Tourism and Hospitality Industry in the Middle East Research Paper

Download this Research Paper in word format (.doc)

Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formatting

Excerpt from Research Paper:

Arab Spring Reshapes the Tourism and Hospitality Industry in the Middle East

Research Structure

Arab Spring

Importance of Tourism in the Effected Regions

Negative Impacts of Arab Spring on the Tourism Sector of the Middle Eastern Region

Selection of Keywords





Recommendations for Further Research

The Arab Spring Reshapes the Tourism and Hospitality Industry in the Middle East

The Arab Springs can be defined as a series of revolutions along the Middle Eastern countries, for example Tunisia and Egypt. On the 17th of December, in the year 2010, a vegetable vendor set himself on fire. The name of this vendor was Mohamed Bouazizi. This event occurred in a Tunisian town of Sidi Bouzid. As a result of this act great political upheaval was raised in the North Africa and the Middle East known. This political upheaval was known as "Arab Spring." (Youssef and Lafferty et al., 2013, pp. 960-962)

A number of demands were voiced by both, the protesters as well as the rebels. These demands had a similar impact across the entire region. The demands and protests asked for an increase in inclusion in the political life as well as economic life, betterment of governance and enhancement of the strength of civil liberties. The outcomes of the upheavals caused by the Arab spring varied from region to region. These upheavals reflected the social cleavages that were associated with the specific countries and were covered by the government of those countries in the name of securing political and social stability. (Youssef and Lafferty et al., 2013, pp. 960-962)

This revolution had a number of impacts on the political and economic dimensions of the Middle Eastern countries. Old leaders were replaced by the newer ones as a result of this revolutionary activity. Though it has created many adverse effects on tourism of the regions that were affected by it, it led towards the development of demographic dividend in the Arab Countries. In other words, due to the creation of demographic dividend it is estimated that the workforce will be more than the populace dependent on it. The Arab youth is modern and highly educated. Furthermore, it creates a bigger portion of the region's population; this might lead to it being an asset rather than a liability. The workforce would be larger and more skilled, resulting in speedy economic growth in the area. But a long-term effect of this demographic dividend would be that the elderly population will be more than the youth, causing reduction in the workforce. (Youssef and Lafferty et al., 2013, pp. 960-962)

The Arab Springs resulted in an overall decrease in the political stability of Middle Eastern countries, which, in turn, led to a drastic reduction in tourism of the region. In some countries, such as Egypt it dropped down by almost 80%. In Luxor, Egypt, which is also known as the Valley of the Kings, nineteen people died in an explosion in a hot air balloon. Also, an armed mob infiltrated into a hotel in central Cairo and the chefs and waiters had to fight them off with saucepans and other crockery. Such events had a far-reaching effect on tourism. (Youssef and Lafferty et al., 2013, pp. 960-962)

As tourism is an industry which flourishes in peaceful conditions, with stable political conditions and most of the countries in the Middle East rely mainly on tourism for their economic development. The spark created by the Arab Springs resulted in a steep reduction of the Gross Domestic Product of these countries. In some countries it reduced from 4.2% to 2.2% in just a few months. (Youssef and Lafferty et al., 2013, pp. 960-962)

In this study, we analyze some of the political and economic consequences of the Arab Spring and assess opportunities and challenges facing the affected countries. We focus on the Arab countries in North Africa (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco and Tunisia) and the Levant region (Lebanon, Jordan and Syria) as well as Yemen.

1.2. Problem Statement

The Arab spring led towards a sharp decline in the tourism and hospitality industries of the regions that were central to this revolution. A number of major tourism destinations including the region of Tunisia and Egypt witnessed a major decline in the number of visitors. This decline was triggered by the uprisings which were a part of the Arab spring. These uprisings, when confronted with the autocratic regime, turned out to be deadly and very hazardous for the growth of the tourism industry. (Sadiq, 2012, pp. 3-21)

The popular tourism destinations outside the Middle East and the gulf city state of Dubai became the center of attention for the tourist groups that were diverted from the tourist destinations of the Middle East due to the Arab Spring. It was indicated by Ahmed Youssef, who is the director of marketing and operations (MENA) at Amadeus that as a result of the Arab Spring the Middle Eastern and North African region saw an overall decline in the international arrivals. This decline was quite evident in the regions of Tunisia and Egypt. (Nyaruwata and Mhizha et al., 2013, pp. 43-56)

In addition to that, it has also been indicated by the World Tourism Organization that the arrivals of international tourist declined by almost 8.4 per cent and amounted to 54.8 million in the year 2011 in the Middle Eastern region. These arrivals, however, grew by almost 14.9% in the year 2010. (Nyaruwata and Mhizha et al., 2013, pp. 43-56)

Apart from that, it has also been indicated by the statistics of the World Tourism Organization that due to the developments in the political and social arenas Syria witnessed a decline of almost 41% in the tourism sector, whereas, the declined experienced by the tourism industry of Egypt was 32%. Furthermore, the tourism sector of Tunisia declined by 31% and that of Lebanon by 24%. (Nyaruwata and Mhizha et al., 2013, pp. 43-56)

This study, therefore, aims at analyzing the impacts on the tourism and hospitality industry of Middle East. The study will also propose recommendations to mitigate the negative impacts of Arab spring on the tourism and hospitality industry of the Middle East.

1.3. Research Questions

The research aims at addressing the following questions:

What are the impacts of Arab spring on the tourism and hospitality industry of Middle East?

How can the negative impacts of Arab spring on the tourism and hospitality industry of Middle East be mitigated?

1.4. Research Objectives

The research aims at addressing the following objectives:

To analyze the impacts of Arab spring on the tourism and hospitality industry of Middle East.

To analyze the manner in which the negative impacts of Arab spring on the hospitality and tourism industry of Middle East can be mitigated.

1.5. Research Structure

The research consists of five chapters, including the introductory chapter. The first chapter discusses the background of the research, research questions, research objects and the relevance of the study. The second chapter is of literature review. This chapter closely scrutinizes the existing literature in relation to the issue under consideration.

The third chapter is of research methodology. This chapter discusses the methods used for the collection, analysis and presentation of data. The fourth chapter, which is of discussion, discusses the collected data and ties it with the existing literature, which was discussed in the literature review chapter. The fifth chapter is of conclusion and it ties up all the research questions and propose recommendations to mitigate the negative impacts of the Arab spring.

1.6. Relevance of the Research

This study will prove out be significant for the investors and businesses that operate in the tourism industry. In addition to that, it would also provide relevant information to the academic institutions, business organizations and individual researchers, who aim at conducting research in the same area.


This section analyzes and critically examines the previous research that exists in relation to the issue under consideration.

2.1. Arab Spring

The Arab Spring was actually initiated in the middle of the winter of the year 2010. On 17th of December, in the year 2010, the cart of a vegetable seller, named Mohammed Bouazizi, was confiscated by a municipal inspector. This event occurred in Sidi Bouzid, which is provincial city of Tunisia. The reason behind the confiscation of the cart was that the vegetable seller did not possess a vending license. (Rosiny, 2012, pp. 1-8)

The inspector followed the usual routine, which indicated that in order to operate the vendor must have strong connections with influential political personalities or have enough money to bribe the authorities. Both these conditions were more vital than having a license, in order to operate. The appeals made by him were denied and ignored by the authorities. Mohammed Bouazizi reacted to this state of helplessness and humiliation in a desperate manner by going for self-immolation in front of a building that belonged to the local government. (Rosiny, 2012, pp. 1-8)

The elements that underlined and unified all the protests that were conducted under the Arab spring…[continue]

Cite This Research Paper:

"Tourism And Hospitality Industry In The Middle East" (2014, March 23) Retrieved December 10, 2016, from

"Tourism And Hospitality Industry In The Middle East" 23 March 2014. Web.10 December. 2016. <>

"Tourism And Hospitality Industry In The Middle East", 23 March 2014, Accessed.10 December. 2016,

Other Documents Pertaining To This Topic

  • Internationalization Within the Hospitality Industry

    The fastest growth registered among the top 20 markets came from: (1) China (+19%); (2) India (+18%); and (3) Spain (+10%). (American Hotel & Lodging Association, 2007) In the work entitled: "Hotels in China, India and Mexico are Capturing the Imagination and Resources of the Hotel Industry" it is stated: "Take a look at the headlines these days and you will realize that overseas expansion for the hotel industry is

  • Hotel and Hospitality Industry Catering

    Furthermore, Lebanon enjoyed a considerable increase (+26%) on the already positive trend experienced in 2003, despite a politically rocky patch following the assassination of former prime minister Rafiq Hariri. Minister of tourism, Joseph Sarkis, described the new Beirut government's commitment to "enhancing the promotion of tourism in different sectors and encouraging investments in the country, in order to make Lebanon a first-class tourism destination in the Middle East" (quoted in

  • Performance of the Middle East

    (Jabal Omar Development Corporation 2010) Kuwait Since 2008, the real estate market in Kuwait has been continually declining. The reason why is because the economy was largely depending upon oil revenues. However, in 2010 the sector began witnessing an increase in prices. This is because of the Kuwaiti government was aggressively promoting the tourism industry. As developers are expecting a strong increase in foreign direct investment, due to the governments push

  • Tourism and Its Current Trends

    " (Tourism Directory, 2009) This type of system would ensure that fair-trade claims are true when these types of claims are made. All areas of the world are not reporting positive trends in travel and tourism and one such location is the Caribbean due to a downturn in economics. The 2nd UNWTO Conference on Tourism Trends and Outlook for the Asia Pacific Tourism reports "difficult conditions as the global economy

  • Hospitality Management in the Church

    " (2000) The work of George Hermanson entitled: "Paradise and Hospitality" states that hospitality "...was crucial in the world of the Bible. In a desert environment - hot days, cold nights, where food and water are scarce, hospitality literally meant the difference between life and death. Even today among the Bedouin, offering hospitality to travelers is a requirement of tribal life. Our texts this morning illustrate the place and importance of

  • Tourism Demand

    Tourism Demand Research & Analysis International Tourism Demand Estimation Demand Theory Switzerland Tourism Attraction Sales Cambodia Tourism Attraction Sales Tourism & Employment Suggestions Tourism Demand Tourism may be defined as, "The sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from the interaction of tourists, business suppliers, host governments and host communities in the process of attracting and hosting these tourists and other visitors," (McIntosh and Goeldner, 1990, p. 4). From the above definition, it can be seen that the development of tourism

  • Popularity of Tourist Destinations Tourism

    Currency fluctuations tend to create instability and disrupt the planning activities of tourists. In times of an economic recession, there is normally a lot of fluctuation in the currencies. In the previous year, many currencies appreciated in value while some depreciated. The appreciation of Great Britain Pound and U.S. Dollar against currencies of other countries, such as third world countries, while the depreciation of the Pakistani Rupee, Indian Rupee

Read Full Research Paper
Copyright 2016 . All Rights Reserved