Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formattingExcerpt from Essay:
Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) in the U.S.
The development of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) in the U.S. And developing countries
Type 2 diabetes was known previously as non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Unlike an individual with type 1 diabetes, a person with type 2 diabetic issues continues to produce insulin, but the individual's body fails to respond to it in a normal manner. Glucose cannot penetrate the cells and supply the required energy (it has been commonly referred to as insulin resistance). Eventually, the blood sugar levels rise and make the pancreas produce additional blood vessels insulin. In the end, the pancreas wears out because of overworking to generate surplus insulin and eventually becomes unable to generate adequate insulin to keep blood vessels sugar levels normal. Individuals with insulin resistance may or may not develop type 2 diabetic issues (Atta-ur-Rahman, Reitz & Choudhary, 2010). This is independent of the pancreas' ability to generate adequate insulin to level the blood sugar levels within the normal ranges. In most cases, high blood vessels sugar levels are directly related to diabetes. Children and teens with type 2 diabetic issues often engage in exercises, use diet, and medications. This enhances their bodies' response to blood insulin to control their blood sugar levels. Some may need to take blood insulin shots or use a blood vessels insulin pump.
Although no one knows the cause of T2D, there seems to be an inherited/genetic threat. In fact, about sixty percent of affected children in the U.S. have at least one diabetic parent and may have a significant genealogy of the illness (Ginsburg & Willard, 2013). Sometimes, one parent could be identified clinically as having type 2 diabetic issues at the same time as the child. Most individuals developing this disease are obese. When fats are excess, they make it difficult for the cells to react to blood insulin. Moreover, being non-active further decreases the body's ability to react to blood insulin.
In the past, doctors called this disease an adult-onset diabetes as it almost specifically affected obese adults. Currently, that information is no longer precise. More children and teenagers are being identified clinically as having T2D, probably because many children and teenagers in the U.S. are obese. Certain cultural groups are vulnerable and likely to developing T2D. They include individuals of Native American, Hispanic/Latino, African-American, or Asian/Pacific Island tribes. Besides, adolescents are more likely to develop the illness compared to younger children, probably because of normal increases in hormonal levels, causing insulin resistance during such physical development and rapid growth stages.
The dynamics of the diabetic outbreak are changing fast. Once considered an illness of the Western, T2D has become a global health epidemic. It was also considered "an illness of the wealthy," but it is now seen among the poor in developing countries. Drawing from the Worldwide Diabetes Federation, diabetes affects at least 285 thousand people globally. This is expected to exceed 438 thousand by 2030. Besides, two-thirds of all diabetic issues are expected to rise in low- to middle-income nations. The number of grownups with affected glucose tolerance will increase from 344 thousand truly to an approximated 472 thousand by 2030 (Willard & Ginsburg, 2012). The increasing occurrence and associated health problems reverse the economic benefits in developing nations. With restricted infrastructures for diabetes care, many nations are ill equipped in handling the disease.
T2D statistics in the U.S. And the rates in my home state
According to the American Diabetic Organization, the U.S. accounts for sixty percent of global diabetic. In recent decades, the U.S. has gone through rapid economic development, urbanization, and changes in nutritional status. These have led to an intense increase in the prevalence of diabetes within a relatively short period. In 2001, less than 1% of the U.S. adults had the disease. By 2008, the prevalence had achieved nearly 10%. It was estimated that more than 92 thousand U.S. adults had diabetes, and 148 thousand were prediabetic. These numbers suggest that U.S. has overtaken all countries as the global epicenter of the diabetes outbreak. However, in our State, the prevalence of diabetes issues has achieved nearly 20%. Compared with the U.S., people from our state develop diabetes issues at younger ages, at lower degrees of being overweight, and at much higher rates given the same amount of excess weight. Women are also at greater chance of gestational suffering from diabetes issues, thereby putting their children at threat for T2D issues later in life (Atta-ur-Rahman, Reitz & Choudhary, 2010).
The cost of treating T2D
The American Diabetic Organization released new research estimating the complete expenses of clinically diagnosed diabetes had risen to $245 billion dollars this year from $174 billion dollars in 2009, when the price was last examined. This figure symbolizes a 41% increase over a five-year period. The complete estimated cost of clinically diagnosed diabetes this year is $245 billion dollars, including $176 billion dollars in direct health care expenses and $69 billion dollars in decreased productivity (Kalhan, Prentice & Yajnik, 2009). The largest components of the health care expenses are:
I. Inpatient hospital care (46% of the complete health care cost),
II. Prescription medications to treat problems of diabetes (10%),
III. Diabetes supplies and anti-diabetic agents (14%),
IV. Physician trips to the office (10%), and V. Residential/nursing facility stays (10%).
Individuals with clinically diagnosed diabetes have average healthcare expenses of about $14,000 per year, of which about $8,000 is linked to diabetes. Individuals with clinically diagnosed diabetes, on average, have health care expenses approximately 3 times higher than the costs would be without diabetes (Watve, 2013). For the price categories examined, health care for those who clinically diagnosed diabetes accounts for more than five percent of medical care costs in the U.S.: over half of these expenses is directly because of diabetes. Indirect expenses include:
I. Increase in absenteeism ($6 billion) and II. Reduction in productivity while at work ($20 billion) for the employed population,
III. Reduced efficiency for those, not in the workforce ($20 billion),
IV. Inability to perform as a result of disease-related impairment ($21 billion), and V. Reduction in productive capacity due to early death rate ($20 billion)
Steps to manage the psychosocial proliferation of T2D
Different controlled studies have examined the effectiveness of psychosocial treatments for people suffering from diabetes. Most of these have included family as a fundamental element of treatment. It is shown that family-based behavior strategies like goal-setting, self-monitoring, positive reinforcement, behavior contracts, supportive parent communications, and appropriately shared responsibility for diabetes control have enhanced regimen adherence and glycemic control. Moreover, such treatments can improve the parent-adolescent relationship. Psycho-educational treatments with kids and their families, promote problem-solving abilities, enhance parent assistance early in the course of the disease, and facilitate long-term glycemic control of children (Kumar, 2012).
The effectiveness of group treatments for youth suffering from diabetes has also been systematically evaluated. For example, it is proven that peer team assistance and problem solving enhance short-term glycemic control. Group coping abilities and coaching have been proven to optimize the control of glycemic and life quality for teenagers involved in intensive insulin regimens. Moreover, coping skills and stress control coaching has reduced diabetes-related stress and enhanced social interaction with teenagers.
Steps to address T2D
I. Changes in lifestyle, concentrating on the decrease of saturated fats, trans-fat, and cholesterol level consumption. Besides, increase of fatty acids, plant sterols and viscous fiber, weight-loss and increased exercising should be suggested to improve the lipid profile in diabetes patients
II. Encourage national, regional, and local tracking of the risks of diabetic issues and other non-communicable illnesses. Besides, it is important to motivate the tracking of age-specific occurrence rates for T2D and other non-communicable illnesses.
III. Plainly utilize nationwide and local resources like toolkits and assessment books. These will help local services in reducing the occurrence of type 2 diabetic…[continue]
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