9 results for "Animal Farm Essays"

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Animal Welfare Assurance Programs Essay

Words: 1107 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4916228

Animal Welfare Assurance Organizations

Animal welfare: Assurance organizations

Organization 1: Manes and Tails Mission (Hoboken, NJ)

Manes and Tails Mission, located in Hoboken, NJ is a locally-based organization that oversees a variety of efforts to reduce cruelty against horses. Given the faltering economy, many horses have been abandoned and/or abused, as fewer and fewer people have the ability to care for their animals properly. Horses from the racetrack or who have been used in vocations like the Mounted Police often have difficulties finding good homes after they retire. This organization resolves to "rescue, rehabilitate, retrain, and re-home the most commonly slaughtered breeds of horses - Quarter horses, Thoroughbreds, and Standardbreds." (Mission statement, 2011, Manes and Tails.). It does not sell horses, although it does lease them. It also provides retirement homes for Mounted Police horses. It educates the public about equine slaughter. It also provides community service through reduced rate boarding, maintenance of rare breeds, and promotes holistic horse care education.

The program is fairly balanced in terms of how it promotes preserving horses physically and mentally, and also attempts to keep horses in as natural a state as possible, regardless of where they are housed (including promoting keeping horses shoeless whenever possible). Providing educational and supportive resources to the community rather than outcomes are emphasized -- the organization is small and its goals are varied, so it does not keep metrics on monitoring how much of a positive or negative effect it has had upon the equine community. The organization disseminates information to all horse owners about improving the care of their animals and tries to help horses on a case-by-case basis. It acknowledges in its mission statement that it is a local organization with limited resources and strives to create liaisons with other community organizations and national organizations devoted to horse rescue and care.

Organization 2: The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA)

In contrast to the small,…… [Read More]

Annual report. (2010). American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA).

Retrieved September 20, 2011 at http://onlinedigitalpubs.com/publication/?i=76489
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Animals Thermoregulation There Are A Number Of Essay

Words: 3016 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98195785



There are a number of physical responses that occur in the a mammal's body when it is exposed to heat. It is important to not only understand what thermoregulation is, but the physiological and/or anatomical thermoregulatory responses that allow sustained exercise in horses.

Understanding Thermoregulation

Thermoregulation is the control of body temperature within certain limits even when the surrounding temperature is very different. This enables the body to function effectively and is known as maintaining homeostasis, which is a dynamic state of stability between an animal's internal environment and its external environment.

A relatively constant body temperature is necessary for the efficient functioning of the complicated brain of higher animals. Extreme temperatures alter biological molecules and disrupt body functions resulting in illness such as hyperthermia or hypothermia, which if not treated can lead to death. Mechanisms have subsequently evolved in mammals to enable body temperatures to stay within certain limits.

All mammals are endothermic meaning they maintain and regulate their own body temperature. Mammals and birds maintain a constant body temperature which is usually above the environmental temperature, known as homeothermic.

Adapting to the Environment

Mammals live in a number of widespread environments around the world, forcing them to face daily and seasonal fluctuations in temperatures. Some mammals live in harsh environments, such as arctic or tropical regions, and must withstand extreme cold and heat. In order to maintain its correct body temperature, a mammal must be able to produce and conserve body heat in colder temperatures, as well as dissipate excess body heat in warmer temperatures. Some mammals have adapted to their environment by increasing their surface area in the extremities, such as large ears on the Zebou cattle.

Animals that are exposed to the cold have heavier organs, and their skin color is dependent upon the amount of radiation they are exposed to. In colder climates, fat under the skin provides mammals with necessary insulation. Due the to surface to volume ratio, a large animal has the advantage over smaller animals since less skin is exposed to the elements.

Surviving the Heat

While fat is necessary in colder temperatures, it is also crucial for mammals living in warmer climates.…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Andersson, BE. (1984). "Temperature regulation and environmental physiology," in: Dukes'

Physiology of Domestic Animals, Dukes, HH (ed.), Comstock Pub. Associates, Ithaca,
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Animal Drawn Cart The Purpose Of Essay

Words: 2595 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36403867

Steel can create a very durable and rugged car that will often outlast the animals that are drawing it. However aluminum is as durable and element resistant as well as being extremely lightweight and is often the material of choice for many countries. Pneumatic or inflatable tires also have been a boon to carts by helping to absorb some shock as well as to distributing the weight over a wider surface without significantly increasing drag on the vehicle.

Aluminum casting is already a technique that is widely used in many parts of Africa and other developing countries. Africa, usually to make cooking utensils and the like. "Aluminium wheels with integral roller bearings could be made by these artisans and would provide a very low cost solution to the wheel and bearing problem." (Oram173) See figure 6 below:

These designs element the ordinary friction involved in a typical axle joint design made from wood as well as the quick wear and tear on the material over a shorter period of time.

There have also been considerable important in the foundation of journal bearings. Journal bearings are fundamental engineering component that supports and positions an object while allowing that object to rotate.

Bearings made of wood have long been used in cartwheels, windmills, lathes, and other technical devices Archeological evidence shows that wooden wheels and bearings were first used in the Tigris- Euphrates valley circa 3500 BC These solid cart wheels were crafted of flat planks and rotated on fixed wooden poles. (Sathre & Gorman 48)

Slowly evolving to lighter spooked wheels and the use of bearing lubricants which have been document to the thirteenth century BC, journal bearing have evolved even further in the current epoch. Leonardo da Vinci studied the friction and wear of bearings in the 15th and the recent industrial revolution sparked great advances in bearing Technology. (Sathre & Gorman 41)

Sather and Gorman decided to research improving existing and readily available materials like wood and attempting to ascertain the ultimate combination of variables necessary to make the most efficient bearing out of that material. Since aluminum and Steel many not be available to many, having better guidelines for available materials is the next best thing. Their study discover, among other things that: higher wood density gave lower wear; Higher wood permeability gave lower wear; Permeability may be more important than density to…… [Read More]

Carts." Nation Master Encyclopedia. Nationmaster.com. http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Cart

The Golovan one-ox cart," in Land, June 1997 from Dept. Of Agriculture, sought Africa http://www.nda.agric.za/docs/Infopaks/golovancart.pdf
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Animal Assisted Therapy Animals When Essay

Words: 2537 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31991308

69). Petting a dog lowered blood pressure and respiratory rate -- even if the dog was somebody else's. Pet owners that have heart surgery recover faster and stand a better chance of full recovery. Touching a warm furry animal gives them relief.

Moreover, pet ownership is a predictor of survival after hospitalization for any serious illness (Gunter & Furnham, 1999).

Demello (1999) found that the "mere presence of an animal" could lower blood pressure and that the effect persisted even after the animal was gone. Visual contact with an animal, although it helped, was not as good as touching. Heart rates decreased significantly in a three-minute period of physical contact with the animal (Demello, 1999).

A story in Time magazine (2001) tells how a brain-injured man needed help to get back his sense of balance. Ginger, an Australian shepherd, liked to fetch, so physical therapy for this man was to reach down, pet the dog with his weak arm, and then throw a ball for her to bring back. He said, "I can't turn my neck, and my eyesight isn't good. The dog gives me courage" (cited in Time, 2001, p. 53). The benefits are both physical and spiritual. The primary force that helps a patient to get well is motivation, and animals in critical care units remind patients there is a life to live away from the hospital and a reason to get well (Cenner, 2001).

Dog Certification

Dogs who do therapy must be trained. Most dogs that practice in hospitals are certified by Therapy Dogs International in New Jersey or by the Delta Society. Animals are insured for liability by these organizations (Cenner, 2001). The Delta Society screens dogs for personality and obedience. Certification reassures personnel that the dog will behave. Leaser (2005) points out, "While many dogs have a sweet nature and calm disposition, and offer love and companionship at home, not all dogs are appropriate or have the proper temperament suitable for a therapy dog..." (p. 978). Dogs also have to know hospital protocols. They must remain calm in the face of careening wheelchairs, screaming and weeping strangers, hospital emergencies, and scary equipment. Animals with aggressive behavior are screened out.

A dog must be a year old to get a license. It must be in good health, accept strangers, be well-groomed and attractive;…… [Read More]

Brodie, S., Biley, F.C., and Shewring, M. (2002). An exploration of the potential risks associated with using pet therapy in healthcare settings. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 11 (4), 444-456.

Demello, L. (1999). The effect of the presence of a companion-animal on physiological changes following the termination of cognitive stressors. Psychology & Health, 14 (5), 859.
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Human Condition In Orwells Animal Essay

Words: 606 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35420768

It is simply human nature. These pigs will be the ones attempting to gain all of the power and control the rest of the population. The image of the humans and the pigs being indistinguishable points to the frailty of the human condition and it declares that this condition cannot be "fixed" and it will lead to humanity's downfall in one way or another. Power and greed only make people more power hungry and greedy. There can be no equals in this kind of society because people, regardless of we like it or not, are simply not equal. There will always be those with more and there will always be those with less. Additionally, there will always be those that want to control everything and those who allow that control to occur.

Animal Farm pokes fun at humanity but it does so with a serious stick. There are messages and warnings to be mindful of in this novel because there can never be a perfect utopian society. This is because groups of people need leaders but most leaders lose their good intentions when they gain power and serve only themselves. Animalism or fascism are illusions used as a means to obtain power and control. The old adage that the road to hell is paved with good intensions is true but it is also paved with evil, greedy ones as well. We also hear that it takes all kinds to run the world but also takes all kinds to ruin it; Orwell saw the depravity of man and deemed it good enough for the animals.

Work… [Read More]

Orwell, George. Animal Farm. New York: Harcourt Brace. 1977.
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Cafos The Impact Of Concentrated Animal Feeding Essay

Words: 1629 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91144923


The Impact of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations

In the past century there has been a substantial change in the way human beings raise and keep animals meant for food. While in the past there were great numbers of widely spaced small individual farms, now there are relatively few, but extremely large industrialized farms. And as the numbers of animals kept and slaughtered for human consumption increases, these industrialized farms, known as Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations or CAFO's, are having more and more of an impact on the environment and people around them. The concentration of animals causes a major problem with the waste products they produce, as well as the gases, chemicals, and other types of byproducts. And the increased use of antibiotics in the animals is beginning to have a profound effect on the health of not only the environment but the communities that exist around these industrialized farms. CAFO's, and their secondary industries, are also a large consumer of oil, gasoline, and other fuels which can have an indirect, but devastating effect on the environment. Luckily there are some who have come to recognize the problems, and potential future problems, involved in this type of animal farming and have begun to inform the public to the dangers these farms pose. And in response to this information, the public is beginning to force changes in the way these CAFO's operate and the impact they have on the environment and local communities.

Industrialized farms, called CAFO's, have all but replaced the local family farm when it comes to raising animals. For instance, in 1965 there were more than one million pig farms across the country but in the 21st century the totality of pig farms number just a little over 65,000. (Sayre) And even as the number of farms…… [Read More]

"Energy Use and Climate Change." GRACE Communications Foundations. Web. 15

April 2013. http://www.gracelinks.org/982/energy-use-climate-change
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Animal Liberation A Triangular Affair By J Barid Callicott Essay

Words: 959 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37460457

Animal Liberation: A Triangular Affair

In his essay "Animal Liberation: A Triangular Affair," J. Baird Callicott discusses the animal liberation movement in relation to Aldo Leopold's "land ethic" as a means of demonstrating that although the two strains of thought appear at first glance to share more than a passing similarity, when considered more closely, the theoretical and practical underpinnings of animal liberation and environmental ethics are so fundamentally different that the two may ultimately be considered contradictory. These contradictions result in the "triangular affair" the title refers to, because Callicott determines that the animal liberation movement is not only locked in a conflict with conservative philosophizers maintaining a fundamental break between humans and animals, but also with environmental ethicists who propose a much broader scope for the application of ethics to realms beyond human interaction. Hopefully by examining Callicott's essay in greater detail, the validity of his argument concerning the unnecessarily reductive nature of animal liberation will become clear.

Before covering Callicott's critique of the animal liberation movement in more detail, it will be useful to briefly discuss Aldo Leopold's "land ethic," because it serves as the "exemplary type" to which subsequent formulations of environmental ethics may be compared and analyzed (Callicott 1). In short, Leopold's theory notes that "animals and plants, soils and waters […] traditionally not enjoyed no moral standing, no rights, no respect, in sharp contrast to human persons whose rights and interests ideally must be fairly and equally considered if our actions are to be considered 'ethical or 'moral'" (Callicott 1). Leopold correctly determines that the overall trajectory of society has been the expansion rights and interests to wider and wider groups, and predicts that eventual this expansion will eventually come to include plants and animals such that humans become only one constituent part of the protected biosphere, rather than…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Callicott, J. Baird. "Animal Liberation: A Triangular Affair."
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Animal Liberation By Peter Singer Essay

Words: 721 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96560144

In particular, Singer could have explained that moral concern for animals does not necessarily require that humans become vegetarians.

On the other hand, there is a tremendous moral difference between raising animals for consumption in conditions that provide for their reasonable comfort and humane slaughter and doing so without any regard at all for their comfort in life or trauma during slaughter. In many instances, morally questionable practices, especially in the farming industry, could be resolved simply by valuing the goal of avoiding the unnecessary infliction of pain a little more and the maximization of profits a little less.

Similarly, Singer does not explain that appropriate moral concern for animals does not necessarily preclude all experimental uses, but only requires a good-faith effort to minimize their suffering and to consider whether the potential benefits of the experiments to humans justifies their cost to animal subjects where it is not possible to eliminate it entirely. In that analysis, certain uses of animals for research capable of curing human disease may justify experimental uses of animals that is not justified in conjunction with experiments designed to help develop cosmetic products for profit. By distinguishing morally permissible uses of animals from morally insensitive uses in greater detail, Singer could have strengthened his position, especially against any suggestion that expressing a moral concern for non-human suffering necessarily means that all uses (and consumption) of animals for human benefit are necessarily immoral as well. The author's failure to do so leaves his position more vulnerable to the (erroneous) conclusion that the issue of moral concern for animals is an all-or-none proposition that requires a choice between prohibiting any form of use or consumption of animals and permitting every conceivable type of animal exploitation.

When it comes to presenting the logical objections to the immoral treatment of animals, it is important to structure the arguments so that they anticipate the supposed justifications of those not already inclined to that perspective. Singer's arguments obviously appeal to anybody already open to the moral concern for animal suffering; they are somewhat less likely to change the minds of those with a…… [Read More]

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Animal Assisted Therapy Within Society Is It Helpful To Those Who Seek Its Services Essay

Words: 2596 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80753384

Society Feels About Animals

As a first order primate, humans have a natural affinity with animals of all types that has contributed to their mutual relationships throughout history. In fact, animals of different types have been since the time of the ancient Greeks to improve the emotional and functional status of humans (Mccauley, 2006, p. 358). Animal-assisted therapy (AAT) has grown in popularity in recent years based on its proven efficacy in treating a wide range of healthcare and mental health conditions. Although dogs and cats are most commonly used in AAT settings, horses, rabbits and even fish can also be used. For instance, according to Macauley, "The use of animals ranges from companion animals that provide camaraderie and emotional support to assistance animals that provide direct physical-functional support to therapy animals that aid with the habilitation-rehabilitation in physical, occupational, speech-language, and recreation therapy" (2006, p. 358). Moreover, some researchers argue that humans have been forging relationships "since time immemorial" and that animals have served human society three broad capacities ever since: as teachers, as healers, and as companions and friends" (Pattnaik, 2004, p. 95).

The use of animals for therapeutic applications is referred to as an animal-assisted therapy (AAT) which by definition specifically incorporates animals into the therapeutic process (Chandler & Portrie-Bethke, 2010). The animals that are used in AAT have a human handler who also serves as a counselor or therapist; the human half of the animal-human AAT duo is responsible for the provision of compassionate and stimulating counseling to facilitate the recovery of the participants (Chandler & Portrie-Bethke, 2010). In this regard, Obrusnikova, Bibik and Cavalier report that, "Using therapy dog teams in school and therapeutic settings for children with disabilities is becoming increasingly popular. A therapy dog team consists of a specially trained dog and her or his owner (called a handler)" (2012, p. 37). The animals used in AAT applications typically include counseling, physical therapy, and occupational therapy (Chandler & Portrie-Bethke, 2010).

How society feels about those with disabilities

The disabled in American society are akin to the homeless;…… [Read More]

Becker, D. (2013, August 26). "Four-Legged Therapy for Military Veterans with PTSD."

Healthy Pets. [online] available: http://healthypets.mercola.com/sites/healthypets / archive/2013/0.
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Animal Feeding Operations Cafos For Essay

Words: 1028 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11532029

, 2000, p. 686). Virtually all swine CAFOs must cope with a significant amount of waste materials on-site that have been linked with serious odors and contain antimicrobials, nutrients, organics, and pathogenic microbes (Cole et al., 2000). For instance, raw swine manure can contain as much as 100 million fecal coliform bacteria per gram (Crane, Moore & Gismer, 1983). Futhermore, it has been estimated that 100 million lions tons of feces and urine are produced annually by the 60 million hogs raised in the United States (Meadows, 1995). According to Cole et al. (2000), the detection of specific exposures and diseases in the communities surrounding swine CAFOs has presented a challenge for the industry and healthcare officials alike because of the additional complexities of environmental dispersion of agents and human exposure pathways. In addition, the susceptibility of community residents to contaminants and pathogens may be substantially different from that of the workers and the respective facilities involved.

Current and Future Trends. Today, the storage and treatment of the enormous levels of wastes generated in swine CAFOs is generally accomplished in wastewater lagoons. "Lagoons became popular for the storage and management of swine wastes as production facilities increased in size and efficient storage and treatment of wastes became necessary" (Cole et al., 2000, p. 687). Most, but not all, of such swine lagoons depend primarily on anaerobic bacteria (these are bacteria that do not require oxygen to remediate the waste) in order to decompose the organic matter since more organic matter per unit lagoon volume can be handled by anaerobic bacteria than by aerobic processes; in addition, anaerobic lagoons can be deeper, requiring less land area than aerobic lagoons (Cole et al., 2000).


The research showed that recent changes in swine-management practices have created a two-fold problem: 1) there has been an increase in the health hazards associated with such practices by virtue of the confined spaces in which they take are practiced; and 2) these changes have also caused a public relations problem for the industry, particularly in the communities immediately situated near such facilities. However, the research also showed that there are some intelligent steps that the industry can take to help deal with these issues, including sound environmental health practices in the workplace and providing anaerobic lagoons to help remediate the large amount of biological wastes that are inevitably generated at such CAFOs.… [Read More]

Buttel, F.H. (1992). Environmentalism: Origins, Processes, and Implications for Rural Social Change. Rural Sociology, 57(1), 1-27.

Cole, D., Todd, L., & Wing, S. (2000). Concentrated Swine Feeding Operations and Public Health: A Review of Occupational and Community Health Effects. Environmental Health Perspectives, 108(8), 685.
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Ethical Treatment Of Animals Most Essay

Words: 1856 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91162610

Scientists should not perform testing of drugs, chemicals and cosmetics on animals. No matter how many animals they use, they cannot prove the new substances are perfectly safe and effective. If the substances pass animal testing and don't show any ill effects on animals, it doesn't mean the substances are a hundred percent safe for humans. Terrifyingly, the substances can cause serious side effects in humans. Because the physical structures between humans and animals are different, the result from the animal testing does not always apply to humans. This fact indicates that animal testing is not reliable, and not useful; it is only a way of slaughtering animals. In addition, the experimentation methods are immoral and inhumane even in the few instances where they are actually useful. A human also belongs to the animal kingdom and is a kind of animal. Accordingly, a human is not in a position to take away an animal's right to live. Scientists should reconsider animal testing, and switch to alternative toxicity testing methods in place of laboratory animals. These new methods can help to reduce the number of laboratory animals.

Works… [Read More]

Archibald, Kathy. "Animal Testing: Science or Fiction? Ecologist. May 2005. http://www.theecologist.co.uk/current_issue/animal_testing.htm

Biever, Celeste. "Can Computer Models Replace Animal Testing?" New Scientist. 16 May 2006. http://www.newscientisttech.com/article/mg19025514.000

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