Animal Farm Essays

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Animal Rights Introduction Glance at Essay

Words: 2298 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10578976

.. it's healthy, it's somebody's way of life, it's somebody's livelihood, it's somebody's business.(ibid)

This is a strongly worded statement and indictment of an uncaring humanity. However, bearing in mind the daily evidence of cruelty to animals one cannot but feel that there is an element of truth to this argument.

Commercial reasons for abuse

One of the central reasons or "justifications" for animal abuse and possibly why so many turn a blind eye to animal cruelty, is commerce and the profit motive.

The plain fact is that this country and other industrial countries are deeply dependent on animal exploitation to sustain their present economic structures. The plain fact is that we are more dependent on animal exploitation than were the states of the southern United States on human slavery. (Francione, G.)

Animals are essentially seen as property. While there are many laws designed to protect these animals these laws are also prejudiced towards the interests of the owners before the welfare of the animals. An example of the way animals are often treated only as commercial commodities is the following.

In Australia, lambs are put through a gruesome procedure called mulesing, in which huge chunks of skin are sliced from the animals' backsides, with no painkillers given to the animals. Then, when their wool production declines, sheep are shipped to the Middle East on open-deck ships. These journeys, which can last months, are to countries where animal welfare standards are non-existent. So the suffering sheep are dragged off the ships, loaded into trucks, sometimes upside-down, and then have their throats slit while they are fully conscious. (United Cruelty of Benetton)

Agriculture, which is humanities oldest way of survival, previously meant a certain reciprocity and sense of care and dependence between the farmer and his animals. However, agriculture has now devolved into agribusiness and at no other time in history have farm animals been so badly treated. (ibid)

Another aspect…… [Read More]

Animals in Research. Retrieved December 20, 2004 from The Human Society of the United States. Web site:"

ANIMAL RIGHTS FAQ FILE.Retrieved December 20, 2004 from Animal Rights Com. Web site: 
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Animal Welfare Assurance Programs Essay

Words: 1107 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4916228

Animal Welfare Assurance Organizations

Animal welfare: Assurance organizations

Organization 1: Manes and Tails Mission (Hoboken, NJ)

Manes and Tails Mission, located in Hoboken, NJ is a locally-based organization that oversees a variety of efforts to reduce cruelty against horses. Given the faltering economy, many horses have been abandoned and/or abused, as fewer and fewer people have the ability to care for their animals properly. Horses from the racetrack or who have been used in vocations like the Mounted Police often have difficulties finding good homes after they retire. This organization resolves to "rescue, rehabilitate, retrain, and re-home the most commonly slaughtered breeds of horses - Quarter horses, Thoroughbreds, and Standardbreds." (Mission statement, 2011, Manes and Tails.). It does not sell horses, although it does lease them. It also provides retirement homes for Mounted Police horses. It educates the public about equine slaughter. It also provides community service through reduced rate boarding, maintenance of rare breeds, and promotes holistic horse care education.

The program is fairly balanced in terms of how it promotes preserving horses physically and mentally, and also attempts to keep horses in as natural a state as possible, regardless of where they are housed (including promoting keeping horses shoeless whenever possible). Providing educational and supportive resources to the community rather than outcomes are emphasized -- the organization is small and its goals are varied, so it does not keep metrics on monitoring how much of a positive or negative effect it has had upon the equine community. The organization disseminates information to all horse owners about improving the care of their animals and tries to help horses on a case-by-case basis. It acknowledges in its mission statement that it is a local organization with limited resources and strives to create liaisons with other community organizations and national organizations devoted to horse rescue…… [Read More]

Annual report. (2010). American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA).

Retrieved September 20, 2011 at 
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Animal-Drawn Cart the Purpose of Essay

Words: 2595 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36403867

Steel can create a very durable and rugged car that will often outlast the animals that are drawing it. However aluminum is as durable and element resistant as well as being extremely lightweight and is often the material of choice for many countries. Pneumatic or inflatable tires also have been a boon to carts by helping to absorb some shock as well as to distributing the weight over a wider surface without significantly increasing drag on the vehicle.

Aluminum casting is already a technique that is widely used in many parts of Africa and other developing countries. Africa, usually to make cooking utensils and the like. "Aluminium wheels with integral roller bearings could be made by these artisans and would provide a very low cost solution to the wheel and bearing problem." (Oram173) See figure 6 below:

These designs element the ordinary friction involved in a typical axle joint design made from wood as well as the quick wear and tear on the material over a shorter period of time.

There have also been considerable important in the foundation of journal bearings. Journal bearings are fundamental engineering component that supports and positions an object while allowing that object to rotate.

Bearings made of wood have long been used in cartwheels, windmills, lathes, and other technical devices Archeological evidence shows that wooden wheels and bearings were first used in the Tigris- Euphrates valley circa 3500 BC These solid cart wheels were crafted of flat planks and rotated on fixed wooden poles. (Sathre & Gorman 48)

Slowly evolving to lighter spooked wheels and the use of bearing lubricants which have been document to the thirteenth century BC, journal bearing have evolved even further in the current epoch. Leonardo da Vinci studied the friction and wear of bearings in the 15th and the recent industrial revolution sparked great advances in bearing Technology. (Sathre & Gorman 41)

Sather and Gorman decided to research improving existing and readily available materials like wood and attempting to ascertain the ultimate combination of variables necessary to make the most efficient bearing out of that material. Since aluminum and Steel many not be available to many, having better guidelines for available materials is the next best thing. Their study discover, among other things that:…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Carts." Nation Master Encyclopedia.

The Golovan one-ox cart," in Land, June 1997 from Dept. Of Agriculture, sought Africa 
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Animal Production Essay

Words: 1756 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44705114

Animal Production: Biotechnology

Biotechnology has achieved some dramatic advances in recent years in both crop and livestock production. Food production results from the interaction of humans, animals, land and water; to help speed up this process, make it safer and more efficient, biotechnology has been involved. These include transferring a specific gene from one species to another to create a transgenic organism; the production of genetically uniform plants and animals (clones); and the fusing of different types of cells to produce beneficial medical products such as monoclonal antibodies. Today, biotechnology has a number of applications in livestock production. It is being used to hasten animal growth, enhance reproductive capacity, improve animal health and develop new animal products. In 1999, FFTC carried out a regional survey to draw up an inventory of technologies and products which have been developed using biotechnology for livestock production. Some of these are now being applied on farms, others are still being developed in research stations. Animal production is important to agriculture, and biotechnology has improved range management, food safety and animal health as well as reproduction.

Biotechnology can increase the digestibility of low-quality roughage, and genetically modify plants to improve their feed value, such as the amino acid balance. It can also provide hormones and other substances that enhance animal size, productivity and growth rates. Synthetic hormone bST (bovine somatotropin) was among the first innovations available commercially. It can increase milk yield by as much as 10 to 15 per cent in lactating cows. Livestock is a very important industry in the global economy. Current development efforts are looking at a whole spectrum of genes that affect growth and production within the animal. Ways to genetically engineer cattle to increase their own natural hormone production are being considered, thus eliminating the need for synthetic bST. Locally produced recombinant bovine somatotropin (BST) is being used in Korea as a growth stimulant and for increased milk production in cattle.

High-protein yeast cell products are being used as a feed additive for cattle, pigs and poultry. Highly palatable and nutritious, these products also help create a healthy balance of bacteria in the digestive tract, and prevent bacterial diarrhea. A bacterial phytase formula, TRANSPHOS, is being used to replace the costly mineral phosphate used as an additive in the feed of monogastric animals in Korea. In the Philippines, a bacteriocin is being produced which has antibacterial…… [Read More]

Boyd, Emily. "Societal Choice for Climate Change Futures: Trees, Biotechnology, and Clean Development." Bioscience 60.9 (2010): 742-750. Environment Complete. EBSCO. Web. 30 Jan. 2011.

Devendra, Canagasby. "Sustainable Animal Production from Small Farm Systems in South East Asia." (London: Daya Publishing House, 1998).
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Animal Dreams by Barbara Kingsolver Theme the Importance of Ecology Essay

Words: 2408 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60001740

Animal Dreams: Real Life Reflections of the Effects of Pollution on the World's Fertility

Continued inadequate attention to the world's rivers, lakes and streams will ultimately result to mankind's demise. To ensure the productivity and viability the earth in the future, mankind must start working together to protect the physical environment and ecological processes or face destruction. Government legislation and community action related to this issue up until this point in time have largely been inadequate. More proactive measures are necessary both from governmental officials and community members to significantly change the course of history in a positive manner.

From an ecological viewpoint, of key concern are humankind's natural bodies of water, which historically have nourished and supported human life. In recent years however continual pollution and exposure to environment toxins have diminished the supply and quality of water and life available in the worlds' natural bodies of water. There are no signs that water pollution is significantly declining despite previous legislation and efforts by some community members. Brough (1998) shows that over-consumption and pollution continue to accelerate, which is contributing the destruction of the world's natural water resources. The World Wide Fund for Nature recently reported that whole seas are lowing up to 70% of their water; in addition more than 60% of freshwater species including fish and birds are declining; still other reports suggest that virtually all of nature may be "killed off within 50 years unless politicians act now" (Brough, 15).

Time and time again mankind has disregarded vital ecological processes in favor of development and modern conveniences. Despite measures to reduce water pollution mankind has continually dragged his feet. This fact is clearly demonstrated by the Clean Water Act of 1977 whose aims included achieving pollution control. The deadline for establishing safe levels for pollutant discharges was continually extended by government officials. President's Reagan and Nixon both vetoed measures that were aimed at revising and strengthening the Clean Water Act, suggesting mankind's blatant lack of regard for environmental concerns (Freedman & Bikki, 22). This lack of regard for nature undermines the integrity of the natural environment. Despite repeated attempts by ecologists and environmentalists to protect nature, humankind continues to engage in harmful behaviors.

Such continued lack of regard for the environment may ultimately shape the world of the future and result in an inhospitable environment that harms rather than nourishes human kind.…… [Read More]

Anderson, Terry L. (1994). "Enviro-Capitalism vs. Enviro-Socialism, " Kansas Journal

of Law and Public Policy 4: 35 -- 40.
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Animal Assisted Therapy Animals When Essay

Words: 2537 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31991308

69). Petting a dog lowered blood pressure and respiratory rate -- even if the dog was somebody else's. Pet owners that have heart surgery recover faster and stand a better chance of full recovery. Touching a warm furry animal gives them relief.

Moreover, pet ownership is a predictor of survival after hospitalization for any serious illness (Gunter & Furnham, 1999).

Demello (1999) found that the "mere presence of an animal" could lower blood pressure and that the effect persisted even after the animal was gone. Visual contact with an animal, although it helped, was not as good as touching. Heart rates decreased significantly in a three-minute period of physical contact with the animal (Demello, 1999).

A story in Time magazine (2001) tells how a brain-injured man needed help to get back his sense of balance. Ginger, an Australian shepherd, liked to fetch, so physical therapy for this man was to reach down, pet the dog with his weak arm, and then throw a ball for her to bring back. He said, "I can't turn my neck, and my eyesight isn't good. The dog gives me courage" (cited in Time, 2001, p. 53). The benefits are both physical and spiritual. The primary force that helps a patient to get well is motivation, and animals in critical care units remind patients there is a life to live away from the hospital and a reason to get well (Cenner, 2001).

Dog Certification

Dogs who do therapy must be trained. Most dogs that practice in hospitals are certified by Therapy Dogs International in New Jersey or by the Delta Society. Animals are insured for liability by these organizations (Cenner, 2001). The Delta Society screens dogs for personality and obedience. Certification reassures personnel that the dog will behave. Leaser (2005) points out, "While many dogs have a sweet nature and calm disposition, and offer love and companionship at home, not all dogs are appropriate or have the proper temperament suitable for a therapy dog..." (p. 978). Dogs also have to know hospital…… [Read More]

Brodie, S., Biley, F.C., and Shewring, M. (2002). An exploration of the potential risks associated with using pet therapy in healthcare settings. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 11 (4), 444-456.

Demello, L. (1999). The effect of the presence of a companion-animal on physiological changes following the termination of cognitive stressors. Psychology & Health, 14 (5), 859.
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Animal Liberation -- Peter Singer Essay

Words: 1428 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66529792

4). Singer references the essay in the book by Richard Ryder, who criticizes (with great justification) animal experiments ("now a large industry"). Of course there have been laws passed in the U.S. Congress subsequent to when this book was published, laws that provide guidelines for any animal research, but Ryder provides Singer with some gruesome experiments on animals and Singer reports them in his essay.

How moral is a company or organization or university when it injects chemicals into the brains of cats? At the National Institute for Medical Research in London they did just that, and while it is doubtful they could get away with such cruelty in 2011, they certainly did then. The injection into the brain of a cat with a large does of "Tubocuraine" caused the cat to jump into its cage and start calling "noisily whilst moving about restlessly and jerkily… jerking in rapid clonic movements" like an epileptic convulsion, and dying 35 minutes after the injection (Singer, p. 5).

Springer noted that notwithstanding the fact that these kinds of hideously cruel experiments are taking place "on university campuses throughout the country" there has not been "the slightest protest from the student movement" (p. 5). He is wondering in this essay why students protest against discrimination when it has to do with race or sex, or the military and big corporations, but when it comes to animals, the students tend to see them as "statistics rather than sentient beings with interests that warrant consideration" (p. 5).

Conclusion -- What are Americans' Values and Morals vis-a-vis Animals?

When Springer alludes to the essay by Ruth Harrison ("On Factory Farming") he hits home with the most egregious practice in the West when it comes to food production. When veal calves are kept in narrow stalls, to narrow for the poor calf to turn around, that is immoral, and it paints an immoral portrait of the society, whether it is the UK or the U.S. One of the questions to be answered in this paper has to do with skewed morals, and there is no doubt that when a customer buys an order of Kentucky Fried Chicken he or he doesn't think about the frightfully unsavory conditions that chicken was raised in. Hence, the customer obviously has skewed morals because all he or she is…… [Read More]

Singer, Peter. "Animal Liberation." The New York Review of Books. Retrieved April 2, 2011,

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Human Condition in Orwell's Animal Essay

Words: 606 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35420768

It is simply human nature. These pigs will be the ones attempting to gain all of the power and control the rest of the population. The image of the humans and the pigs being indistinguishable points to the frailty of the human condition and it declares that this condition cannot be "fixed" and it will lead to humanity's downfall in one way or another. Power and greed only make people more power hungry and greedy. There can be no equals in this kind of society because people, regardless of we like it or not, are simply not equal. There will always be those with more and there will always be those with less. Additionally, there will always be those that want to control everything and those who allow that control to occur.

Animal Farm pokes fun at humanity but it does so with a serious stick. There are messages and warnings to be mindful of in this novel because there can never be a perfect utopian society. This is because groups of people need leaders but most leaders lose their good intentions when they gain power and serve only themselves. Animalism or fascism are illusions used as a means to obtain power and control. The old adage that the road to hell is paved with good intensions is true but it is also paved with evil, greedy ones as well. We also hear that it takes all kinds to run the world but also takes all kinds to ruin it; Orwell saw the depravity of man and deemed it good enough for the animals.

Work… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Orwell, George. Animal Farm. New York: Harcourt Brace. 1977.
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Cafo's the Impact of Concentrated Animal Feeding Essay

Words: 1629 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91144923


The Impact of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations

In the past century there has been a substantial change in the way human beings raise and keep animals meant for food. While in the past there were great numbers of widely spaced small individual farms, now there are relatively few, but extremely large industrialized farms. And as the numbers of animals kept and slaughtered for human consumption increases, these industrialized farms, known as Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations or CAFO's, are having more and more of an impact on the environment and people around them. The concentration of animals causes a major problem with the waste products they produce, as well as the gases, chemicals, and other types of byproducts. And the increased use of antibiotics in the animals is beginning to have a profound effect on the health of not only the environment but the communities that exist around these industrialized farms. CAFO's, and their secondary industries, are also a large consumer of oil, gasoline, and other fuels which can have an indirect, but devastating effect on the environment. Luckily there are some who have come to recognize the problems, and potential future problems, involved in this type of animal farming and have begun to inform the public to the dangers these farms pose. And in response to this information, the public is beginning to force changes in the way these CAFO's operate and the impact they have on the environment and local communities.

Industrialized farms, called CAFO's, have all but replaced the local family farm when it comes to raising animals. For instance, in 1965 there were more than one million pig farms across the country but in the 21st century the totality of pig farms number just a little over 65,000. (Sayre) And even as the number of farms decreased, the total number of pigs being raised increased from 53 million to 65 million. The net result of this change has been the increased concentration of larger numbers of pigs onto fewer farms. And pigs are not the only animals to see change, this transformation…… [Read More]

"Energy Use and Climate Change." GRACE Communications Foundations. Web. 15

April 2013.
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Animal Liberation A Triangular Affair by J Barid Callicott Essay

Words: 959 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37460457

Animal Liberation: A Triangular Affair

In his essay "Animal Liberation: A Triangular Affair," J. Baird Callicott discusses the animal liberation movement in relation to Aldo Leopold's "land ethic" as a means of demonstrating that although the two strains of thought appear at first glance to share more than a passing similarity, when considered more closely, the theoretical and practical underpinnings of animal liberation and environmental ethics are so fundamentally different that the two may ultimately be considered contradictory. These contradictions result in the "triangular affair" the title refers to, because Callicott determines that the animal liberation movement is not only locked in a conflict with conservative philosophizers maintaining a fundamental break between humans and animals, but also with environmental ethicists who propose a much broader scope for the application of ethics to realms beyond human interaction. Hopefully by examining Callicott's essay in greater detail, the validity of his argument concerning the unnecessarily reductive nature of animal liberation will become clear.

Before covering Callicott's critique of the animal liberation movement in more detail, it will be useful to briefly discuss Aldo Leopold's "land ethic," because it serves as the "exemplary type" to which subsequent formulations of environmental ethics may be compared and analyzed (Callicott 1). In short, Leopold's theory notes that "animals and plants, soils and waters […] traditionally not enjoyed no moral standing, no rights, no respect, in sharp contrast to human persons whose rights and interests ideally must be fairly and equally considered if our actions are to be considered 'ethical or 'moral'" (Callicott 1). Leopold correctly determines that the overall trajectory of society has been the expansion rights and interests to wider and wider groups, and predicts that eventual this expansion will eventually come to include plants and animals such that humans become only one constituent part of the protected biosphere, rather than dominant over it. In turn, humans may make ethical choices in regards to their place within nature without pretending that the socially constructed notion of legal rights would be useful or widely applicable to the natural world. This is important to understand because Leopold's work constitutes Callicott's "exemplary type," and helps to demonstrate how…… [Read More]

Callicott, J. Baird. "Animal Liberation: A Triangular Affair."
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Animal Liberation by Peter Singer Essay

Words: 721 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96560144

In particular, Singer could have explained that moral concern for animals does not necessarily require that humans become vegetarians.

On the other hand, there is a tremendous moral difference between raising animals for consumption in conditions that provide for their reasonable comfort and humane slaughter and doing so without any regard at all for their comfort in life or trauma during slaughter. In many instances, morally questionable practices, especially in the farming industry, could be resolved simply by valuing the goal of avoiding the unnecessary infliction of pain a little more and the maximization of profits a little less.

Similarly, Singer does not explain that appropriate moral concern for animals does not necessarily preclude all experimental uses, but only requires a good-faith effort to minimize their suffering and to consider whether the potential benefits of the experiments to humans justifies their cost to animal subjects where it is not possible to eliminate it entirely. In that analysis, certain uses of animals for research capable of curing human disease may justify experimental uses of animals that is not justified in conjunction with experiments designed to help develop cosmetic products for profit. By distinguishing morally permissible uses of animals from morally insensitive uses in greater detail, Singer could have strengthened his position, especially against any suggestion that expressing a moral concern for non-human suffering necessarily means that all uses (and consumption) of animals for human benefit are necessarily immoral as well. The author's failure to do so leaves his position more vulnerable to the (erroneous) conclusion that the issue of moral concern for animals is an all-or-none proposition that requires a choice between prohibiting any form of use or consumption of animals and permitting every conceivable type of animal exploitation.

When it comes to presenting the logical objections to the immoral treatment of animals, it is important to structure the arguments so that…… [Read More]

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Animal Assisted Therapy Within Society Is it Helpful to Those Who Seek Its Services Essay

Words: 2596 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80753384

Society Feels About Animals

As a first order primate, humans have a natural affinity with animals of all types that has contributed to their mutual relationships throughout history. In fact, animals of different types have been since the time of the ancient Greeks to improve the emotional and functional status of humans (Mccauley, 2006, p. 358). Animal-assisted therapy (AAT) has grown in popularity in recent years based on its proven efficacy in treating a wide range of healthcare and mental health conditions. Although dogs and cats are most commonly used in AAT settings, horses, rabbits and even fish can also be used. For instance, according to Macauley, "The use of animals ranges from companion animals that provide camaraderie and emotional support to assistance animals that provide direct physical-functional support to therapy animals that aid with the habilitation-rehabilitation in physical, occupational, speech-language, and recreation therapy" (2006, p. 358). Moreover, some researchers argue that humans have been forging relationships "since time immemorial" and that animals have served human society three broad capacities ever since: as teachers, as healers, and as companions and friends" (Pattnaik, 2004, p. 95).

The use of animals for therapeutic applications is referred to as an animal-assisted therapy (AAT) which by definition specifically incorporates animals into the therapeutic process (Chandler & Portrie-Bethke, 2010). The animals that are used in AAT have a human handler who also serves as a counselor or therapist; the human half of the animal-human AAT duo is responsible for the provision of compassionate and stimulating counseling to facilitate the recovery of the participants (Chandler & Portrie-Bethke, 2010). In this regard, Obrusnikova, Bibik and Cavalier report that, "Using therapy dog teams in school and therapeutic settings for children with disabilities is becoming increasingly popular. A therapy dog team consists of a specially trained dog and her or his owner (called a handler)" (2012, p. 37). The animals used in AAT applications typically include counseling, physical therapy, and occupational therapy (Chandler & Portrie-Bethke, 2010).

How society feels about those with disabilities…… [Read More]

Becker, D. (2013, August 26). "Four-Legged Therapy for Military Veterans with PTSD."

Healthy Pets. [online] available: / archive/2013/0.