing Preservice Teachers' Sense of Efficacy and Attitudes toward School Diversity through Preparation: A Case of One U.S. Inclusive Teacher Education Program. International Journal of Special Education, 26(2), 92-107. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ937178.pdf
Larke, P. (1990). Cultural diversity awareness inventory: Assessing the sensitivity of preservice teachers. Action in Teacher Education. Vol. 12 (3) 23-30.
Classroom Arrangement and Early Childhood Autism
The arrangement of the classroom environment could effectively meet the individual needs of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), as the room is neatly divided, which helps ASD children delineate borders and boundaries, and bright colors are used to help convey important information—like the class schedule, vocabulary words on the board to learn, and so on. There is also plenty of space for peer interaction, which Bene, Banda and Brown (2014) note is helpful for peer-mediated instruction, as it allows students to discuss with one another and communicate more freely without obstacles getting the way.
There are also several lamps in one area to help give light and make the room brighter. The lamps are helpful for reading and give a warm, lively atmosphere to the classroom. They are like living room lamps so have the added benefit of being inviting and welcoming. As…
Classroom Management: Hands on or Hands off?
The issue of classroom management is a complex one in today’s world, especially as the issue of how to educate has taken on so many different dimensions over the previous decades. There are so many different schools of thought on the best way to educate that managing the classroom and instilling discipline is also impacted by these myriad voices and perspectives. This paper will focus on the issue of classroom management at the high school level and address the problem by examining whether character education, praise and relationship building can be facilitative types of classroom management approaches that can serve as effective strategies to classroom management.
The problem of classroom management and whether or not teachers should adopt a hands on or hands off approach to discipline has largely been impacted by the philosophical underpinnings of the modern era, which have…
Classroom Observation and Commentary
How the Teacher Promotes a Positive Classroom Environment for Reading Instruction
The teacher promoted a positive classroom environment for reader instruction first by greeting the class warmly and announcing the activity that the class was going to do in a warm and enthusiastic tone. The teacher then used cue cards with large print words in different colors to go over the various vocabulary terms that the class was going to read in their reading material for the day. The teacher sounded out the first few words and then invited the class to sound them out with her. Thus the teaching approach was varied and oriented towards appealing to diverse learning styles (Souto-Manning & Martell, 2016). Then she asked if anyone could spell the word. If a student raised a hand but had difficulty spelling or reading the word, the teacher encouraged the student by asking helpful…
The Classroom of the Future -- Civics Education in the Future as a Living Lesson of Civics Democracy in the Classroom
Teaching Democracy in John Goodlad's Democratic Classroom
Civics is one of the most complex subjects to teach children, particularly children in junior high school, between the grades of 6th through 8th. During these ages, children are only beginning to gain a sense of centeredness in terms of their place in the world, their sense of personal morality, and also their sense of responsibility to the larger community. Merrill Harmin's text Inspiring Active Learning Strategies of Instruction provides an acronym for the five core aspects of any educational program -- DESCA means "Dignity, Energy, Self-Managing, Community, Awareness." Civics instruction must foster these elements in a student so that he or she becomes an effective learner, an effective participant in the larger community, as well as foster these principles…
Bitter, Gary. Using Technology in the Classroom. Fifth Edition. Pearson Allyn & Bacon, 2001.
Brophy, Jere, Motivating Students to Learn. McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages, 1997.
Gootman, Marilyn E. The Caring Teacher's Guide to Discipline, Second Edition. Corwin Press, 2000.
Goodlad, John I. In Praise of Education. (John Dewey Lecture Series) Teachers College Press, 1997.
It is easy to assume that a comprehensive decision making theory gives a reliable basis for an observation scheme for a classroom. However, it is apparent that even though the practical and theoretical ventures overlap in many respects the core of the theoretical tenets are fundamentally variant. They are broader in some respects and narrow in others. The deterrents of real time implementation are significant and thus the scheme of analysis is fundamentally different from the theory frames that led to (Schoenfeld, 2013.
At the onset, I believed that teaching was about spending 8 hours teaching and having a great time with children. Indeed, teaching seemed the easiest career choice for me. However, having interacted with many a student from across the age spectrum and educational levels, there is a side of the world that can only be viewed from the inside of a class. I changed my mind…
Teachers might also show appreciation for specific traits and characteristics that students bring to the classroom. In the diverse world of learning today, it is a fact of education that most classrooms are integrated social entities that include several cultures. Teachers may show appreciation for these cultures by researching and discussing each representative culture in her class for a number of lessons. This will encourage students to become more tolerant of each other, not only in the classroom, but also in the world at large. This type of appreciation provides a positive alternative for the prejudice that is all too often part of the students' worlds. Appreciation opens up the consciousness to beauty and harmony, which is a very important part of the teaching paradigm.
Finally, a very simple way of showing appreciation is to reward success. Those who perform particularly well in a test might for example be rewarded…
Fallstrom, B. (2010). Friends, former students show appreciation for W. Keith Adams. Herald-Review, May 25. Retrieved from: http://www.herald-review.com/news/local/article_c32db201-ca06-53d1-bbd5-5ad3b7fb4d33.html
Family Education (2010). Teacher Appreciation Ideas for Elementary-School Students. Retrieved from http://school.familyeducation.com/page/57490.html
YourDictionary.com (2010). ESL Classroom and Cultural Sensitivity. Retrieved from: http://www.yourdictionary.com/esl/ESL_Classroom-and-Cultural_Sensitivity.html
The critical discourse analysis was conducted in the context of ethnographic data collected over two years in this classroom. Extensive field notes, interviews, audio and videotaped lessons and discussions, support the researcher's understandings of the transcripts analyzed for this paper and collections of student work.(Dutro et al., 2006)
The findings are discussed over several pages where the researchers discuss how the students felt regarding various aspects of the survey they had taken. The particular part discussed in this analysis is where the researchers discuss the racial and ethnic designations that were printed on each child's copy of the district survey. Grace, who points to the printed categories to support her argument that race/ethnicity should not matter, first introduced the issue of racial/ethnic categories.
Limitations of the study include, conducting assessment at one school, in one state and city. Therefore, assessments may vary from area to area. The analysis shows…
Dutro, E., Kazemi, E., & Balf, R. (2006). About your color, that's personal: A critical discourse analysis of race and resistance in an urban elementary classroom. Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, pp.1-33.
classroom instruction, it is important not to overgeneralize. (Johnston, 2010, paraphrased)
TI was introduced in the 2004 IDEA legislation and requests that schools utilize 15% of their special education funding for regular interventions for education. equired by this law is "appropriate" and "scientific, research-based instruction by qualified personnel." (Federal egister 2006, p. 46786 in Johnston, 2010) This law has built in flexibility and does not make a requirement of instructional tiers that are separate or layers that are interwoven or require any other structure. What is required is assessment on a regular basis although the frequency or nature of the assessment is not stipulated.
TI is stated in the work of Johnston (2010) to be "framed as a strategy for preventing LD" and that from this view TI "becomes an instructional problem, emphasizing responsive teaching and the most instructionally useful assessment, and providing the means and context for improving teaching…
Johnston, Peter (2010) An Instructional Frame for RTI. The Reading Teacher 63(7). 2010 International Reading Association.
Tests in Classroom
Multiple choice tests are a favored method of testing due to its numerous advantages. First of all a faculty is familiar with developing them and it is easy to monitor cheating. These tests are easy to administer and are cost effective. The test facilitates rapid feedback due to the ease of scoring. The test also covers a broad part of the content. However the ability of a student can not only be measured using one mode of testing. Therefore, a student's ability to meet the course outcome has to be measured using different testing methods. Multiple choice tests are advantageous for some students as opposed to others who are not good at this mode of testing amend hence they will not be truereflection of the capabilities of a student. Every student has the right to a fair education and an equally mode of testing. There is need…
Martens, R. & Horst, H. (2009).The specification matrix, or 'test blueprint'. Retrieved August 3, 2014 from http://www.utwente.nl/mb/en/education/Organization/Educational%20policy/Assessment/Job%20aids/test_blueprint/
Barra, C. (2014). Assessment. Retrieved August 3, 2014 fromhttp://www.eslteachersboard.com/cgi-bin/articles/index.pl?page=6;read=3428
Duquesne University. (2014).Good, Better, Best: Multiple Choice Exam Construction. Retrieved August 3, 2014 fromhttp://www.duq.edu/about/centers-and-institutes/center-for-teaching-excellence/teaching-and-learning/multiple-choice-exam-construction
Classroom -- with an additional 600 words
The Multi-Age Classroom
A personal interview was conducted between me, the interviewer, and Mary Sullivan, a teacher with multi-age classroom experience. The questions were prewritten, asked, and answered during the interview. The interviewee's answers are as follows:
How long have you been a teacher?
"Well, more than 20 years. I started teaching in 1987 just after I graduated from college. I worked full time for a few years then, when we started our family, I was a substitute teacher and did some homeschool consulting. When the kids were in grade school, I went back to full time."
What grades level and subjects do you teach?
"I've always worked with the primary grades, and have taught every grade from 2rd on up. For most of my career I taught 2th-4th grade, with language arts being my special love. I've had my hand in…
Picture connects to a few words
Picture supports topic
Clear, detailed picture enhances topic
Beginning Writer's ubric -- Organization
Page is blank or illegible
No beginning or ending
Two out of three: beginning, middle and end
Beginning, middle, and end all present
Transitions rely on connective "and" and/or run-on sentences.
Some attempt at sequencing and structure
Logical sequencing; structure clarifies topic
No Title (if required)
Simple title fits content
Title fits content and is engaging
Beginning Writer's ubric -- Voice
Page is blank or illegible
No individual expression
Individual expression present and supported by text
Unique tone reflected in individual expression
Voice supports writer's purpose
Engaging voice appropriate to the piece
Awareness of audience
Writing connects to audience
Clear attempts to engage audience
Beginning Writer's ubric -- Word Choice
5-Point Beginning Writer's Rubric. (2010). Education Northwest. Retrieved May 11, 2011 from http://educationnorthwest.org/webfm_send/772
6+1 Trait definitions. (2011). Education Northwest. Retrieved May 11, 2011 from http://educationnorthwest.org/resource/503
Jasmine, J., & Weiner, W. (2007). The effects of writing workshop on the abilities of first grade students to become confident and independent writers. Early Childhood Education
Journal 35(2), 131-139.
Another lesson to be learned is the importance of reflective thinking, in which teachers and students reflect on their actions (Griffin, 2003). eflective thinking is particularly important as it ensures that people learn from their behavior, and it endows them with heightened self-awareness. For example, through reflective thinking the teachers in each of the critical incidents would understand the importance of using positive reinforcement, which has been shown to alleviate many disciplinary issues (Tulley and Chu, 1995).
Another lesson is that in addition to open communication, there must be collaborative interaction between students and teachers whereby they engage in a continuous and mutually supportive dialogue (Neale et al., 2000). Collaborative interaction resembles open communication, but is grounded in action rather than just dialogue. Implementing collaborative action would ensure that the needs of the intellectually curious students (the student in the United States history class and the one in the 8th…
Griffin, M.L. (2003). Using critical incidents to promote and assess reflective thinking in preservice teachers. Reflective Practice: International and Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 4(2), 207-220.
Neale, D.C., et al. (2000). Collaborative critical incident development. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Annual Meeting, 44(37), 598-601.
Tulley, M., & Chu, L.H. (1995). Student teachers and classroom discipline. The Journal of Education Research, 88(3), 164-171.
Watts, M., et al. (1997). Prompting teachers' constructive reflection: Pupils' questions as critical incidents. International Journal of Science Education, 19(9), 1025-1037.
Clearly she has not been a good steward of her classes because the principal twice visited her class and both times she was working individually with a student while other students were misbehaving or otherwise not being productive.
The Trenton district was also negligent because state law requires that all computers in public schools have software that prevents -- or filters out -- inappropriate materials. A public school cannot allow students to access pornography, whether it was just a little stunt that some boys pulled to get attention, or whether they were actually curious about a porn site and hoped to access it for a thrill of some kind.
Additionally, the Trenton school district is also potentially negligent because the Connecticut Guidelines for Teacher Evaluation Programs (Duke, 1995) require that before a teacher gets a contract, he or she must pass "…an essential skills examination (CONNCEPT)"; in fact teachers must…
Duke, D.L. (1995). Reconstruction of Thinking: From Accountability to Professional
Development. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.
Dunklee, D.R., and Shoop, R.J. (2006). The Principal's Quick-Reference Guide to School Law:
Reducing Liability, Litigation, and Other Potential legal Tangles. Thousand Oaks, CA:
The main purpose of this assignment is to analyze the arrangement of the classroom environment and assess why this kind of environment would efficaciously meet the individual needs of children with autism. Specifically, the video is one of a self-contained classroom that is designed for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The paper will outline the different modifications as well as visual supports that have been utilized in the classroom setting so that children with ASD can actively participate in everyday activities.
One of the key perceptible aspects within the classroom that have been modified to facilitate learning for the students with ASD is visual supports. For instance, in the class tasks for the day, pictures have been used to illustrate precisely what will be the tasks for the day. In addition, it can be seen that each of the students including Aaron, Evans, Joe, and Amauri…
The incidents of April 20, 1999 from Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado put bullying into a new perspective. Two students, Dylan Klebold and Ryan Harris, who were, for all intents, intelligent and well adjusted went on a killing spree. They killed and injured several members of the school including a teacher. (Rosenberg, 2000) Then they turned the guns on themselves. Their plans were grandiose. After the massacre, they intended to flee the country. Once the furor had died down, new information showed that the two students were generally reticent, withdrawn and subjected to bullying by their peers, especially the physically stronger students. Klebold and Harris were emotionally and physically abused. Isolated, they developed a hatred for their fellow students. This manifested in initial thoughts of suicide and then murder. Stories abound about bullying turned to tragedy abound. The Columbine incident was the biggest and got the most coverage.…
Berman, H., et al. "Sexual Harassment: The Unacknowledged Face of Violence in the Lives of Girls." The Best Interests of the Girl Child. Eds. H. Berman and Y. Jiwani. London, ON: The Alliance of Five Research Centres on Violence., 2002. 15-44.
Bleuel, Hans Peter. Sex and Society in Nazi Germany. Philadelphia,: Lippincott, 1973.
Congress. An Act Concerning Bullying Behavior in Schools and Concerning the Pledge of Allegiance. Washington, D.C: House of Congress, 2002.
Fried, S., and P. Fried. Bullies and Victims: Helping Your Child through the Schoolyard Battlefield. New York, NY: M. Evans & Co., Inc., 1996.
Allington's sixth chapter
In the sixth chapter of his text, hat Really Matters for Struggling Readers: Designing Research-Based Programs, literacy expert Richard Allington gives important tips to teachers as to how they can effectively improve instruction for struggling readers in their classrooms. This is often one of the most difficult tasks for any teacher, regardless of the grade he or she teachers.
In fact, one of Allington's first areas of critique is teacher-focused. To help teacher improve classroom instruction for such challenged readers, Allington stresses the need to provide additional support for teachers' professional growth. Since this field of how to approach struggling readers is undergoing continual professional debate, teachers need to keep in touch with new pedagogical developments, as well as receive support from their fellow professionals. Regular classroom teachers must strive to become expert educators, as well as have adequate access to resource room staff.
Enhancing Access to…
Allington, Richard. (2001) What Really Matters for Struggling Readers: Designing Research-Based Programs. New York: Longman.
STEM and STEAM in the classrooms
Purpose and Major Components
Many countries are currently putting much emphasis on the need to prepare students for higher education and equip them with the necessary skills and knowledge needed in this 21st century. To achieve this goal, learning institutions have adopted the STEAM approach, where they nurture students around the subjects of Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts and Math. This has gained popularity with all the players in the education sector, including educators, students, parents and even the US president. STEAM is viewed as a means to create a long-lasting interest in arts and sciences right from an early age. The subjects categorized under STEAM are somewhat similar, in that they all involve creative processes in the investigation of the subject matter. It is very important to teach such skills to students so as to prepare them for innovation in this ever-evolving world. This…
My classroom management theory is based on a constructivist approach to learning, which implies that there is a mutual responsibility between the learner and the instructor to move forward with the learning experience. My current position is in the First Grade, which at times can make this somewhat challenging. In many ways, First Grade is a segue into a "real" school atmosphere: longer day, more academics, less play, stricter expectations, social growth, challenging social and academic environment and more. Often, the first few months of First Grade are transitions into expected behaviors and a more regimented school day, so classroom management can be challenging at times. Overall, I have been using placement of students (moving desks, etc.), challenging paced lessons and a reward system for good behavior, excellence in teamwork, assignments, etc. By in large, this has been quite effective for this level of student, most of whom…
Sutton-Smith, B. (1997). The Ambiguity of Play. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
The National Institute for Play. (2011). Play Science -- The Patterns of Play. Retrieved from: http://www.nifplay.org/states_play.html
Rimm-Kaufman, S., et al. (2009). The Contribution of Children's Self-Regulation and Classroom Quality to Children's Adaptive Behaviors. Journal of Developmental Psychology. 45 (4), 958-72.
Schneider, M. (2003). Linking School Conditions to Teacher Satisfaction. Retrieved from: http://www.edfacilities.org/pubs/teachersurvey.pdf
Classroom Behavior Management
Developing a classroom that takes cultural diversity into account begins with understanding one's own ethnocentrism, that a lot of what we take for granted pertains specifically to our own cultural upbringing. Children who come from other cultures -- and their parents -- may well have different ideas and ideals. It is important to learn about the different cultures that are present in my classroom, as a starting point for understanding. A lot of developing an inclusive classroom involves listening to students and parents, so as to understand their cultures better, and how that pertains to the classroom. My plan would have specific Tier 1 rules, governing the basics of classroom behavior that are not subject to question on the basis of culture. But there will also need to be more of an individualized (Tier 2) approach, where some students from other cultures might receive special attention, or…
Classroom-based reading assessment is the measurement of children's progress in learning reading by using both formal and informal measurement tools.
Classroom assessment collects useful information about what students do and do not know about reading. Teachers can use four different types of assessments to accomplish this.
Leveled books can be used to figure out where exactly a student is in terms of reading level.
Rough observation and measurement can be used to figure out where exactly students are in terms of reading level.
Tests can be administered to find out where students' strengths and weaknesses are.
Collecting samples of a student's work can be instructive in figuring out where a student is in terms of reading level
Determining Student's Reading Level
Teachers must figure out where students are in terms of reading level so that they can progress in their learning…
Class room management holds extreme importance in the process of teaching. It is mandatory for a teacher to manage her class effectively in order to achieve her predetermined instructional goals. 'Successful classroom management involves much more than rules and discipline. Indeed research into classroom management demonstrates that effective teachers are proactive about student behavior, and they involve students in the process of establishing and maintaining rules and routines'. (Strong, 2007)
An effective instructional is dependent on various factors, and a properly managed classroom is definitely one of those factors. There is no way that a teacher can achieve her desire objective, if the process of teaching is taking place in a poorly managed classroom. A properly managed classroom along with attractive materials can definitely attract the attention of students and involve them in the process of learning. Management of classroom is also important to avoid any unnecessary wastage…
Evertson, C.M, & Weinstein, C.S. (2006). Handbook of Classroom Management: Research, Practice, and Contemporary Issues. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. (p.51)
Mcleod, J, Fisher, J, & Hoover, G. (2003). The Key Elements of Classroom Management: Managing Time and Space, Student. Alexandria, USA: ASCD Publication.(p. 75)
Stronge, J.H. (2007). Qualities of Effective Teachers. Alexandria, USA: ASCD Publication. (p.40)
The proposed classroom management technique seeks to foster democracy because a culture of responsibility and freedom is promoted in the learning environment. As a teacher, I have comfortably adapted to using this model because it gives my students equal opportunities of interacting and responding to classroom issues. In the end, I can satisfy the needs of the majority. Since the environment is safe, their constitutional rights are guaranteed and rules applied are fair to all students. In such a classroom, all students are given equal opportunities especially in the formulation of programs and policies. Moreover, all students will be involved in the decision-making process because no discrimination exists in such a learning environment. Therefore, the learning environment fosters sharing among students especially in the maintenance of discipline, control and even the promotion of meaningful learning process (Dreikurs, Grunwald, & Pepper, 2013).
In the current classroom, I ensure that all students…
Punishment should be equal, and no favoritism is employed. ules enable a teacher to maintain control of the classroom. Maintaining a good classroom behavior is easier than trying to correct inappropriate behavior. Students who have established inappropriate behavior will resist any changes that a teacher attempts in order to correct their behavior. Therefore, it is better for a teacher to maintain order and discipline for the classroom at all times. Establishing clear guidelines and rules, which have consequences if broken will ensure that students maintain good behavior. Parental influence is vital in maintaining discipline of the students. Parents will be kept in the know of their children behavior, and they can also administer disciplinary measures at home.
Students should also be made to understand that disciplinary measures are undertaken to teach them and prepare them for the future. Good student behavior is vital as it protects other students and ensures…
Evertson, C.M., & Weinstein, C.S. (2006). Handbook of Classroom Management: Research, Practice, and Contemporary Issues. Florence, Kentucky: LAWRENCE ERLBAUM ASSOC Incorporated.
Mehra, R. (2004). Classroom Management. Manhattan, New York: Pinnacle Technology.
Shaw, R. (2008). Philosophy in the Classroom: Improving Your Pupils' Thinking Skills and Motivating Them to Learn. Florence, Kentucky: ROUTLEDGE CHAPMAN & HALL.
Welcome to your new classroom, everyone place their backpacks and jackets on the hooks with your nametags and take a seat at a desk. Each of you will take all the materials you need from your backpack before you sit down, but today you don't need anything but a smile. You can sit where you like because we are all going to work together to rearrange the classroom and mark the desks with these nametags I made for you. If you will notice the nametags are just plain white but you will have time in a few minutes to decorate your nametag and make it look more like yourself, with the supplies you see on the desks. There are a few things I will talk about while we decorate nametags." (Pass out nametags to students one at a time) "First, hold up your hand if you are new to the…
Cabral, E. (2007). A Scary First Day. (cover story). Scholastic News -- Edition 5/6, 76(3), 4.
Listening Checkpoint: Who Is the Safety Helper?. (2010). Scholastic News -- Edition 1, 67(1), 14.
McNamara, P. (2008). Kiss shy goodbye!. Girls' Life, 14(7), 42.
Phillips-Hershey, E. (2003). The Fight's OFF!. Appleseeds, 6(1), 2.