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P., Phillips, J.J., 2008, ROI fundamentals: why and when to measure ROI, John Wiley and Sons
6. Reliability and validity
The concepts of reliability and validity are often used as synonymous, yet there are some notable differences between the two terms. At a general level, reliability is understood as the ability of a person, system, group or another construction to function at the adequate parameters and to serve the purposes for which it was created. The concept of validity refers to the ability of a result, a statement, a finding or another such system to be realistic, well-founded, sound and trustworthy.
Within the statistical, research and science areas, the concepts of reliability and validity gain new relevance as it is crucial for the studies to be both reliable as well as valid. In other words, they have to be self-sustained and to generate sound and trustworthy results.
The constant characteristic of reliability is that of repeatability. In other words, a phenomenon is reliable if it is able to repeat. For instance, a measurement mechanism is reliable if it conducts correct measurements in various circumstances. If the measurement system cannot be reused, then it is not reliable. This virtually reveals that reliability is a construction of the quantitative methods.
Validity on the other hand represents the ability of the phenomenon to serve the needs for which it was initially intended. Emphasis is, for instance, placed on whether the answers offered to a questionnaire are truthful and able to test the research hypothesis. The validity of the project belongs more to the sphere of the qualitative methods (Newman and Benz, 1998). Ultimately, in order for a research project to be accepted, it has to be both reliable as well as valid (Trochim, 2006).
Newman, I., Benz, C.R., 1998, Qualitative-quantitative research methodology: exploring the interactive continuum, SIU Press
Trochim, W.M.K., 2006, Reliability and validity, Social Research Methods, http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/relandval.php last accessed on October 7, 2011
7. Personal learning style
My preferred learning style is the behavioral one, through which I engage in direct situations and learn from them. It is always more useful for me to experience a situation first hand and to learn the lessons directly. This way I get to understand the dimensions of the problem better then when someone else would be explaining them to me.
Cognitive learning is also useful and even necessary in some cases. To me, cognitive learning is useful in setting up some basis to a problem. It is like reviewing the theory. But it is insufficient on its own and, for a true lesson to be possessed, the cognitive learning stance has to be combined with the behavioral learning stance, in which I come to actually experience the learning process and the dimensions of the presented problem.
In other words, the non-preferred learning style is useful and some lessons can even be learnt with its use. However it is only efficient when used in combination with the preferred learning style. If cognitive style is used alone, the lessons are remembered only for a short period of time. When learning is possible through experiences as dictates the behavioral theory, the lessons are remembered for a longer period in time.
For myself then, the behavioral style is the one which helps me learn lessons in both personal as well as professional lives. Additionally, it is the one which helps me evolve as an individual; it helps me understand actions, reactions and consequences. And in this, the cognitive stance is a more salient one, supporting the learning process in an implied manner.
A sit-in is a peaceful form of protest in which the people militating for specific demands occupy the place in which they militate. If a sit-in is conducted at work, then the employees would not leave the place of employment until their demands are resolved, or at least until negotiations bring some resolutions (Blanchart and Thacker, 2009). A sit-down is a particular case of a sit-in, in which the people sit down on the space in which they protest, and also do not leave it until they feel that their demands are being addressed.
Sit-ins can be both successes, as well as failures, and the triumph of a sit-in depends on the combination of as many needs as possible. In other words, there are some conditions which have to be met in order for a sit-in to be effective, and the lines below reveal some of the more notable of these conditions:
The sit-in has to be a peaceful manifestation so that the people and institutions targeted do not feel ambushed, but understand that they deal with rational and logical persons, ready to talk through the problems (Miller, 2004). Also, if the sit-in becomes aggressive and violent, it could be ended by the police and then the demands would not be met.
Then, the sit-in has to be well organized. On a first note, this means that the sit-in has to be legally recognized and approved by the authorities. Then, the demands have to be clear and reasonable; the protesters must have an agenda for the demands, as well as an agenda for negotiations, including highly skilled and capable representatives.
The sit-in has to attract as many people as possible, as in these cases, power lies in the numbers and more people are more likely to draw more attention. It is as such necessary to promote the sit-in.
Blanchart, N.P., Thacker, J.W., 2009, Effective training: systems, strategies and practices, 4th edition, Prentice Hall
Miller, J., 2004, Sit-ins and freedom rides: the power of non-violent resistance, The Rosen Publishing Group
9. IM training program considerations
The IM training programs as often required, yet in order for them to be successful, they must also be selected and implemented in a manner in which they address the needs for which they are selected, as well as support the group or the individual in attaining their own objectives. With this realization in mind, the selection of the IM training program is recommended to consider the following aspects:
The actual need for the training program (Blanchart and Thacker, 2009)
The offer for the IM training services, referring specifically to the analysis of the providers of such services. At this level, it is necessary to select all potential purveyors and analyze them in terms of skills, capabilities, expertise, previous results and other relevant criteria
The comparative selection and analysis of the IM training programs providers. At this stage, it is specifically recommended to assess the identified providers against the needs of the group / individual as, well as assess the selected trainers against each other.
The ability of the selected trainers to not only provide IM training programs, but also their ability to provide specific IM training programs, as required by the group / individual. In other words, at this stage it is necessary to ensure that the trainer is able to identify the specific needs of the group served and to tailor their training programs onto the particularities of the served group / individual (Barnow, 2000).
Finally, it is important to request references and to verify the validity of the offers made by the training service providers.
Blanchart, N.P., Thacker, J.W., 2009, Effective training: systems, strategies and practices, 4th edition, Prentice Hall
Barnow, B.S., 2000, Improving the odds: increasing the effectiveness of publicly funded trading, The Urban Institute
10. Role play
Role play mechanisms are generally used in problem solving situations and they rely on the ideas of making people understand a different situation, as if they were experiencing that situation by themselves.
"Role play as a term describes a range of activities characterized by involving participants in 'as-if' or 'simulated' actions and circumstances. […] In brief, role play or simulation techniques are a way of deliberately constructing an approximation of aspects of a 'real life' episode or exercise, but under 'controlled' conditions where much of the episode is initiated and/or defined by the experimenter or therapist" (Yardley-Matwiejczuk, 1997).
A classification of the role play mechanisms is difficult to attain and the literary sources forward different opinions, nonetheless, the more common types of role play are the individual role playing exercises, the interactive role playing exercises, the skill-aimed role play exercises, the attitude-based role play exercises and the role plays to exercise self-talk.
The individual role play exercises are completed when the individual reflects on a situation by himself; the interactive role playing exercises occur when teams are involved and the common technique is that of brainstorming (Carleton University). Then, the skills-aimed role play is based on the acquisition of new skills and techniques, whereas the attitude-based role play is based on the understanding of the situation, the generation of new feelings and attitudes (Van Ments, 1999). Finally, the role play to exercise self-talking is based on the analysis of a situation which can be controlled by the individual; specifically, the individual will pause the experiment and out loud express what he feels…[continue]
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