Extensive international travel even amidst the growing incidence of terrorism, accidents and disease give rise to various types of ethical concerns, which are normally not taken, into consideration by the present day tourism industry. The ethical concerns associated with travel involve health, safety and accessibility and also includes the detection of individual and institutional duties, informed sanction, eventuality preparation, disaster response mechanisms, fairness and unbiased treatment. The government agencies, professional associations and other such institutions have all strived to devise successful plans to address health safety and accessibility challenges cropping out due to the rapidly expanding international travel. The State Department of U.S., the Centers for Disease Control and the World Health Organization provides worthy resources in respect of public safety information; however, political considerations most of the times challenge accuracy and credibility. (Ethics Challenges: Health, Safety and Accessibility in International Travel and Tourism)
The Health and Safety guidelines, vulnerability evaluations and other ethical approaches assist the institutions and administrators to address the future challenges. However, the primary role for administrators at all stages has been to become more conscious of the concerns prevalent around the tourism industry. The public authorities both in U.S. And abroad are confronted with the ethical concern that they seldom acknowledge are the growth of international tourism. During 1998 about 600 million people traveled internationally and this is expected to rise to 1.6 billion by the end of 2020. Such extensive growth will entail immense pressure on governmental staff to adjust with an extensive range of health, security and accessibility concerns. The domestic as well as international tourism in most of the countries constitute a significant portion of their economies with pro-growth efforts anticipated to be safeguarded by both the public and private sector.
By the year 1985 U.S. had about 43 federal agencies associated with tourism. Extensive efforts are being made by every state and major cities with number of communities to promote economic growth through tourism. Moreover, tourism is one of the few public sector areas that have cut down on its employees. Public authorities are concerned with encouraging, managing, budgeting, assessing and administering tourist attraction as well as administering the process of licensing, taxing, and zoning by which tourism is improved and maintained. The growth of tourism and particularly its economic impacts in terms tax receipts made the public authorities to evaluate the industry in terms of its costs. They found the tourism sector to be deficient of political will and recommended contingency planning efforts to be necessary to prevent major problems. (Ethics Challenges: Health, Safety and Accessibility in International Travel and Tourism)
Sometimes it is found worthwhile to acquiesce to local demand even amidst the long-term threat to public interest and the cost-benefit analyzing tends to supersede the future threat by the present advantage. The economic and political significance of the tourism sector sometimes prioritizes a few economic interests and favors tourists at the cost of the citizens. To illustrate the tourist resorts lacking sufficient sewage facilities in the short run may safeguard the tourists from dysentery by providing bottled water. However, in the long run the local communities and villages are succumbed to polluted wells, unsafe beaches, and a declining performance of the local fishing industry. When the public sector strives to implement stringent standards in the planning spheres, its inspectors may be allured to belittle the threats and the benefits of economic development to be over emphasized. Even when a threat of major health danger prevails similar to the medical wasters of New Jersey beaches and even when disease and political instability appears to be threatening, sufficient steps are not taken so as to dissuade the inflow of the tourists. (Ethics Challenges: Health, Safety and Accessibility in International Travel and Tourism)
Tourism is commonly promoted as being beneficial for health and as a stress buster. In the process due regard is not normally accorded to ethical considerations. In some cases even prostitution is advertised in terms of 'a fresh peach on every beach', 'try a virgin ... Island' etc. Even children in some cases appears insufficiently protected from pedophiles B, some of whom really tour as groups in order to exploit children. These ethical problems pose serious concern in many nations; however, studies reveal that the low civil service salaries encourage bribery and made regulation of such activities difficult. The allotment of police and judicial service is another dimension of ethical problem. The affluent travelers are often accorded more safeguard than the non-tourists.
Some cities extend special patrolling in tourist belt. The state appears to prescribe harsh punishments for the crimes against tourists. This is seer violation of equity principle in judicial system. In some cases the particular vulnerability of tourists being unfamiliar with the destination, its language, signage, money, traffic patterns or customs etc. are emphasized. Enforcement official often resort to discriminatory treatment in favor of the tourists in order to protect tourism and keep tourists from being targeted since they are transients. This is in line with the principles of John Rawls on justice that indicate equal treatment, except in such cases where the most vulnerable would be able to take advantage from unequal dealings. (Ethics Challenges: Health, Safety and Accessibility in International Travel and Tourism)
Another ethical concern is related to both domestic and international dimensions. National, state and local officials are rarely seen to warn the in-bound tourists on health, safety and accessible concerns. Moreover, the tourist and non-tourist health and safety concern constitute another ethical concern. It is found to be unethical to reduce the health requirements globally, with a view to facilitating tourism at a time of enhanced vulnerability to infectious diseases. Even barring entrance of the visitors who are tested HIV positive are considered to be in violation of the WHO guidelines that necessitates minimum possible scrutiny of incoming tourists.
Accidents appear to be another major cause of injuries and fatalities for tourists. The canyoning deaths of 19 adventurers in Alps during July 1999 and the countless fatalities associated with commercialization of the Mt. Everest Treks have constituted additional ethical concerns that raise the adoption of more stringent control on popular but dangerous activities. Insufficient signage seems to be another important determinant of accidents. The World Travel Organization -- WTO has insisted the member nations to enhance international signage. However the application of international signage that communicates through pictures instead of particular language is more prevalent in Europe, Australia, and New Zealand however, more scarce in the United States. As a result foreign visitors are succumbed to more accidents in the U.S. than in the developing countries. (Ethics Challenges: Health, Safety and Accessibility in International Travel and Tourism)
The individual tourism is administered by consumer law and government policies; however, public educational institutions have some more ethical concerns related to their international student services and study abroad programs for their citizens. Such situations have only started to be dealt in very recently. The International educational travel is much emphasized in consideration to fact that the students being at the age of 18-22 years are considered at their prime time for risk taking behavior. They may be traveling to nations having unfamiliar laws and customs. The remarkable variations in sexual liberty are quite apparent through out the world. The possibility of running afoul to drug, alcoholism or other laws necessitated to be dealt with more vigorously since the laws vary widely in terms of stringency.
In consideration to the fact that international students bring financial and educational and cultural benefits the universities in most of the nations are progressively associated with the recruitment of such students. The international study opportunities are considered as a significant facet of the career of a student. The exchanges, study tours, international internships and community service projects abroad are certain ways by which various universities structure their college credit and travel -- which are more often instituted with established procedures and necessary supervision. The economic competition, recruitment and a common faith in the educational value of such scopes maintain the educators who are committed to their expansion. The United States is not the only nation addressing such concerns. In Australia, New Zealand and throughout Europe, the experience of student travel lies much ahead of the U.S. In most of such societies the vacations are seen to be longer and government policies seem to subsidize the travel of youth and workers. However, with regard to ethical and legal concerns of such travels has since been considered slow in comparison to the need of the time. (Ethics Challenges: Health, Safety and Accessibility in International Travel and Tourism)
The first ethical concern in this regard is quality control. The absence of a set of standards for a myriad of prevailing programs or set of requirements for the faculty leading tours is increasingly been felt. There is no mechanism to judge the growing number of inflow at the cost of sufficient preparations for those who travel internationally. There appears an absence of any screening mechanism other than the academic…