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hen officers complete training, they are expected to explain the benefits of their learning, describe the purpose of learning, analyze ill-structured problems in order to determine if they are suitable for problem solving and to evaluate the need for "emotional intelligence" while working with their cohorts and members of the community.
6) hat issues should be included in basic recruit training? Has this changed in recent years, hy?
Police training has been transformed since the early 20th century, which was known for untrained officers who walked on foot throughout the community and knew each citizen. In those times, police had personal discretion and few supervisors to determine their actions and decisions. This historically led to corruption and allegations of corruption, which resulted in universal reforms in policing. The changes, however, brought in bureaucracy and legalistic structures that were almost too strict and limited officers' actions. Technology then placed officers into…
Baltimore County Police Department. in-Service Training Guidelines. Baltimore County, Maryland. 17 Dec 2004. http://www.baltimorecountymd.gov/Agencies/police/academy/guidelines.html .
Chappell, Allison T. Law Enforcement Training: Changes and Challenges. Critical Issues in Policing. 2004. www.clas.ufl.edu/users/chappell/alpert%20book%20chapter.pdf.
Coleman, John L. Police Assessment Testing: An Assessment Center Handbook for Law Enforcement Personnel. New York: Charles C. Thomas, 3rd Edition. 2002.
Herbert, Steve. "Morality in Law Enforcement: Chasing "Bad Guys" with the Los Angeles Police Department." Law and Society Review, Vol. 30, 799-829. 1996. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=97925886 .
and, so that brought in a whole new perspective. I had never realized the degree to which they were afraid of us and often feel as though - now the situation becomes very life threatening for them. Because often they don't know how to follow the protocol, how to properly respond to police officers. and, so it just supercharges the whole event."
The training] gave us an opportunity to ask questions and answers, but a lot of the questions and answers we were unable to ask before the training and that it was always: well, they do this or they do that and I know the community thinks well the officers do this and the officers do... so we had an opportunity to interact." think it's one of those things that's been welcomed. I hear nothing but positive things. There's a few little thing, little glitches, in any kind of…
Allen, J. & Brock, S.A. (2003). Health care communication using personality type: Patients are different! Hove, England: Routledge.
American Psychological Association. (2002). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Asendorpf, J.B. (1992). A Brunswikean approach to trait continuity: application to shyness. Journal of Personality, 60, 53-77.
Berscheid, E. (1994). Interpersonal relationships. Annual Review of Psychology, 45, 75-129.
Police eform in Post-Authoritarian Brazil
A majority of new democracies entail an unbelievable illogicality of an immensely feeble citizenship coalesced with a stern description of the constitutional guarantees. In order to explicate this disparity it would be prudent to contemplate the significance of political institutions regarding representation of citizen, which were prevalent subsequent to the military establishments attributed as troublesome and a majority of the new restrictions. A few defined in the autocratic establishment, were implemented by quite a few new establishments prominently by the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 (Pinheiro, 1996).
The prominence out of such institutions of Brazil were the excessive illustration of lesser populated regions on the contrary to the regions with greater population: Sao Paulo in recent times incorporates 60 Congressmen (which is analogous to 11.9% of the entire constituents of a Congress) depicting a voting strength of 20,774,991. This strength makes up 21.9% of the entire…
Amnesty International (2002). 'Subhuman': Torture, overcrowding and brutalization in Minas Gerais police stations. London, Amnesty International.
Bailey, Willian C. 1984. "Poverty, Inequality and City Homicides Rates." Criminology. Vol. 22. no0 4. November.
Beato F., C.C. Accion y Estrategia de las Organizaciones Policiales In: Policia, Sociedad y Estado: Modernizacion y Reforma Policial en America del Sul.1 ed.Santiago: Centro de Estudios del Desarrollo, 2001a, p. 39-56.
Beato F., Claudio Chaves, Renato Martins Assuncao, Braulio Figueiredo Alves da Silva, Frederico Couto Marinho, Ilka Afonso Reis, Maria Cristina de Mattos Almeida. 2001. "Conglomerados de homicidios e o trafico de drogas em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, de 1995 a 1999." Cadernos de Saude Publica. Rio de Janeiro: v.17, n.5, p.1163-1171, 2001b.
Police officers are authorized to use force when necessary, a policy that is generally used to protect innocent people from violence and abuse, and protect the general public from harm. However, the authorization to use force can be easily abused. Police abuse of power in the form of police brutality is an ethical problem because it constitutes abuse of power, and also leads to mistrust of law enforcement. Mistrust of law enforcement in turn undermines the authority and legitimacy of the police and prevents cooperative measures of stopping crime like community policing models. According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics (2015), 44 million people on average each year in the United States have some kind of face-to-face contact with police and of those 44 million, just under two percent experience use of threatening or nonfatal force. While this number may seem small, on the ground the high rate of police…
Policy Analysis Essay on Police Killings
The recent police killings and other forms of abuse of authority by law enforcers in the US reinforce the critical and long-demanded need for policy reforms in the nation, a need that has too frequently been disregarded. While some attempts, on the part of authorities, at dealing with these issues have enjoyed a certain degree of success, others have proven unsuccessful. The issue of poor law enforcement relations with communities and police abuse of authority continues to acutely plague several communities in the country. The incidents at Baltimore and Baton Rouge highlight the urgent need to tackle this problem. Though all cases (Ferguson, New York, Baltimore, Baton Rouge, and Minneapolis, to name a few) are unique, they are characterized by one highly disturbing similarity – implicit racial prejudice and unwarranted use of official force against Black Americans, especially male Black Americans. The incidents…
Based on the foregoing considerations, it is suggested that the DCMP restructure their existing training programs and administration so that a more unified and centralized plan is in place, as well as providing for better instructor qualifications, evaluation, learning retention and more efficient and effective use of resources which are by definition scarce.
These broad general issues were refined for the purposes of this study into the research questions stated below.
What is the background of the District of Columbia area policy and community relations since World War II?
What are some major problems preventing positive relations between communities and the District of Columbia Metropolitan area police?
Can training programs of the District of Columbia Metropolitan Police Department enhance community relations?
What training modules can be used to enhance relations between surrounding communities in the District of Columbia Metropolitan area law enforcement?
Significance of the Study
Aben, E.L. (2004, September 13) Local police institution cites linkages with foreign law enforcement agencies. Manila Bulletin, 3.
About OPC. (2008). District of Columbia Office of Police Complaints. [Online]. Available: http://occr.dc.gov/occr/cwp/view , a,3,q,495435,occrNav_GID,1469,occrNav,|31085|,.asp.
Bedi, K. & Agrawal, R.K. (2001). Transforming values through Vipassana for principle- centered living: Evidence from Delhi police personnel. Journal of Power and Ethics, 2(2), 103.
Billington, J. (2008, March 7). Officers get crash course. Tulsa World, 1, 3.
.....police brutality against people of color has a long history in the United States, the Rodney King incident and the media attention it received promised to alter policy and public discourse. Yet police brutality continues to be a problem and threatens to undermine civil rights in America. Police brutality against visible minorities also erodes public trust in the institution of the law and the system of law enforcement. Those effects are palpable not only at the community level but also at the individual level of perceptions of police, as one study shows a substantial number of Americans have evolved contempt for law enforcement, suspicion of law enforcement, or "perceive law enforcement as agents of brutality," (Chaney and Robertson 480). Community policing models cannot take root or hope to mitigate or reverse the effects of these results unless there is a nationwide policy change to law enforcement organizational culture and training.…
The Functions of Policing at the Local, State and Federal Levels
The functions of police work are highly complex and filled with myriad unpredictable challenges. Officers must place their safety and their lives at risk every day in the interests of maintaining order, protecting the pubic and apprehending law-breakers. The result is an occupation that is filled with stressors, pressures and dangers. One way that the structure of modern police-work helps officers to contend with these conditions is through the division of jurisdictions. American law enforcement is a sector comprised of many interdependent and overlapping agencies. And correspondent to the broader structure of American governance, this overlapping is somewhat hierarchical in nature, with jurisdictions generally determined by the unit of civil incorporation with which a precinct or department is affiliated. Therefore, at the local, state and federal level, responsibilities are generally divided among these different types of policing…
Gaines, L.K. & Kappeler, V.E. (2011). Policing in America. Elsevier.
Kappeler, V.E. & Gaines, L.K. (2009). Community Policing: A Contemporary Perspective. Elsevier.
Wright, A. (2002). Policing: An Introduction to Concepts and Practices. Taylor & Francis U.S..
The police adapting to rapid changes in technology is felt in two ways -- primarily in using the technology that comes with new inventions for the police like better weapons, communication networks and so on for which they have to be thoroughly trained. The specialist has also to be trained in many issues like cyber crimes, and use of sophisticated computers and machines for crime. Police with an up-to-date mass communication system can be easily mobilized and can have faster response to events. The negative aspects of technology cannot be wished away and there must be research done to overcome these defects in communication with the public and also reliance must be placed on more robust methods of data access.
Buzawa, Carl G; Buzawa, Eve S. (1992) "Domestic Violence: The Changing Criminal
Justice." Auburn House: Westport, CT.
Couldry, Nick; Mccarthy, Anna. (2004) "Mediaspace: Place, Scale, and Culture in…
Buzawa, Carl G; Buzawa, Eve S. (1992) "Domestic Violence: The Changing Criminal
Justice." Auburn House: Westport, CT.
Couldry, Nick; Mccarthy, Anna. (2004) "Mediaspace: Place, Scale, and Culture in a Media
Age." Routledge: New York.
Police, Terrorism, Ethics, And Corruption
The traditional mission of police forces in the United States is fighting criminality and upholding the law in the defined geographical area or boundary they belong to. This translates to the local police forces of towns, municipalities and cities engaging in policing activities in these respective areas. Outside of these boundaries, the state police forces have responsibilities and on the national level, the Federal ureau of Investigation (FI) has jurisdiction. Prior to the onset of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the American homeland, the mission and boundaries of the aforementioned police forces are clear and distinct. Immediately thereafter, there has been a tremendous paradigm shift in the mission of police forces in the United States because the growing threats of terrorism and terrorist activities have entered into the very heart of the nation. Even several years after the 9/11 attacks, terrorists have taken…
Caldero, M.A. & Crank, J.P. (2011). Police ethics: The corruption of noble cause. Burlington, MA: Anderson Publishing.
Terwilliger, G.J., Cooperstein, S.G., Blumenthal, D., & Parker, R. (2005, February 15). The war on terrorism: Law enforcement or national security? Retrieved April 27, 2011 from http://www.fed-soc.org/publications/detail/the-war-on-terrorism-law-enforcement-or-national-security
Just like every other institution in the country, American policing system went through a long period of evolution to finally achieve the shape that it has today. And similar to other laws and institutions in America, even police recruitment methods were heavily borrowed from Britain. In the 19th century or at least for most part of it, American police was shaped after the British policing laws (O'Keefe, 2004). However the one important difference lied in the separation of national and local police bodies. Since in most western countries, police was under the direct control of the national government, it was easier to manage them from one central location and their development was also almost simultaneous. However that was not the case in the United States where every county and state had its own local police department, which is why development of sporadic and departments were created at different…
1) Miller, Wilbur R. (1999) Cops and Bobbies: Police Authority in New York and London, 1830-1870. Columbus: Ohio State University Press.
2) Wadman, Robert C. And William Thomas Allison (2004) To Protect And Serve: A History Of Police In America. Upper Saddle River. New Jersey
3) James O'Keefe. (2004) Protecting the Republic: The education and training of American police officers. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Video cameras on police cars
Before the mounting of the in-car cameras for the police, there used t be several unresolved or wrongly resolved issues in the process of their duty. One advantage that came with the cameras is the possibility of verification of the racial profiling while doing their normal checks along the highways which was a major complain heard in courts across the U.S.A. In various cases in the courts, the defendants will try to skew facts in order to walk with crimes and this was a rampant happening especially in police arrest cases along the highway. With the recording of happenings between a person arrested and the police, the evidence stands out in the event the accused tries to twist facts. A clear instance is as depicted by ICAP Staff (2013);
"An officer was responding to a major incident requiring immediate police assistance. As he…
IACP Staff, (2013). The Impact of Video Evidence in Modern Policing. Retrieved October 8, 2013 from http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/Publications/video_evidence.pdf
Identify the different domains police psychologists work in, and discuss some of the roles psychologists might assume when working in different domains.
A police psychologist will work primarily in the assessment domain. In many instances, police officers must be properly screened and evaluated prior to duty. In other instances, officers will be evaluating during duty to proper access their ability to fully protect society. As such, psychologists have the primary function or determining the adequacy of a police officers skill set relative to predetermined metrics of success. Through periodic evaluation, the psychologist has the distinct role of assessing the skills and abilities of current and prospective police officers.
Psychologists also operate within the intervention domain. This domain is particularly important due to the nature of police officer work. Law enforcement officers are unique to many professions, as their job requires exposure to very contentious issues. Particularly troubling, is…
1) Kitaeff. JackHandbook of Police Psychology, 2011. Bookshelf. Web. 07 November 2013
2) Walker, Samuel (2005). The New World of Police Accountability. Sage. p. 5. ISBN 0-534-58158-7.
Describe the impact of Sir obert Peel on American policing
Sir obert Peel was not an American police officer, or an American politician. He served twice as the Prime Minister of Britain as a Tory, passing a series of significant laws. Part of Peel's concern was in the field of criminal justice and law enforcement. He helped pass major prison reform legislation and also established the first significant metropolitan police force in the United Kingdom. In transforming British police organizations and law enforcement, Peel helped to lay the foundation for the modern American police force and its underlying philosophy.
Peel developed a law enforcement philosophy that was based on involving community residents in the process of crime prevention. The modern concept of community policing is in part based on Sir Peel's original "nine principles," which were outlined in the 19th century. The first of Peel's nine principles is that…
Larrabee, A.K. (2007). Law enforcement: Sir Robert Peel's concept of community policing in today's society. Yahoo! Nov 8, 2007. Retrieved online: http://voices.yahoo.com/law-enforcement-sir-robert-peels-concept-community-638595.html
New Westminster Police Service (n.d.). Sir Robert Peel's Nine Principles. Retrieved onine: http://www.newwestpolice.org/peel.html
Sabath, D.O. (n.d.). The evolution of American policing. Retrieved online: http://www.aphf.org/hist.html
In addition we have made, and continue to make, efforts to employ people of all backgrounds for Jupiter's police force so that people of all backgrounds see people from their cultures in law enforcement.
People, no matter where they are from, tend to fear the unknown (Carter, 1995), so we feel that a policy of community policing -- getting the officers into the various neighborhoods of Jupiter in positive ways -- is important. One of the things we have done to accomplish that is to put our officers in the vicinity of school crosswalks when children are traveling to and from school. This allows them to interact positively with children from an early age as well as allow the parents to see police officers in their most important role -- protecting all of Jupiter's inhabitants. I hope these comments will put any concerns to rest.
Carter, Ronnie A. 1995.…
Carter, Ronnie A. 1995. "Improving minority relations." The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, December.
The author of this report has been asked to conduct two interviews of police officers with six basic questions being the crux of both interviews. To protect the anonymity of the officers as well as a way to get the most honest and complete answers, the identity of the officers as well as the departments they have or do work for will not be identified in any way, shape or form. The answers garnered were insightful, honest and illuminating. The perspective they offer is perhaps not nearly as known as it should be given the reporting going on as it relates to the incidents in Ferguson and other places where cops have been shot or allegedly unarmed and/or innocent people on the street have endured the same. While there are two sides to each story, both the police and the people have the right to have their voice…
Cooper, H. (2009, July 22). Obama Criticizes Arrest Of a Harvard Professor. The New
York Times. Retrieved September 30, 2014, from http://www.nytimes.com/2009/07/23/us/politics/23gates.html?_r=0
Reyes, D. (1994, November 2). Only One Drunk Driver in 500 Is Caught: Enforcement:
Even with tough Highway Patrol policy, probability of arrest in California is small.
Police Mentally Ill
Policing and Mentally Ill Individuals
There is a significantly higher proportion of mentally ill individuals in the criminal justice system than compared to the same proportion of the United States in the society in general. It is estimated that a mentally ill individual is about eight times more likely to enter into the criminal justice system than they are a mental hospital. These individuals, as the video and the interview illustrates, have special challenges that make them difficult to deal with. Often they hear voices and are paranoid schizophrenics that require a host of special medications to allow them the possibility of being stable. However, many of these individuals face specific challenges that make it difficult for them to access and maintain an effective treatment regimen. This paper will provide a brief overview of how this situation arose and what implications it has for modern police forces.…
CIT International. (N.d.). Mephis Model. Retrieved from CIT International: http://www.citinternational.org/training-overview/163-memphis-model.html
Conan, N. (2012, April 2). A Patient's Perspective: Police and the Mentally Ill. Retrieved from NPR: http://www.npr.org/2012/04/02/149857042/a-patients-perspective-police-and-the-mentally-ill
PBS. (2009, April 28). The Released. Retrieved from Frontline: http://video.pbs.org/video/1114528522/
Torrey, E.E., Geller, J., Stanley, J., & Jaffe, D. (N.d.). The Shortage of Public Hospital Beds for Mentally Ill Persons. The Treatment Advocacy Center, 1-17.
Patrol crafts would be deployed along the coastal areas waiting to act upon any information provided to confiscate drugs and arrest drug traffickers. For this purpose, the city police would be armoured with 2 well-equipped fast patrol crafts. Communication services between the stations and the patrol crafts would be state of the art including GPS systems and radar networks to facilitate identifying and tracking down of suspicious activity in the coastal waters. Further, the use of latest thermal imaging and laser optics tools would provide effective supervision at nights.
The police department has immense responsibility in maintaining law and order and providing safety and security would necessitate a strong police force based on a clear and sound organizational philosophy. As a coastal city with its growing population, the urban city of Metropolis is faced with numerous problems, in particular the high drug trade activity along the coastal regions. The…
NCWC, " Police in Society," Accessed 16th Apr 2007, Available online at, http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/205/205lects.htm
Author not Available, "Community Policing," Accessed 15th Apr 2007, available at http://law.jrank.org/pages/1648/Police-Community-Policing-Definition-community-policing.html
James T. Quinlivan, Burden of Victory: The Painful Arithmetic of Stability Operations, Available Online at, http://www.rand.org/publications/randreview/issues/summer2003/burden.html
City of Phoenix, 'Police Officer Processing Procedures', Accessed Apr 16th 2007, available at http://www.ci.phoenix.az.us/POLICE/pdjob3.html
Even landscape plantings and pavement designs can "develop a sense of territorial control while potential offenders, perceiving this control, are discouraged" (Otterstatter 2008).
A well-maintained area can create a sense that the potential criminal is being 'watched' and that the property is not friendly to criminal activity. Visible monitoring devices, such as 'blue lights' on college campuses, which enable people who are assaulted to quickly summon the police, and the presence of electronic visual monitoring devices in open areas and in public places such as shopping malls can also decrease crime. Even if officers can not be present at every lonely corner, or even if these devices cannot be monitored 24/7, the visual reminder that some form of watchfulness is likely can be a criminal deterrent. So can what CPTED criminologists call "natural access control," or "a design concept directed primarily at decreasing crime opportunity by denying access to crime…
O'Connor, T. (7 Aug 2007). "Informants, surveillance, and undercover operations."
MegaLinks in Criminal Justice. Retrieved 6 Jun 2008 at http://www.apsu.edu/oconnort/3220/3220lect02c.htm
Otterstatter, Robert (6 Jun 2008). "CPTED Crime Prevention." CPTED Watch
Retrieved 6 Jun 2008 at http://www.cpted-watch.com
P., Phillips, J.J., 2008, OI fundamentals: why and when to measure OI, John Wiley and Sons
6. eliability and validity
The concepts of reliability and validity are often used as synonymous, yet there are some notable differences between the two terms. At a general level, reliability is understood as the ability of a person, system, group or another construction to function at the adequate parameters and to serve the purposes for which it was created. The concept of validity refers to the ability of a result, a statement, a finding or another such system to be realistic, well-founded, sound and trustworthy.
Within the statistical, research and science areas, the concepts of reliability and validity gain new relevance as it is crucial for the studies to be both reliable as well as valid. In other words, they have to be self-sustained and to generate sound and trustworthy results.
The constant characteristic…
Andriessen, E., Importance of management development, Ed Andriessen, http://www.edandriessen.com/http:/edandriessen.com/2010/04/importance-of-management-development / last accessed on October 7, 2011
Blanchart, N.P., Thacker, J.W., 2009, Effective training: systems, strategies and practices, 4th edition, Prentice Hall
Sheriffs usually have smaller staffs, and so they may have more duties and responsibilities than a police chief, who has a larger staff to handle some of his or her responsibilities, such as training or PR.
Often, sheriffs are responsible for county jails, which take in prisoners and suspects from the surrounding area, and transfer them to county courts when the time for trial comes. The sheriff is responsible for his officers and their patrols, which may entail covering outlying areas that are farther away from the main station. Sheriff's officers are called deputies. Many sheriffs' departments have disappeared as state and county police take over the duties of sheriffs.
If the sheriff is responsible for the county jail, he or she is also responsible for providing officers to transport prisoners, guard the county courts, and serving warrants and other legal documents. Usually, the sheriff and city police do not…
However, in certain instances, the element of fear in a policeman cannot justify the use of lethal force. This restraint, according to the Federal Bureau of investigation, is highly advocated for since deadly force is unlawful and can be mostly be used against a law enforcement officer. Areas of shoot out in schools and traffic and in states or cities, where the populous if high highly exempt the use of deadly force. In these situations, there is usually a dynamic interaction of the police, suspects or confirmed criminals and the public. This is the deadly mix concept that provides rational insights on the restraint of lethal force by the police. By so doing, the police adhere to the law enforcement training offered to them, which invokes their perception towards the use-of-force situations in handling offenders. Whether, during the on-duty or off-duty performances, the restrain upon the use of lethal force…
Pinizzotto, a.J., Davis, E.F., Bohrer, S. B and Infanti, B.J. (2012). Restraint in the Use of Deadly Force. [Online] Retrieved from URL
These people often lack familiarity with public safety operations. Campus chiefs of police and directors of security are often challenged by the opposing interests of their chief executive officers. Informing campus leaders about importance of public safety is vital to its success. Nonetheless, time constraints and other challenges and priorities imposed on these leaders make it difficult for them to devote any time to security and safety matters before the problems arise (National Summit of Campus Public Safety, 2005).
The look and feel of security on college and university campuses has changed dramatically since September 11th. Colleges and universities have implemented the following:
- updated their campus emergency management plans to include response protocols for an active shooter on campus, bomb threat, evacuation, lockdown and other high probability incidents that might occur.
- registered their campus emergency management plans with their local municipal police departments and county offices of emergency…
Canas, Richard. (2008). Retrieved May 7, 2009, from The New York Times Web site:
National Summit of Campus Public Safety. (2005). Retrieved May 7, 2009, from U.S.
Department of Justice Web site:
The importance of ritual objects to the Shaolin is shown in how they react to the supernatural appearance of an incense burner. hen the survivors of the massacre woke up the next day, they saw on the surface of the water a white incense burner made of greenstone, which had two ears and three feet and weighed 52 "catties, thirteen ounces"; on the bottom of the incense burner, the four words Fan-Qing fu-Ming had been inscribed. The brothers immediately secured the incense burner and placed it in the third field in front of the temple gate (Baoqi & Murray 206). In this regard, the Shaolin monks of the day embraced the popular belief that Heaven could manifest its support of claimants to the Chinese throne or of founders of religious cults through the bestowal of precious objects, such as these incense burners, swords, or books. "The incense burner, as it…
Anderson, Mary M.
Hidden Power: The Palace Eunuchs of Imperial China. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1990.
Baoqi, Qin and Dian H. Murray. The Origins of the Tiandihui: The Chinese Triads in Legend and History. Stanford, CA: Stanford University, 1994.
Campany, Robert Ford. (October-December 2001). The Eminent Monk (Book review). Journal of the American Oriental Society, 121(4):656.
Indeed, even the most outspoken critics of law enforcement will likely be the first to dial "9-1-1" when their homes are being burglarized or members of their families are being attacked, but the fact remains that many police department remain primarily white and male in composition. The impetus for effecting substantive changes in the composition of the nation's police forces will therefore need to be mandated in order for things to change in any meaningful way. The desirability of developing a more diverse police force that reflects the demographic composition of the larger communities they serve has been recognized as an important element in this regard. For instance, as Hood, othstein and Baldwin (2004) emphasize, "Any geographically extended political system can set standards from the center, but diversity in law enforcement is often seen as both necessary and desirable" (p. 175). Although it may be necessary and desirable, there are…
Barlow, David E. And Melissa Hickman Barlow. 1999. "Cultural Diversity Training in Criminal Justice: A Progressive or Conservative Reform?" Social Justice 20(3-4): 69-70.
Bedi, K. And R.K. Agrawal. 2001. "Transforming values for principle-centered living: Evidence from Delhi police personnel." Journal of Power and Ethics 2(2): 103.
Broadnax, Walter D. 2000. Diversity and Affirmative Action in Public Service. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Culver, Leigh. 2004. Adapting Police Services to New Immigration. New York: LFB Scholarly Publishing.
Law Enforcement Practice, Procedure, Training, and Administration Standards:
Local police departments range in size from those employing fewer than ten officers to those employing over 30,000 officers, as in the case of New York City's
NYPD, the largest local police agency in the country. With absolutely no existing national standardization for police training, state and local police department training ranges from six-month long, live-in police academies such as those of the largest state police agencies and much smaller, independent local police academies with much shorter training programs. At some of the smallest local sheriff departments, officers may still be sworn into their positions by direct Sheriff's appointment, without prior training of any kind. In between those two extremes, police training and certification in different states range from four-week long, self-sponsored community college certification programs to independently run police academy training programs run by municipal police departments themselves.
Just as pre-employment…
Chase, H.W. And Ducat, C.R. (1978) Corwin's the Constitution and What it
Means Today. Princeton: Princeton University Press
German, M. (3/6/05) an FBI Insider's Guide to the 9/11 Commission
Report GlobalSecurity.org; Retrieved February 26, 2007, at http://www.globalsecurity.org/security/library/report/2005/guide-iii.htm
It is however also a challenge that cannot be ignored in the light of not only cultural change, but also political issues. Establishing trust within the police department itself, as well as between the police and its public is vitally important for current and future security issues.
With the targeted psychological support and counseling for all police officers, as well as a restructured reward and promotion program, I believe it is possible to encourage and effectively recruit all sectors of society to this profession. It is clear that there is no lack of talent, power or skill, but that problems occur mainly as a result of social and cultural values amongst existing police officers. The police force would however be more effective if it were more representative of the society of the 21st century. False beliefs regarding racial minorities or women no longer have a place in the United States.…
Bouza, Chief Anthony V. The Police Mystique: An insider's look at cops, crime and the criminal justice system. New York: Plenum Press, 1990.
Couper, David C. "Seven seeds for policing." In the FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, March 1994.
Polombo, Bernadette Jones (Assisted by Nancy Demarais). "Attitudes, training, performance and retention of female and minority police officers." In Diversity, Affirmative Action and Law Enforcement edited by George T. Felkenes and Peter Charles Unsinger. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas, 1992.
Trostle, Lawrence C. "Recruitment, hiring, and promotion of women and racial minorities in law enforcement." In Diversity, Affirmative Action and Law Enforcement edited by George T. Felkenes and Peter Charles Unsinger. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas, 1992.
11. What is community policing? How does it differ from traditional policing?
Community policing emphasizes positive situational contacts between police personnel and the general public and de-emphasizes enforcement-based approaches to policing. It differs from traditional policing mainly in that it is a means of reducing crime through enhanced public involvement in communities and in that it strongly promotes the initiation of police-civilian contacts outside of the enforcement realm (Caruso & Nirode, 2001).
12. What is the nature of the drug problem in the United States? Is today's drug problem any different or worse than the drug problem in the past?
The most important drug problem today is the questionable value of criminalizing private recreational drug use, particularly in relation to marijuana, which cannot be justified or logically distinguished from the permissive approach to cigarette and alcohol consumption. Evidence from Europe suggests that even enforcement of criminal laws prohibiting the use…
Schmalleger F. (2008). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st
Century. Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Ethics in Law Enforcement
"Sometimes [police officers] may, and sometimes may not, lie when conducting custodial interrogations. Investigative and interrogatory lying are each justified on utilitarian crime control grounds. Police are never supposed to lie as witnesses in the courtroom, although they may lie for utilitarian reasons similar to those permitting deception & #8230;" (Skolnick, et al., 1992)
Is it ethical for law enforcement officers to use deception during the interrogation process? It appears that when officers are attempting to extract a confession from a suspect, deception is, in many cases, commonly applied strategy. Does a code of ethics conflict with the way in which law enforcement conducts its interviews and interrogations? hat do the courts say about deceptive interrogation tactics? These issues will be reviewed in this paper.
Deception in the Interrogation Room
Is it ethical to lie to obtain the truth? No. Do the ends justify the means?…
Braswell, Michael C. (2011). Justice, Crime, and Ethics. Maryland Heights, MO: Elsevier.
Leo, Richard A. (2009). Police Interrogation and American Justice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard
McMullen, Patrick M. (2005). Questioning the Questions: The Impermissibility of Police
Deception in Interrogations of Juveniles. Northwestern University Law Review, 99(2),
In this regard, the law enforcement community has begun implementing scenario-based strategic planning in the nature of that used by American military strategists since the Cold War. Interagency strategic planning now includes scenario-based training wherein the specific components of local, state, and federal agencies charged with responding to critical incidents participate in joint exercises simulating the foreseeable demands for their joint services (Koestner 2006).
Benefits and Potential Difficulties:
Scenario-based tactical training in law enforcement has undoubtedly improved the safety of officers, subjects, and victims at crime scenes by conditioning officers to respond reflexively after hours of repetitive simulated tactical exposure (Lynch 2005). In the case of strategic planning, operational synchronicity and resource implementation are the goals rather than reflexive individual responses, but, the benefit is analogous. In much the same way that scenario-based tactical training ensures the desired application of force on the force continuum authorized for use by police…
Carlson, Joel, a. Demands on Police Services in a WMD Incident; FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, Vol. 77 No. 3, (Mar/08), pp. 1-6.
Lynch, Michael, D. Developing a Scenario-Based Training Programs: Giving Officers a Tactical Advantage; FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, Vol. 74 No. 10, (May/05), pp. 1-8.
Koestner, Lesley, G. Law Enforcement Online: Facing the Challenges of Katrina; FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, Vol. 75 No. 2, (Feb/06), pp. 1-6.
Secondly, that a positive correlation exists between the instruments CNSVS and the PMC-Q and therefore improve road craft awareness. The alternative null research hypotheses are that: Firstly the intervention program did not produce any significant difference in the concentration levels of Police motorbike riders, and secondly that no positive correlation exists between the instruments CNSVS and the PMC-Q. Therefore there is credence to suggest that a program of cognitive training should be implemented to improve the Police motorbike riders' concentration levels.
As this study is a pioneering study there is a great importance placed upon conducting a pilot study prior to the main study. Thomas & Nelson (2001) report that 75% of research papers are not publishable and make no contribution to theory or practice because of crucial methodological blemishes that could have easily been eradicated if a pilot study had been conducted first. A pilot study helps to develop…
Saving private and professional motorcyclists, (2004). Department for Transport. Retrieved February 2, 2005 from www.dft.gov.uk/stellent/groups/dft_about/documents/pdf/dft_about_pdf_030423.pdf
Class One Advanced Training, 2002. Retrieved February 2, 2005 at http://www.class1motorcycletraining.com/policetraining.htm
THINK! - motorcycle safety campaign: leisure riders. Retrieved February 2, 2005 at http://www.thinkroadsafety.gov.uk/campaigns/motorcycles/motorcycles03.htm
The Selection Process for Aspirant State Police Officers
Becoming a police officer at the state level requires dedication, courage and tenacity. Indeed, the process for state officers can often be more streamlined, bureaucratic and selective than that engaged at the municipal or local levels. Therefore, becoming a State Trooper will call for a commitment to the recruitment, preparation, testing, and training processes that are streamlined and specific to each state. As the discussion here shows, there are a number of eligibility requirements, guidelines and expectations which can help the aspirant officer navigate the process.
According to the Law Enforcement Preparation Center (LEPC), the process of being hired into a department as a state level officer can actually take up to 9 months. This is because of the lengthy testing, monitoring and training periods which follow the acceptance of the candidate's application. According to the LEPC, "the requirements to…
Indiana State Police (ISP). (2009). State Troopers. In.gov.
Law Enforcement Preparation Center (LEPC). (2010). How To Become a Police Officer in Your State. Passthepolicetest.com.
Learning Express Editors (LEE). (2010). Becoming a Police Officer: The Selection Process. Education.com.
Law enforcement has a distinct professional culture that is comprised of both formal and informal elements. Formal elements are ensconced in rules and regulations. For example, training, hours of work, how to fill out paperwork, and wearing a uniform according to an individual’s status in the organization are formal elements of the culture. Informal elements are unspoken, including norms of behavior and the jargon used between officers. For example, informal cultural norms are what have a direct bearing on “how to go about their tasks, how hard to work, what kinds of relationships to have with their fellow officers and other categories of people with whom they interact, and how they should feel about police administrators,” (“The Police Culture,” p. 98). Both formal and informal culture impacts productivity, identity, and performance.
Language and Behaviors
One of the defining features of a culture is language. In the professional sectors, jargon…
Lessons of Police Force
A History of the United States Police Force
The story of the American experience is one of principled laws that reflect the values of our society. Laws establish the boundaries of permissible conduct that guides particular aspects of interactions between individuals. hile the military is generally tasked with countering large scale and organized external threats, the modern police force accomplishes the bulk of maintaining order and security at the local level.
The history of the police force demonstrates three primary themes illustrating that its duties are both reactive and proactive, the size and scope of the organization is an adaptation of the local community, and the unique role in upholding justice entails a greater expectation of virtuous conduct. Recognizing the themes that characterize the history of the police force demonstrate that the future will encompass change, yet the guiding principles of the past enhance us with…
Walker, S., & Katz, C.M. (2008). The Police in America: An Introduction (6th Edition). New York, New York: McGraw-HIll.
Answers.com. (2012). Who said that with great power comes great responsibility? Read more:
Militarization of Police
The 21st century has provided in a very short time, major changes to the way society interacts and operates. Governmental structures and institutional principles have also greatly swayed in recent decades. It is apparent that the world is drastically changing and evolving into a new form of culture and society that presents many problems and issues, especially in cases of the law and law enforcement.
The law is changing rapidly and the requirements that are placed on law enforcement professionals in this extremely turbulent time in history have grown and expanded to many different areas of responsibility. Terrorisms and the threat of massive societal upheaval are potential threats to the current and accepted way of life and the burden to protect society from these threats often falls I the hands of law enforcement professionals.
The purpose of this essay is to explain the gradual and sustained militarization…
Baker, A. (2011). When the Police Go Military. The New York Times, 3 Dec 2011. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/12/04/sunday-review/have-american-police-become-militarized.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0
Balko, R. (2013). Too Many Cops Are Told They're Soldiers Fighting a War. How Did We Get Here? ACLU, 9 July 2013. Retrieved from https://www.aclu.org/blog/criminal-law-reform-free-speech-technology-and-liberty/too-many-cops-are-told-theyre-soldiers
Bernick, E. (2013). It's Past Time to Scaled Back Police Militarization. The Washington Times, 18 Sep 2013. Retrieved from http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2013/sep/18/bernick-its-past-time-to-scale-back-police-militar/
Clark, J.P. (1972). The functions of the police in modern society. Contemporary Sociology, 1(3), 243 -- 244.
Answer the following questions for each video in paragraph form. Also for each video, provide a thought provoking question of your own for discussion and attempt to provide a response to it.
Video one: Bill of Rights Overview
Which amendment do YOU value most?
I consider Amendment I the most crucial aspect of the Constitution's Bill of Rights.
Amendment I safeguards the five most fundamental freedoms: speech, religion, assembly, press and the right of petitioning governmental bodies for righting any wrongs. The above safeguards were missed most by Antifederalists within the novel Constitution (Feinberg, 1987).
Is our justice system better or worse than other systems around the world today?
Accessible reports and scholarly works reveal that the American justice system is neither the most effective nor the most unsuccessful justice system of all. Some nations (e.g., Scandinavian nations) enjoy a more superior system while others (e.g., Middle Eastern…
The following chart illustrates the orientation and where the dog's social, sexual and micturition behaviors should be oriented.
Source: Tieken (1999)
The appropriate socialization of the dog is also important. Guidelines for socialization of the dog is shown for the age appropriate socialization in the following table.
Dog needs nurturing from the dam and to be protected from environmental extremes.
Some human contact is advisable
Continue nurturing, but allow some mild stress such as cold or short-term social isolation. Also increase human contact with some interaction. Studies have revealed that pups that experience mild stress grow up to handle stress better than littermates who were protected from all stress.
This is a fear imprinting period. Avoid negative forceful reinforcements; minimize all stress; be careful to avoid threatening situations (e.g., close proximity to large strange dogs, manwork,…
Hubble, Bert (nd) a Brief History of War Dogs in the U.S. Military: A Historical Perspective. 47th Scout Dog Platoon. Online available at http://www.47ipsd.us/47k9hist.htm
K-9 History: The Dogs of War!
History of Police Dogs (2007) K9 Global Training Academy Working Dogs. Online available at http://www.k9gta.com/History-of-Police-Dogs.html
In addition, today's police officer faces different challenges from police officers of even two decades ago. One of these 21st century problems facing law enforcement is terrorism. Almost every community across the nation has some building or government location that could be considered a target of terrorism, and large metropolitan areas have many of these targets within their boundaries. Because of this, police models may have to change to be more involved in preventing terrorism from occurring, rather than responding once a terrorist act has been committed. Community policing can aid in this by allowing community police officers to become familiar with their neighborhoods and citizens, and knowing exactly what targets lay in their area. To create better police officers, training in terrorism and how to recognize typical terrorism suspects must be stepped up and addressed in all communities.
Perhaps the biggest challenge facing many officers is the use of…
Bucqueroux, B. (2007). Community criminal justice: What community policing teaches. Retrieved from the Policing.com Web site: http://www.policing.com/articles/ccj.html26 March 2007.
Gianakis, G.A., & Davis, G.J. (1998). Reinventing or repackaging public services? The case of community-oriented policing. Public Administration Review, 58(6), 485.
Glenn, R.W., Panitch, B.R., Barnes-Proby, D., Williams, E., Christian, J., Lewis, M.W., et al. (2003). Training the 21st century police officer: Redefining police professionalism for the Los Angeles Police Department / . Santa Monica, CA: Rand.
Leuci, R. (1999). 13 the enemies within: Reflections on institutionalized corruption. In Police and policing: Contemporary issues, Kenney, D.J. & McNamara, R.P. (Eds.) (2nd ed., pp. 216-219). Westport, CT: Praeger.
Bell was unarmed, yet the officers fired more than 50 shots into his car" (2007, p. 46). Following a grand jury investigation of the incident, three of the five detectives who were involved were charged for the shooting (Mayer, 2007). ccording to Mayer, "The incident is reminiscent of a similar situation in New York in 1999, in which a West frican street vendor, madou Diallo, was killed when police shot at him 41 times. Diallo was also unarmed" (2007, p. 46). The fact that these events occurred almost a decade apart and were unrelated was not the primary focus of the media coverage that attended them, and it is reasonable to assume that sensationalized media coverage of these and other instances of police brutality simply reinforce the perception in the minds of the merican public that the police are out of control.
ll of this is not to say, of…
All of this is not to say, of course, that police officers never engage in acts of brutality and the use of excessive force, but it is to say that little attention is paid to the millions of police-citizen encounters that take place every year in the United States where law enforcement authorities would be justified in using force -- even deadly force -- but refrain from doing so at their own personal risk based on their high regard for citizens' rights and the sanctity of human life. This precise point is made by Elicker (2008) who emphasizes that the statistics bear out just how restrained the police departments across the country are in their use of force at all. According to Elicker, "Despite the way mass media presents the subject of police brutality, the occurrences of police use of force cases are not all that common" (2008, p. 33).
Citing the results of a 1999 study sponsored by the United States Department of Justice based on the statistics from more than seven thousand arrests made by six different law enforcement agencies in urban settings wherein statistics had been collected concerning the use of force by and against police officers, Elicker reports that, "There were only 52 cases (or .07%) where police officers used weapons in the arrest. The use of weapons includes stick, knife, handgun, chemical agent, rifle/shotgun, motor vehicle, canine, and other" (2008, p. 34). The results of the Department of Justice study also showed that police officers used one or a combination of weaponless tactics to effect the arrest in 15.8% of the cases (Elicker, 2008). According to Elicker, "Weaponless tactics include grabbing, arm twisting, wrestling, pushing/shoving, hitting, kicking, biting/scratching, use of pressure hold, carotid hold, control hold, and other tactics. Grabbing was, by a vast margin, the most used weaponless tactic (12.7% or 954 cases), followed by arm twisting (3.7% or 281 cases), and wrestling (3.1% or 233 cases)" (2008, p. 34).
While some observers might suggest that there is no place in modern law enforcement for "biting/scratching" or the other weaponless tactics used by the police in the Department of Justice study, the fact that they were used at all when other, more harmful methods were readily available makes it clear that even when their lives are on the line, police officers can and do resort to using their training and discipline rather than simply pulling out a gun and shooting a criminal suspect. In this regard, Elicker concludes that, "To some, these statistics could be shocking. They
police forces are run, and Thibault et al. take examine some of the important issues that have prompted these changes. Their work on police management, and the research that they have pursued on the ways in which police departments are constituted, have helped to created the kinds of community-based, progressive forms of policing that are becoming more and more widely used - even if they are still in the minority overall in this country.
In the preface to their work, the authors argue for three elements to be included in every progressive police department:
First, we believe that sound management is management based on a combination of theory and practice. Practice without analysis will cause us to repeat the mistakes of history, so our theoretical analysis must be directed toward the practical for implementation into the day-to-day rigors of operating a police department.
Second, we reject complete adherence to the…
Block, R. (1971). "Fear of Crime and Fear of the Police." Social Problems 19: 91-100.
Davis, M. (1998). Community policing: How to get started. Denver: Anderson Publishing.
Harris, D. (1997). "Driving While Black' and All Other Offenses: The Supreme Court and Pretextual Traffic Stops." Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 87: 544-582.
Thibault, E., Lynch, L. & McBride, B. (2000). Proactive Police Management. (5th ed.). New York: Prentice Hall.
Recent fatal attacks by police against unarmed citizens -- in particular African-American males -- have been portrayed as insensitive, illegal, and unnecessary violence by cable news programs over the past few years. And those televised reports (shown over and over) have caused angry citizens to participate in large demonstrations in American city streets. Fairly or unfairly, these incidents have caused citizens to turn against police departments -- albeit most police departments do not train their officers to shoot unarmed suspects. Because everyone with a smart phone can take video of police actions, and share videos with news organizations, this has become a negative for law enforcement. In response to these incidents, some police departments are offering rewards to officers that show restraint in the line of duty. This paper presents examples of those strategies by police departments.
The Philadelphia & Los Angeles Police Departments
In Philadelphia, the police department rewards…
Other ranks have their areas of responsibility and control covering a geographic area, a detective division, or a specialized division (Sworn Police Officer Class Titles and Job Descriptions, 2006).
The internal structure of the two departments is not that different, while the areas covered and the number of officers in each department varies greatly. The LAPD covers more territory and does so with a smaller force, also relying more on the patrol car than the officer on a beat than is true in London (or in many other American cities, for that matter). The LAPD has also been characterized as a more paramilitary organization than many police departments, and this would mean more than the Metropolitan Police as well. Of course, another major difference generally known is that the police in London do not carry guns as a rule (except under special circumstances), while the Los Angeles police do carry…
Making the LAPD a Model for Training Police Officers in the 21st Century (2003). RAND Research Brief, retrieved November 19, 2006 at http://www.rand.org/pubs/research_briefs/RB6015/index1.html .
Structure of Policing in London (2006). Metropolitan Police, retrieved November 19, 2006 at http://www.met.police.uk/about/organisation.htm .
Sworn Police Officer Class Titles and Job Descriptions (2006). The Los Angeles Police Department, retrieved November 19, 2006 at http://www.lapdonline.org/join_the_team/content_basic_view/9127 .
Subsequently, the primary focus of this editorial is to urge Police Magazine, individual law enforcement offices across the country, as well as law enforcement officers themselves, to implement these type of measures (which allowed for such a coordinated response from these disparate entities) across the country. The benefits of implementing programs such as the Metropolitan Medical Response System in cities and states throughout the U.S. would certainly be manifold, as it would dramatically assist in the work efforts of the aforementioned departments were they previously familiarized with working together in the face of adversity.
I do realize, of course, that the coordination of this type of municipal cooperation would require a substantial amount of training for the various employees involved, which would ideally be an addition to the training necessary for the respective jobs in these organizations. I am also aware that such organization would require a significant amount of…
1. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory states that every individual has different levels of needs that must be met for them to reach their ultimate potential. The basic level includes the necessities of life, such as food, clothing, and shelter, while the more advanced levels require such things as positive social relationships and self-esteem. An officers job can be difficult, especially over a number of years. The reality that most officers eventually face is how to deal with stress and staying motivated. Applying Maslow's model can be beneficial to ensure that as many officers needs are as possible so that they can be resilient in their roles and maintain a positive attitude.
2. Herzberg's Hygiene/Motivators Theory
The hygiene/motivators theory considers satisfaction on two different dimensions. Factors such as salary, benefits, work environment, and others may lead to a satisfied officer who is not necessarily a…
police and law enforcement officers have more or less discretion? Why? Give an example of a specific discretionary power in your answer. What parameters may be used to set the limits to discretion, apart from the provisions of applicable laws? Consider the role of ethics in society and discuss how those ethics are funneled to policing and law enforcement. What impact do varying ethical norms of the increasingly diverse American society have on policing? As the police force itself becomes more diverse, would we see different police responses to similar situations?
Although the Fourth Amendment protects against unreasonable searches and seizures, the police have considerable latitude in determining what constitutes probable cause. In general, "courts ordinarily suppress evidence obtained during an unreasonable search or seizure and offered against the accused" and a warrant must be obtained (Fourth Amendment, 2013, Cornell University Law School). However, exceptions to the Fourth Amendment include…
The data compiled pointed to some interesting conclusions, and they were not what many people would imagine causes police stops. This is not what most readers would expect, and it seems that while racial profiling may take place initially, it is not always the final aspect of behavior that causes an office to actually pull over a car or confront a citizen. The authors concede there are many variables in their research, and that they do not "address the question of police fairness" (Alpert, Macdonald and Dunham 427). Their data was presented completely and in detail, and was still easy enough to understand that most laymen would understand the issue and the results.
The value of this paper was twofold. The data the authors finally compiled was quite useful in really understanding just what causes an officer to find something unusual - unusual enough to make a stop or confront…
Alpert, Geoffrey P., Macdonald, John M. And Dunham, Roger G. "Police Suspicion and Discretionary Decision Making During Citizen Stops." Criminology, Vol. 42, Number 2, May 2005. 407-page numbers
role of police in the society. The purpose of the paper is to discuss and elaorate the relative functions, which the police officers have to perform in the country for the protection of the citizens from the criminals, and injustices, which have een made to them.
"For the first time in decades, a consensus egan to emerge in the 1990s aout which duties and responsiilities should e included in the police role. Also for the first time, Americans egan to confront the complexities of police work and the conflicting demands eing placed on officers."
The Role of Police in American Society: A Documentary History
Book y Cynthia Morris, Bryan Vila; Greenwood Press, 1999
The American government and its authorities have made certain standards and the individual are selected on the asis of these standards. The government authorities want their police officers to e strong enough so that they…
bibliography because it is an effective and evident source of information.
Stress in Law Enforcement
Stress and Law Enforcement
Professionals of law enforcements are responsible for some crucial and informative decision-making in their offices and fields which requires a standard operating procedures or codes to find the solutions of many issues. This procedure may look simple at first glance, but it can easily build up stress due to unpredictable situations and add up of infinite variables of the general public. Law enforcement officials have been expected to sustain discipline and remain neutral during the attempt of solving disputes safely. Physical and mental stress takes toll when professionals are observed by public and constantly stay under surveillance. Physical danger linked with work performance is the highest stress triggered (Bennett and Hess, 2007).
There are many forms of stress which vary according to the sources and the personal responses linked with it. Stress is usually categorized as acute and chronic stress and further…
Bennett, W.W., & Hess, K.M. (2007). Management and Supervision in Law Enforcement. Belmont: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
Jackson, E. (2006). Workplace Stress: What's Causing it and What Can Be Done? Retrieved from Australian Psychological Society: http://www.psychology.org.au/publications/inpsych/stress_work/
Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. (2013). Stress Management. Retrieved from MayoClinic.com: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/stress-symptoms/SR00008_D
Sewell, J.D. (2000). Identifying and Mitigating Workplace Stress Among Forensic Laboratory Managers. Retrieved from The Federal Bureau of Investigation: http://www.fbi.gov /about-us/lab/forensic-science-communications/fsc/april2000/index.htm/sewell.htm
17). Therefore, the proper training of corrections personnel is left unfinished and unrealized which can result in leaving "members of the corrections community handicapped in their ability to address their functions" as corrections officers "in an efficient and effective manner" (1991, p. 18).
Not surprisingly, Carter reinforces the importance of training by pointing out that it is essential for the correctional population to receive adequate preparation in the form of on-the-job experience, correctional classes and through specially-designed criminal corrections academies. Basically, Carter insists that in order for the staff to perform their job functions, they "must receive "appropriate training and orientation to their job assignments," in tandem with "on-going in-service training" which hopefully will enable staff members to "assume increasing responsibility" (1991, p. 22).
In addition, all training must go beyond the possible scenarios of a particular job assignment by providing "an opportunity for the organization to impart its mission,…
Carter, Dianne. (June 1991). The status of education and training in corrections. Federal Probation. PRIVATE "TYPE=PICT;ALT="?55.2: 17-24.
Seiter, Richard P. (1983). Corrections: center of excellence. Corrections Today. 45.1: 72-74.
Stevenson, Benjamin and Daedra Carrio. (April 2009). Why corrections should clear the hurdles. Corrections Today. 71.2: 42-44.
police protection at schools in light of the sniper attacks as well as the school shootings that have occurred over the years. The paper presents a study proposal and a critique of literature about the public's desire and willingness to support police protection being placed in elementary and middle schools on a daily basis. There were five sources used to complete this paper.
One of the things that Americans pride themselves on is the freedom that is afforded by living here. That freedom includes the refusal to become a police state or anything that represents a police state. Currently the nation is at a crossroads however, when it comes to the students in schools. For the last several years students have been shooting students, strangers have been shooting students and most recently the DC sniper has targeted students. Parents are becoming less and less sure of the school's abilities to…
Colavecchio, Shannon (2001). OFFICERS GET SCHOOLING IN PREVENTING CAMPUS VIOLENCE., The Palm Beach Post, pp 1A.
____(1998). HOUSE PASSES MALONEY SCHOOL COPS BILL., States News Service,.
Gold, Maria (2002). Police Presence in Schools Is An Asset, Report Says; Resource Officers Handle Mostly Minor Incidents., The Washington Post, pp T04.
____(2002). MORELLA ANNOUNCES FEDERAL COPS IN SCHOOLS GRANT FOR MONTGOMERY COUNTY., Capitol Hill Press Releases,.
If the worst case scenarios should ever unfold and terrorists have released materials into the air that are radioactive, the SOD works with the New York City's Department of Health so that officers have proper training in the use of air-monitoring "meters" (Holden, p. 5).
New York City's Department of Health has in place a program called "Biowatch" that is designed to alert the SOD when any calls come in reporting the presence of a biological substance. As mentioned previously in this paper, during the crisis of September 11, 2001, one of the major obstacles to effective first responder action was the breakdown in communication technologies and in lines of authority. However the NYPD's Operations Division (OD) is now trained to be the communications link between the executive command and the police officer on the street. The OD coordinates all personnel specifics and directions; in fact the OD is referred…
Dunn, Vincent. (2004). Three Years Later -- What Has Changed Since 9/11/01. Retrieved July
8, 2010, from http://www.vincentdunn.com/Changes-9-11-04.pdf .
Finley, Bruce. (2005). Alerts Go Out, Statewide System Falls in Line. The Denver Post.
Retrieved July 9, 2010, from General OneFile / Galegroup.com.
improve or inder te effectiveness of non-workplace-Based training programs for te American pawnbroker industry?
Overview of te Industry:
In te United States, tere are two main functions of a pawnbroker. Te first is making small loans, secured by personal property. Te second function is te sale of mercandise.
According to te Florida Pawnbrokers Association, loans are te ig profit center for pawnsops. "Te retail side also generates an average of 27% of te sops revenue. Te Association stated, "In 1996, te nation's 9,100 pawnsops generated $4 billion in revenue."
Pawnbrokers are regulated in te United States mostly at eiter te state or local area. Wile tere is no uniformity among te regulations, laws, or ordinances, it seems most are issued licenses, required to make reports to law enforcement, and obviously proibited from trafficking in stolen mercandise.
Te amount te pawnbroker is permitted to carge as fees and interest vary, but…
Various statistics, U.S. Department of Labor and Industry, available at http://www.dol.gov/ .; Accessed March 25, 2003.
U.S. Department of Labor ID Code is: 191.157-010
That is very important for the people who are trying to get these kinds of jobs, because they have the chance to find a company that believes in them and that is actually looking for people who are not the same as everyone else. That can make a huge difference not only in whether the person gets hired, but also whether he or she is successful in the position and whether there are realistic opportunities for promotion (Tatli & Ozbilgin, 2009).
The third company type, the multicultural organization, has a number of different kinds of people and groups within it (Harvey, 2012). These companies want people who are diverse, and will deliberately seek them out, hire them, and encourage them. One of the reasons behind this is because people who own and manage these types of companies know that a more culturally diverse workforce can mean a number of new…
Allen, B.J. (1995). Diversity and organizational communication. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 23: 143 -- 155.
Brownell, J. (2003). Developing receiver-centered communication in diverse organizations. Listening Professional, 2(1), 5-25.
Cockburn, C. (1989). Equal opportunities: The short and long agenda. Industrial Relations Journal, 20(3): 213-225.
Eisenberg, E.M., Goodall, H.L., Jr. & Trethewey, a. (2010). Organizational communication (6th ed.). St. Martin's: Bedford.
The assertion makes little sense that "criminal justice employees are unmotivated," for a number of reasons. The first is that there are thousands of different organizations and millions of people working in criminal justice. It would be near impossible to discern any particular trends about their motivation levels, and those trends would not hold outside of a given position or organization. The reality is that motivation is a fairly complex issue. Everybody has some sort of motivation for going to work, even if that motivation is to maintain their security with respect to food and housing. But most people have other motivations as well. Understanding what motivation in the workplace actually is, and how it can be used to explain or enhance performance, begins with avoiding such careless and blanket statements.
There are a number of ways to improve the motivation of criminal justice workers. The text highlights a…
Kasper, J. (2010). Choosing the best people for promotion and special assignments. The Police Chief. Retrieved April 12, 2016 from http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/CPIM0910/index.php#/70
Stojkovic, S., Kalinich, D., & Klofas, J. (2015). Criminal justice organizations administration and management. Boston: Cengage Learning.
Zettlemoyer, D., Jacobs, R. (2010). Transforming a police agency by connecting training, performance and assessment to promotion. The Police Chief. Retrieved April 12, 2016 from http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/CPIM1110/#/54
Policing needs to change, especially has it has failed to live up to its potential in improving quality of life for all citizens. The ideal police force is indeed one that prevents crime, keeps order, respects the rights and dignity of citizens, is friendly and courteous, respects the laws, and does not abuse its power through corruption. Policing needs to be increasingly situated as integral to all other community organizations and institutions. Collaborative and strategic partnerships will help law enforcement achieve the goals it shares in common with other social and political organizations. Reforming community relations, improving trust and accountability, and working together with stakeholders are some of the keynotes of twenty-first century policing models.
According to the IACP (2018) policing will change in the upcoming years by focusing on both internal and external issues. This means that in addition to the externalities of community relationships and strategic partnerships, police…
Crime handling by Police officer
In the given case scenario, there are several triggers that would dictate the way the police officer would handle the involved men in the fight. First, if one or both of the men involved would display a continues aggressive behavior even in the presence of the law enforcement officer, this would be a reason for the officer to respond with reasonable force to end the duel. The disregard for the instructions that the officer may give, for instance to put their hands up or freeze would as well call for use of assistive tools like the Taser gun to incapacitate the suspects for arrest. Worse still, if one or both suspects would turn violent towards the officer, he may have to use any means possible in self-defense. The suspects may also opt for the use of human shield to avoid arrest and in…
Carter W.H., (2003). Ethical issues in using a cocaine vaccine to treat and prevent cocaine abuse and dependence. Retrieved October 15, 2014 from http://jme.bmj.com/content/30/4/337.full
Division of State Police, (2014). The 1950s. Retrieved October 15, 2014 from https://www.troopers.ny.gov/Introduction/History/1950s/
Jackman T., (2010). Police fear crime increase as recession saps forces. Retrieved October 15, 2014 from www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/09/29/AR2010092907447.html
Kirsch S., (2014). The Six Key Lessons of 911. Retrieved October 15, 2014 from http://www.skirsch.com/politics/iraq/Lessons911.htm
Ethical Dilemmas in Police ork
For ethical training to be effective in a police profession then there must be continuous education and practice. Officers work in a rapidly evolving field that is in a dynamic environment and therefore will most likely encounter new challenges frequently. These challenges can be further complicated by the fact that officers must often make quick decisions in situations in which their physical safety is on the line. ithout proper training there is an increased likelihood that an officer will chose their own self-interest or preservation without regard for the ethical dilemmas that are present in their choices. This analysis will provide some ethical dilemmas that officers might encounter. Such dilemmas can also be used for learning or training purposes so that officers can practice beforehand some of the situations they may face on the job so that they are better prepared.
Gilmartin, K. And J. Harris. "Law Enforcement Ethics." 2006. E-S Press. Online. 2 April 2013.
Lieberman, B. "Ethical Issues in the Use of Confidential Informants for Narcotic Operations." 2007. The Police Chief. Online. 2 April 2013.
Pollock, J. Ethical Dilemmas and Decisions in Criminal Justice. Cengage Learning, 2012. Print.
For police officers, undercover work provides a priceless opportunity to help the force achieve its goals and to infiltrate large criminal organizations. However, undercover work can be tremendously stressful. The stress of undercover work often reaches a boiling point, leading the officer to have mental health issues and even suicide attempts. In New York, Detective Margaret Sasso served as an undercover officer successfully, but a failed suicide attempt using doctor-prescribed muscle relaxants served as a wake-up call.
In an interview, Detective Sasso claimed that she needed a "rest," which is itself a symptom of the stress experienced as an undercover officer. Undercover officers are new to the force, largely because of the need to ensure their not being recognized. However, their relative inexperience, coupled with the nature of their socially isolating work, causes a large number of undercover officers to experience stress. Dozens request transfers, according to research…
Baker, A. & Goldstein, J. (2012). Police working under cover, and under strain. International New York Times. May 6, 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/05/07/nyregion/undercover-officers-under-strain-with-no-clear-way-off-the-beat.html?pagewanted=all
Joh, E.E. (2009). Breaking the law in order to enforce it. 62 Stan. L. Rev. 155 (2009-2010).
Police use of force
There is no single globally accepted definition of use of force by police officers. The National Institute of Justice, which is a subsidiary of the Justice Department concurs with this. This leaves the approximately 18,000 police agencies in America with the leeway to formulate their own policies regarding the use of force. Some agencies may address the issue while some may not. The Justice Department has however provided a use-of-force continuum. This refers to a step-by-step manner in which the police officers can act in order to calm a situation. As such, a police officer can first present himself at the scene, resort to verbal warning if his mere presence is not enough, then use unarmed control, say grabbing the offender, proceed to use less harmful weapons such as tear gas and batons, and finally use excessive force (Vera, 2018).
This order of attack is quite…
Policing in Diverse Community
The following will be a response to an article written by Mark. A Prosser called "Policing in a Diverse Community."
Back in the 1999s, Storm Lake Community leaders realized the change in the community and that it would keep changing. The immediate challenges they had to confront were language unfamiliarity, absorption of new cultures, and requirements of the community services from the whole development. Considering these challenges and keeping in mind the successive community studies, service providers started changing the service providing strategies in order to effectively adjust with multiethnic and multilingual customers. In transforming the community, the Storm Lake Police Department played a pivotal role, which is still going on even today (Prosser, 2007). To share the experience of arranging and applying effective programming feedback to fulfill the various community requirements, the department has approached different cities in Iowa and the Upper Midwest. Same demographical…
(n.d.). Home. Positive Action. Retrieved January 9, 2015, from http://www.essex.police.uk/about/equality__diversity/positive_action.aspx
Prosser, M. (2007, January 1). Policing a Diverse Community. The Police Chief, 74(1)