Animal Farm Essays (Examples)

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Animal Rights Introduction Glance at

Words: 2298 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10578976

.. it's healthy, it's somebody's way of life, it's somebody's livelihood, it's somebody's business.(ibid)

This is a strongly worded statement and indictment of an uncaring humanity. However, bearing in mind the daily evidence of cruelty to animals one cannot but feel that there is an element of truth to this argument.

Commercial reasons for abuse

One of the central reasons or "justifications" for animal abuse and possibly why so many turn a blind eye to animal cruelty, is commerce and the profit motive.

The plain fact is that this country and other industrial countries are deeply dependent on animal exploitation to sustain their present economic structures. The plain fact is that we are more dependent on animal exploitation than were the states of the southern United States on human slavery. (Francione, G.)

Animals are essentially seen as property. While there are many laws designed to protect these animals these laws are also prejudiced towards the interests of the owners before the welfare of the animals. An example of the way animals are often treated only as commercial commodities is the following.

In Australia, lambs are put through a gruesome procedure called mulesing, in which huge chunks of skin are sliced…… [Read More]


Animals in Research. Retrieved December 20, 2004 from The Human Society of the United States. Web site:"

ANIMAL RIGHTS FAQ FILE.Retrieved December 20, 2004 from Animal Rights Com. Web site: 

Columbia University Fined for Cruel Puppy Killings. Retrieved: December 20, 2004 from Columbia University Cruelty. Web Site:

Francione, G. Animal Rights and the Future. Retrieved December 19, 2004 from Purify Our Mind. Web site:
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Animal Welfare Assurance Programs

Words: 1107 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4916228

Animal Welfare Assurance Organizations

Animal welfare: Assurance organizations

Organization 1: Manes and Tails Mission (Hoboken, NJ)

Manes and Tails Mission, located in Hoboken, NJ is a locally-based organization that oversees a variety of efforts to reduce cruelty against horses. Given the faltering economy, many horses have been abandoned and/or abused, as fewer and fewer people have the ability to care for their animals properly. Horses from the racetrack or who have been used in vocations like the Mounted Police often have difficulties finding good homes after they retire. This organization resolves to "rescue, rehabilitate, retrain, and re-home the most commonly slaughtered breeds of horses - Quarter horses, Thoroughbreds, and Standardbreds." (Mission statement, 2011, Manes and Tails.). It does not sell horses, although it does lease them. It also provides retirement homes for Mounted Police horses. It educates the public about equine slaughter. It also provides community service through reduced rate boarding, maintenance of rare breeds, and promotes holistic horse care education.

The program is fairly balanced in terms of how it promotes preserving horses physically and mentally, and also attempts to keep horses in as natural a state as possible, regardless of where they are housed (including promoting keeping horses…… [Read More]


Annual report. (2010). American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA).

Retrieved September 20, 2011 at 

Mission statement. (2011). Manes and Tails. Retrieved September 20, 2011 at

Policy positions. (2011). American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA).
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Animal-Drawn Cart the Purpose of

Words: 2595 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36403867

Steel can create a very durable and rugged car that will often outlast the animals that are drawing it. However aluminum is as durable and element resistant as well as being extremely lightweight and is often the material of choice for many countries. Pneumatic or inflatable tires also have been a boon to carts by helping to absorb some shock as well as to distributing the weight over a wider surface without significantly increasing drag on the vehicle.

Aluminum casting is already a technique that is widely used in many parts of Africa and other developing countries. Africa, usually to make cooking utensils and the like. "Aluminium wheels with integral roller bearings could be made by these artisans and would provide a very low cost solution to the wheel and bearing problem." (Oram173) See figure 6 below:

These designs element the ordinary friction involved in a typical axle joint design made from wood as well as the quick wear and tear on the material over a shorter period of time.

There have also been considerable important in the foundation of journal bearings. Journal bearings are fundamental engineering component that supports and positions an object while allowing that object to rotate.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Carts." Nation Master Encyclopedia.

The Golovan one-ox cart," in Land, June 1997 from Dept. Of Agriculture, sought Africa 

Light Single Drum Water Carrier." Animal Cart Programme. Development Technology Unit, Department of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry, England

Oram. CE. "The development of low-cost animal-drawn carts." Meeting the challenges of animal traction Starkey P. And Kaumbutho P (eds), 1999 Harare, Zimbabwe. Intermediate Technology Publications, London.
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Animal Production

Words: 1756 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44705114

Animal Production: Biotechnology

Biotechnology has achieved some dramatic advances in recent years in both crop and livestock production. Food production results from the interaction of humans, animals, land and water; to help speed up this process, make it safer and more efficient, biotechnology has been involved. These include transferring a specific gene from one species to another to create a transgenic organism; the production of genetically uniform plants and animals (clones); and the fusing of different types of cells to produce beneficial medical products such as monoclonal antibodies. Today, biotechnology has a number of applications in livestock production. It is being used to hasten animal growth, enhance reproductive capacity, improve animal health and develop new animal products. In 1999, FFTC carried out a regional survey to draw up an inventory of technologies and products which have been developed using biotechnology for livestock production. Some of these are now being applied on farms, others are still being developed in research stations. Animal production is important to agriculture, and biotechnology has improved range management, food safety and animal health as well as reproduction.

Biotechnology can increase the digestibility of low-quality roughage, and genetically modify plants to improve their feed value, such as…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Boyd, Emily. "Societal Choice for Climate Change Futures: Trees, Biotechnology, and Clean Development." Bioscience 60.9 (2010): 742-750. Environment Complete. EBSCO. Web. 30 Jan. 2011.

Devendra, Canagasby. "Sustainable Animal Production from Small Farm Systems in South East Asia." (London: Daya Publishing House, 1998).

Devendra, C., Thomas, M.A., and Zerbini, E. "Improvement of livestock production in crop- animal systems in rain-fed agro-ecological Zones of South Asia." (Kenya: International Livestock Research Institutie, 2000)

Kingiri, Ann. "Experts to the rescue? An analysis of the role of experts in biotechnology regulation in Kenya." Journal of International Development 22.3 (2010): 325-340. Environment Complete. EBSCO. Web. 30 Jan. 2011.
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Animal Dreams by Barbara Kingsolver Theme the Importance of Ecology

Words: 2408 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60001740

Animal Dreams: Real Life Reflections of the Effects of Pollution on the World's Fertility

Continued inadequate attention to the world's rivers, lakes and streams will ultimately result to mankind's demise. To ensure the productivity and viability the earth in the future, mankind must start working together to protect the physical environment and ecological processes or face destruction. Government legislation and community action related to this issue up until this point in time have largely been inadequate. More proactive measures are necessary both from governmental officials and community members to significantly change the course of history in a positive manner.

From an ecological viewpoint, of key concern are humankind's natural bodies of water, which historically have nourished and supported human life. In recent years however continual pollution and exposure to environment toxins have diminished the supply and quality of water and life available in the worlds' natural bodies of water. There are no signs that water pollution is significantly declining despite previous legislation and efforts by some community members. Brough (1998) shows that over-consumption and pollution continue to accelerate, which is contributing the destruction of the world's natural water resources. The World Wide Fund for Nature recently reported that whole seas…… [Read More]


Anderson, Terry L. (1994). "Enviro-Capitalism vs. Enviro-Socialism, " Kansas Journal

of Law and Public Policy 4: 35 -- 40.

Arnold, Frank S. (1995). Economic Analysis of Environmental Policy and Regulation, New York: Wiley.

Billow, L. (2002). "Right as rain: Control water pollution with your own rain garden." E,
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Animal Assisted Therapy Animals When

Words: 2537 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31991308

69). Petting a dog lowered blood pressure and respiratory rate -- even if the dog was somebody else's. Pet owners that have heart surgery recover faster and stand a better chance of full recovery. Touching a warm furry animal gives them relief.

Moreover, pet ownership is a predictor of survival after hospitalization for any serious illness (Gunter & Furnham, 1999).

Demello (1999) found that the "mere presence of an animal" could lower blood pressure and that the effect persisted even after the animal was gone. Visual contact with an animal, although it helped, was not as good as touching. Heart rates decreased significantly in a three-minute period of physical contact with the animal (Demello, 1999).

A story in Time magazine (2001) tells how a brain-injured man needed help to get back his sense of balance. Ginger, an Australian shepherd, liked to fetch, so physical therapy for this man was to reach down, pet the dog with his weak arm, and then throw a ball for her to bring back. He said, "I can't turn my neck, and my eyesight isn't good. The dog gives me courage" (cited in Time, 2001, p. 53). The benefits are both physical and spiritual. The…… [Read More]


Brodie, S., Biley, F.C., and Shewring, M. (2002). An exploration of the potential risks associated with using pet therapy in healthcare settings. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 11 (4), 444-456.

Demello, L. (1999). The effect of the presence of a companion-animal on physiological changes following the termination of cognitive stressors. Psychology & Health, 14 (5), 859.

Gunter, B. And Furnham, a. (1999). Are pets good for our physical well-being? In Pets and People: The Psychology of Pet Ownership, Chapter 5, 6. London: Wherr Publishing, 66-81/

Hooker, S.D., Freeman, L.H., and Stewart, P. (2002). Pet therapy research: A historical review. Holistic Nursing Practice, 16 (5), 17-23.
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Animal Liberation -- Peter Singer

Words: 1428 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66529792

4). Singer references the essay in the book by Richard Ryder, who criticizes (with great justification) animal experiments ("now a large industry"). Of course there have been laws passed in the U.S. Congress subsequent to when this book was published, laws that provide guidelines for any animal research, but Ryder provides Singer with some gruesome experiments on animals and Singer reports them in his essay.

How moral is a company or organization or university when it injects chemicals into the brains of cats? At the National Institute for Medical Research in London they did just that, and while it is doubtful they could get away with such cruelty in 2011, they certainly did then. The injection into the brain of a cat with a large does of "Tubocuraine" caused the cat to jump into its cage and start calling "noisily whilst moving about restlessly and jerkily… jerking in rapid clonic movements" like an epileptic convulsion, and dying 35 minutes after the injection (Singer, p. 5).

Springer noted that notwithstanding the fact that these kinds of hideously cruel experiments are taking place "on university campuses throughout the country" there has not been "the slightest protest from the student movement" (p. 5).…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Singer, Peter. "Animal Liberation." The New York Review of Books. Retrieved April 2, 2011,

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Human Condition in Orwell's Animal

Words: 606 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35420768

It is simply human nature. These pigs will be the ones attempting to gain all of the power and control the rest of the population. The image of the humans and the pigs being indistinguishable points to the frailty of the human condition and it declares that this condition cannot be "fixed" and it will lead to humanity's downfall in one way or another. Power and greed only make people more power hungry and greedy. There can be no equals in this kind of society because people, regardless of we like it or not, are simply not equal. There will always be those with more and there will always be those with less. Additionally, there will always be those that want to control everything and those who allow that control to occur.

Animal Farm pokes fun at humanity but it does so with a serious stick. There are messages and warnings to be mindful of in this novel because there can never be a perfect utopian society. This is because groups of people need leaders but most leaders lose their good intentions when they gain power and serve only themselves. Animalism or fascism are illusions used as a means to…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Orwell, George. Animal Farm. New York: Harcourt Brace. 1977.
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Cafo's the Impact of Concentrated Animal Feeding

Words: 1629 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91144923


The Impact of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations

In the past century there has been a substantial change in the way human beings raise and keep animals meant for food. While in the past there were great numbers of widely spaced small individual farms, now there are relatively few, but extremely large industrialized farms. And as the numbers of animals kept and slaughtered for human consumption increases, these industrialized farms, known as Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations or CAFO's, are having more and more of an impact on the environment and people around them. The concentration of animals causes a major problem with the waste products they produce, as well as the gases, chemicals, and other types of byproducts. And the increased use of antibiotics in the animals is beginning to have a profound effect on the health of not only the environment but the communities that exist around these industrialized farms. CAFO's, and their secondary industries, are also a large consumer of oil, gasoline, and other fuels which can have an indirect, but devastating effect on the environment. Luckily there are some who have come to recognize the problems, and potential future problems, involved in this type of animal farming…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Energy Use and Climate Change." GRACE Communications Foundations. Web. 15

April 2013.

"Pollution from Giant Livestock Farms Threatens Public Health." NRDC. Web. 15

April 2013.
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Animal Liberation A Triangular Affair by J Barid Callicott

Words: 959 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37460457

Animal Liberation: A Triangular Affair

In his essay "Animal Liberation: A Triangular Affair," J. Baird Callicott discusses the animal liberation movement in relation to Aldo Leopold's "land ethic" as a means of demonstrating that although the two strains of thought appear at first glance to share more than a passing similarity, when considered more closely, the theoretical and practical underpinnings of animal liberation and environmental ethics are so fundamentally different that the two may ultimately be considered contradictory. These contradictions result in the "triangular affair" the title refers to, because Callicott determines that the animal liberation movement is not only locked in a conflict with conservative philosophizers maintaining a fundamental break between humans and animals, but also with environmental ethicists who propose a much broader scope for the application of ethics to realms beyond human interaction. Hopefully by examining Callicott's essay in greater detail, the validity of his argument concerning the unnecessarily reductive nature of animal liberation will become clear.

Before covering Callicott's critique of the animal liberation movement in more detail, it will be useful to briefly discuss Aldo Leopold's "land ethic," because it serves as the "exemplary type" to which subsequent formulations of environmental ethics may be compared…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Callicott, J. Baird. "Animal Liberation: A Triangular Affair."
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Animal Liberation by Peter Singer

Words: 721 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96560144

In particular, Singer could have explained that moral concern for animals does not necessarily require that humans become vegetarians.

On the other hand, there is a tremendous moral difference between raising animals for consumption in conditions that provide for their reasonable comfort and humane slaughter and doing so without any regard at all for their comfort in life or trauma during slaughter. In many instances, morally questionable practices, especially in the farming industry, could be resolved simply by valuing the goal of avoiding the unnecessary infliction of pain a little more and the maximization of profits a little less.

Similarly, Singer does not explain that appropriate moral concern for animals does not necessarily preclude all experimental uses, but only requires a good-faith effort to minimize their suffering and to consider whether the potential benefits of the experiments to humans justifies their cost to animal subjects where it is not possible to eliminate it entirely. In that analysis, certain uses of animals for research capable of curing human disease may justify experimental uses of animals that is not justified in conjunction with experiments designed to help develop cosmetic products for profit. By distinguishing morally permissible uses of animals from morally insensitive…… [Read More]

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Animal Assisted Therapy Within Society Is it Helpful to Those Who Seek Its Services

Words: 2596 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80753384

Society Feels About Animals

As a first order primate, humans have a natural affinity with animals of all types that has contributed to their mutual relationships throughout history. In fact, animals of different types have been since the time of the ancient Greeks to improve the emotional and functional status of humans (Mccauley, 2006, p. 358). Animal-assisted therapy (AAT) has grown in popularity in recent years based on its proven efficacy in treating a wide range of healthcare and mental health conditions. Although dogs and cats are most commonly used in AAT settings, horses, rabbits and even fish can also be used. For instance, according to Macauley, "The use of animals ranges from companion animals that provide camaraderie and emotional support to assistance animals that provide direct physical-functional support to therapy animals that aid with the habilitation-rehabilitation in physical, occupational, speech-language, and recreation therapy" (2006, p. 358). Moreover, some researchers argue that humans have been forging relationships "since time immemorial" and that animals have served human society three broad capacities ever since: as teachers, as healers, and as companions and friends" (Pattnaik, 2004, p. 95).

The use of animals for therapeutic applications is referred to as an animal-assisted therapy (AAT)…… [Read More]


Becker, D. (2013, August 26). "Four-Legged Therapy for Military Veterans with PTSD."

Healthy Pets. [online] available: / archive/2013/0.

Bleich, A. (2004, October 1). "Mental Disability." The Israel Journal of Psychiatry and Related

Sciences, 41(4), 235-237.
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Animal Feeding Operations Cafos for

Words: 1028 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11532029

, 2000, p. 686). Virtually all swine CAFOs must cope with a significant amount of waste materials on-site that have been linked with serious odors and contain antimicrobials, nutrients, organics, and pathogenic microbes (Cole et al., 2000). For instance, raw swine manure can contain as much as 100 million fecal coliform bacteria per gram (Crane, Moore & Gismer, 1983). Futhermore, it has been estimated that 100 million lions tons of feces and urine are produced annually by the 60 million hogs raised in the United States (Meadows, 1995). According to Cole et al. (2000), the detection of specific exposures and diseases in the communities surrounding swine CAFOs has presented a challenge for the industry and healthcare officials alike because of the additional complexities of environmental dispersion of agents and human exposure pathways. In addition, the susceptibility of community residents to contaminants and pathogens may be substantially different from that of the workers and the respective facilities involved.

Current and Future Trends. Today, the storage and treatment of the enormous levels of wastes generated in swine CAFOs is generally accomplished in wastewater lagoons. "Lagoons became popular for the storage and management of swine wastes as production facilities increased in size and…… [Read More]


Buttel, F.H. (1992). Environmentalism: Origins, Processes, and Implications for Rural Social Change. Rural Sociology, 57(1), 1-27.

Cole, D., Todd, L., & Wing, S. (2000). Concentrated Swine Feeding Operations and Public Health: A Review of Occupational and Community Health Effects. Environmental Health Perspectives, 108(8), 685.

Crane, S.R., Moore, J. a, Grismer, M.E., & Miner J.R. (1983). Bacterial pollution from agricultural sources: a review. Trans ASAE 26:858 -- 866 in Cole, Todd & Wing (2000), p. 687.

Edward, B. & Ladd, a.E. (2002). Corporate Swine and Capitalist Pigs: A Decade of Environmental Injustice and Protest in North Carolina. Social Justice, 29(3), 26.
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New Jersey History of Farming and the State Evolution

Words: 1888 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71980333

New Jersey Farming

The state of New Jersey has been a part of the United States since before it was a country. When the land was occupied by Native Americans, the ground was cultivated and the fertile soil used to plant and fish in the Atlantic Ocean and the many rivers. It is believed that because of the high fertility of the ground, the populations who lived there were less adept at hunting and defense, thus making them easy targets for the European settlers, first from the Netherlands and then the Swedes before falling under the control of the British. Even as a colony of Great Britain, New Jersey was integral because of its agriculture and fertile soil which grew foods not just for people within the colonies but that could also be exported back to England. It was believed that the vast majorities of people living in New Jersey at the time were farmers or were engaged in an industry which benefited from farming. Even in the modern period, farming and agriculture are still integral parts of New Jersey's economy. However, as with most things in history, the agricultural profile of the New Jersey farmer has changed considerably since…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Adam, Pegi. "Fast Facts." New Jersey Farm Bureau. 2002. Print.

Barna, John, "New Jersey's Agriculture History Detailed Through Online Exhibit." Gloucester

County Times. 2011. Print.

Dimitri, Carolyn. The 20th Century Transformation of U.S. Agricultural and Farm Policy. U.S.
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Vertical Farming-Opportunities and Challenges for Singapore There

Words: 10804 Length: 33 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85032312

Vertical Farming-Opportunities and Challenges for Singapore

There has been much talk surrounding the environmental issues of food production, with many now suggesting the city is the ideal place for growing food to cater for rapidly expanding urban populations. In Singapore, small-scale examples of this are emerging, such as Changi General Hospital and the Tanjong Pagar apartment complex. This dissertation will examine the Vertical Farming movement, and look at the opportunities and challenges for implementing such strategies in Singapore. The research would include sustainable building designs related to architecture and minimal agriculture. The research would consider the application of interviews and case studies in order to come up with reliable and valid results in relation to the research question.

Vertical Farming-Opportunities and Challenges for Singapore


According to the research trends on the human population, in the near future approximately over 80% of the world's population would move to urban areas in order to seek employment opportunities. This would mean the large population of the human race would reside in the urban centers in search of livelihood. Human beings have the trend of increasing their population at an alarming rate. The rate of the world's population growth is unusually high thus…… [Read More]

bibliography and sourcebook. Lafayette, CA, Soyinfo Center. .
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Methods in Animal Proteomics

Words: 652 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29001699

Animal Proteomics

Proteomics is the study of proteins, and focuses on the role that proteins play in the organism, including how those proteins are structured. Animal proteomics focuses on proteins in animals. It is a very interesting component of reproductive biology because proteins can be modified in various organisms through genetic manipulation. In fact, the term proteomics reflects the combination of protein and genomes and demonstrates that proteins are subject to genetic modification. Some of these modifications may be accidental; stress and time can lead to changes in protein structure and function. However, many of these modifications are an intentional part of modern animal husbandry, where genetic manipulation and reproductive biology techniques are frequently more responsible for the creation of new animals than actual sexual reproduction. Understanding animal proteomics helps further the modern agricultural industry, which relies upon mass production of animal meat in a tightly controlled environment. Proteomics is particularly important when looking at the development of meat, the desired product of factory farming, because meat amount and quality is directly linked to protein structure. However, it is important to understand that practical genetic research will provide insight into human health conditions, not simply provide agricultural applications.

Picard et…… [Read More]


Bendixen, E., Danielsen, M., Hollung, K., Gianazza, E., & Miller, I. (2011). Farm animal proteomics- a review. J Proteomics, 74(3), 282-93.

Picard, B., Berri, C., Lefaucheur, L., Molette, C., Sayd, T., & Terlouw, C. (2010). Skeletal muscle proteomics in livestock production. Brief Funct Genomics, 9(3), 259-78.
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Siop Lesson Plan Visiting Farm

Words: 928 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97875659

Language Objectives: 1) Students will develop key vocabulary of farm animals.

2) Students will be able to exchange and discuss information

3) Students will verbally identify animals from sight to their partners.

Key Vocabulary

animal, barn, chicken, cow, duck, egg, goat, farmer, horse, pig, sheep

Supplementary Materials

Book: The Big Red Barn by Margaret Wise Brown.

Animal flashcards

Animal picture worksheets, coloring instruments

SIOP Features/Reflection

Preparation Scaffolding Grouping Options

_yes__ Adaptation of Content _yes__ Modeling _yes__ Whole Class

_yes__ Links to Background _yes__ Guided practice _yes__ Small Groups

_yes__ Links to Past Learning _yes__ Independent Practice _yes__ Partners

_yes__ Strategies Incorporated _yes__ Comprehensible Input _yes__ Independent

Integration of Processes Application Assessment

_yes__ Reading _yes__ Hands-on _yes__ Individual

_yes__ Writing _yes__ Meaningful _yes__Group

_yes__ Speaking _yes__ Linked to objectives _yes__ Written

_yes__ Listening _yes__ Promotes engagement _yes__ Oral

Lesson Sequence:

Introduce Concept and language objectives

Preparation: Introduction of visiting farm animals: Ask the children what they know about farms. Specifically who has visited one and what types of animals are on a farm.

Building Background: Tell the students that they are now going to listen to a story about a farm and to think picture what the farm and animals might…… [Read More]

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Ethical to Raise Animals for

Words: 2104 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55572059

Arguments For: In response to those allegations, Bill Mattos, the president of the California Poultry Federation, said that he had invited California Senate representatives to visit poultry farms -- and to see for themselves that allegations of inhumane treatment are not true -- but his offer was declined (Fitzenberger). "To me, it's propaganda disguised as research," Mattos said in response to the report the California state Senate Office of Research produced.

Essayist Bart Gruzalski (Ethics and Animals, p. 253) writes that "the use of animals for food can be justified on utilitarian grounds even if we take into account only the pleasures and pains of the animals involved." Gruzalski quotes pig farmer James Cargile, who buys "several pigs" every year "from a neighboring hog farm"; Cargile raises them "to slaughter for food" but sees no meanness because the pigs "are given lots of room and food, everything a pig could want for a good life but a short one" (Gruzalski, p. 253). Cargile states that his pigs "…are getting the best deal people are willing to give them" because their "good, short lives are better than no life at all" (Gruzalski, p. 253).

Arguments Against: Writing in The Well-being…… [Read More]

Works Cited

East Bay Animals Advocates (EBAA). (2005). Foster Farm Facts. Retrieved June 23, 2009,


Fitzenberger, Jennifer M. (2004). California report criticizes animal cruelty at large cattle

And poultry farms. Sacramento Bee, Retrieved June 22, 2009, from .
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Pig Farming

Words: 2446 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95418820

Human and societal benefits and costs of pig farming.

Most are not aware that intensive pig farming really has turned into an agricultural industry that basically operating by raising live pigs for slaughtering after that it is made into pork for humans to eat. Piggeries, as the business is recognized by, is serving as a vital food source in the a lot of countries, like America which has the largest earning per capita consumption that is in the middle of red meats. The commerce is reasonably eye-catching to stockholders as its high capital responsibility and hazardous nature is resourcefully collected out by the stable appeal of a freely available market. The competitive building of the industry which does include two groups. The initial one being commercial organizations, examples of the biggest are Robina, Foremost and Monterey farms. These firms are participating in large scale productions of pigs; with masses that are typically adding in the thousands and with a lot of farms that are dispersed during the course of a widespread topographical part. Backyard farms, which are thought to be way more plentiful, comprise of the second group. Backyard developments have been raising probably less than a ninety pigs. Regardless…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Assana, E., et al. "Pig-Farming Systems and Porcine Cysticercosis in the North of Cameroon." Journal of helminthology 84.4 (2010): 441-6.

Commandeur, Monica A.M. "Styles of Pig Farming and Family Labour in the Netherlands." Journal of Comparative Family Studies 36.3 (2005): 391-II.

Leeb, Christine. "The Concept of Animal Welfare at the Interface between Producers and Scientists: The Example of Organic Pig Farming." Acta Biotheoretica 59.2 (2011): 173-83.

Schaffner, Monika, Hans-peter Bader, and Ruth Scheidegger. "Modeling the Contribution of Pig Farming to Pollution of the Thachin River." Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy 12.4 (2010): 407-25.
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Ethical Treatment of Animals the

Words: 3045 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60756557

The main concern in virtue ethics becomes about a person's moral character. When people choose to develop their moral character, better virtues will be created, and thus there will be more people acting in virtuous ways in all aspects of their lives -- and this includes how they treat all animals.

One example to be considered when thinking about how a person with a strong sense of virtue might behave is to counter it with how a person with a strong sense of duty might behave. From a duty sense, if one were a livestock farmer, he or she might believe that his or her duty lies in what is best for the people because, after all, the job is about raising livestock for slaughter, which will then become food for people. Therefore, the first duty would be to humans and the second duty to animals (Panaman 20008) (which may entail being as good to the animals as possible while they are in his or her care on the farm -- i.e., not allowing torture, giving them adequate living space, feeding them food that is good for them, etc.). With virtue ethics, however, one will apply reason, experience and logic…… [Read More]


Garner, R. (2005). Animal ethics. Cambridge: Polity.

Gruen, L. (2011). Ethics and animals: An introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press;

1st edition.

Hursthouse, R. (2000). Ethics, humans and other animals: An introduction with readings. New York: Routledge.
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Organic Produce & Farming for Most of

Words: 1788 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1061228

Organic Produce & Farming

For most of history, farming was organic simply because of the available materials used in agriculture. Only during the middle to late 20th and early 21st centuries, with the advent of synthetic chemicals, was a new process for fertilizing and preserving foods available. This more recent style of production is referred to as "conventional," though organic production has been the convention for a much greater period of time. With organic methods, the use of chemical pesticides, herbicides and other chemicals is not only restricted, but regulated. There may be times, however, when certain non-organic products are still used when necessary. If livestock are involved, they must be reared without the routine use of antibiotics and without the use of growth hormones, and generally fed a healthy diet (Stokstad, 2002). While controversial, in most countries around the world, produce labeled as "organic" may not be genetically modified in any way. It has been suggested that the application of nanotechnology to food and agriculture is a further technology that needs to be excluded from certified organic food (Lyons, 2008).

Under most agriculture rules, organic food production is quite separate from private gardening and is regulated. Currently, the European…… [Read More]


Bourn, D. And J. Prescott. (2002). "A Comparison of the Nutritional Value, Sensory

Qualities, and Food Safety of Organically and Conventionally Produced Foods."

Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 42(1): 1-34. Cited in:
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Cultural Attitude Towards Animals in India

Words: 698 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59314762

Cultural Attitudes Towards Animals in India

India has long held the cow to be a sacred animal (hence the famous phrase 'sacred cow'). But the attitude of Hindus towards cows has often been described as perplexing and irrational by Westerners, particularly given the high rates of poverty in the nation. It is not uncommon to see cows wandering through the streets while starving people beg, causing observers from other ethnicities and faiths to wonder why Indians do not slaughter the cows for food. Even an Indian anthropologist, M.N. Srinivas, an Indian stated: "Orthodox Hindu opinion regards the killing of cattle with abhorrence, even though the refusal to kill the vast number of useless cattle which exists in India today is detrimental to the nation...the large animal population is more a liability than an asset in view of our land resources" (Harris 1)

According to Orthodox Hindu doctrine: "the cow is our mother, it's our duty to protect her...We do this because we believe in what the cow represents in our country, our culture and in the Hindu religion" (Rezvani, Gottlieb & Hennigan 2012). The earliest Vedic scriptures contained some provisions for cow slaughter as part of religious rituals, but "by…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Animals in Indian culture." Sri.Venkateswara Zoological Park [24 Apr 2012]

Harris, Marvin. "India's sacred cow." Sociology 101. [24 Apr 2012]
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Food Inc The Industrialization of Farming and

Words: 2392 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27410920

Food, Inc.

The Industrialization of Farming and Agriculture:

Effects on the Environment and the Way We Live

The film Food, Inc. By award winning documentary maker Robert Kenner starts out with a simple goal: it wants to find out where our food comes from. In his quest to answer this question, however, Kenner, and his two narrators, Pollan and Schlosser, find some unpleasant and startling facts about the way in which our food is raised, caught and ultimately produced for mass distribution. Essentially, this wonderfully executed film exposes the negative impact that industrialization has had on farming, on our health and on our environment. This paper will thus prove these negative effects by referencing topics covered by the movie, including what society should do in order to reverse the irrevocable damage that this way of producing food is bound to have upon our society. [1: "Food, Inc.' Film Looks at Corporate Impact on What We Eat | Daily Dish | Los Angeles Times." Top of the Ticket | Jay Carney's Newest Warning to Syria on Violence | Los Angeles Times. Web. 07 May 2011. . ] [2: Official Food, Inc. Movie Site - Hungry For Change? Web. 07 May 2011.…… [Read More]

Resources. Web. 7 May 2011. . ] [14: "Monsanto ~ Monsanto at a Glance." Monsanto ~ Home. Web. 07 May 2011. . ]

The documentary thus broaches many different and important topics, all of which prove the negativity of agricultural industrialization, which is quite a sad fact. At the end of the film, change is encouraged in all areas of society. First is that people must demand good quality food. Also, consumer can "vote" to change the system, three times a day, they can buy companies that treat things with respect. They can also choose foods that are in season, that are organic. People must read labels, know what's in their foods and buy locally. They can help Congress pass laws that will protect consumers and give the USDA and the FDA the powers to protect us. These are all solutions that can alleviate the problem that is threatening our society and we can help "with every bite." [15: Food, Inc. Dir. Robert Kenner. Perf. Michael Pollan and Eric Schlosser. Magnolia Pictures, 2008. DVD. ]

The documentary is a serious social commentary that proves the negative impacts of industrialization on our society and on what we eat. This documentary is also a great place to start to see what we can do to change the world. According to a review the film has a "deceptively cheery palette, but helmer Robert Kenner's doc -- which does for the supermarket what 'Jaws' did for the beach -- marches straight into the dark side of cutthroat agri-business, corporatized meat and the greedy manipulation of both genetics and the law." This is completely true, the film is a great compilation of negatives and what we can do to turn them into positives. One can only hope that we can start changing the world sooner rather than later. [16: "ROBERT KENNER FILMS - Food, Inc." Robert Kenner Films. Web. 07 May 2011. . ]
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Urban Farming

Words: 1661 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41213267

urban agriculture is generally employed to designate "a localized food system wherein the production, processing, distribution, access/consumption and disposal/recycling of food occur in and around the city" (Erickson et al. 5). Starting from the nature of all stakeholders' interests, urban agriculture can be endorsed for three main reasons, such as growth of food crops for personal consumption, growth of food crops for donation, or growth of food crops for sales and profits.

Public Health Law & Policy issued in March 2009 a document, named Establishing Land Use Protections for Community Gardens, which challenged the broad term of urban agriculture and advocated for a clear distinction between urban farms and community gardens. According to the document, all communities may create separate definitions and regulations for the two, urban farms being viewed primarily as a commercial or entrepreneurial enterprise, and community gardens as recreation or a leisure activity for gardeners where they grow their own food for themselves or share it with their neighbors (Erickson et al. 23).

In theory, the perks of community gardens are manifold. Mixed-use planning benefits a city's economy, promoting business development in new communities, along with providing unique opportunities to residents. Most notably, residents of a city…… [Read More]


Despommier, Dickson. "The Rise of Vertical Farms: Growing crops in city skyscrapers would use less water and fuel than outdoor farming, eliminate agricultural runoff and provide fresh food." Scientific American November 2009: 80-87.

Erickson, L., Griggs, K., Maria, M. And Serebrin, H. Urban Agriculture in Seattle: Policy & Barriers. Seattle, WA: City of Seattle. Online. Available:

Polk County Urban Farm/Community Garden Research Matrix, 2013.

Ranney, V., Kirley, K., Sands, M. Building Communities with Farms: Insights from developers, architects and farmers on integrating agriculture and development. Grayslake, IL: Liberty Prairie Foundation, 2010.
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Orpheus Charming the Animals vs

Words: 1367 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23854561

Figures dressed in bright colors that are small and have impish expression upon their faces dance around him and engage in sin. However, most of the devils are portrayed as dark figures in the form of winged creatures. This creates a distinct contrast between the saint, the holy light of his practice, and the darkness of evil.

Both paintings feature a contrast of color as well as theme. The supernatural glow of the central saint contrasts with the darkness of temptation, just like the pure light of the music of Orpheus contrasts with the darkness of the wilderness. Both paintings, as well as depicting a subject, thus also convey an ideological point-of-view of the subject. In Orpheus Charming the Animals, even the wild beasts are stilled by the ability of Orpheus to play, reflecting the power of the human art of music. In Teniers' painting, the holy focus of the saint is so pure, even the very real-looking hallucinogenic temptations created by Lucifer contrast with his beatific, radiant light. "Teniers uses a buff colored ground and a thin layer of paint. Teniers was well-known for his subtle range of colors that were painted 'wet on wet'" which intensified the contrasts…… [Read More]


Kummer, Julie. "The Temptation of Saint Anthony." [18 Nov 2011] 

Seiferth, Michael. "Renaissance." English 222. [18 Nov 2011]
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Hemp Farming While the Debate

Words: 1327 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82077033

As Earleywine points out, "By 850 a.D., the Vikings had dragged the ropes with them to Iceland. In 1000, hemp ropes helped the Italian navy dominate the seas. The hemp crop was so important that British farmers were commanded to grow cannabis or pay fines. Kings ordered the American colonies to export the crop, but they used it to make rope and fabric of their own" (p. 25).

The newly founded American colonies found hemp to be an ideal source for rope and fabric as well, and Earleywine attributes it use by the emerging republic as being a fundamental factor in its ultimate success in achieving independence from Great Britain. It would also appear reasonable to suggest that these valuable aspects of hemp are not being lost on manufacturers of all types in the 21st century either. For example, Earleywine suggests that even though synthetic alternatives have been developed over the years, hemp-based products have some superior qualities that make their use highly advantageous: "Cotton and synthetic fibers have replaced some of these ropes and fabrics, but a new movement supports industrial hemp as a more ecological alternative to these products. Contemporary merchants still sell shirts, shoes, and even hammocks…… [Read More]


Bock, a.W. (2000). Waiting to inhale: The politics of medical marijuana. Santa Ana, CA: Seven Locks.

Bowles, T.P. (2004, August 22). The pleasures of flesh. The Mail on Sunday (London, England), 51.

Earleywine, M. (2002). Understanding marijuana: A new look at the scientific evidence. New York: Oxford University Press.

Small, E. & Marcus, D. (2002. Hemp: A new crop with new uses for North America. p. 284- 326. in: J. Janick and a. Whipkey (eds.), Trends in new crops and new uses. ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA
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Ruthless Abuse of Power in

Words: 1900 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89199807

The other animals trusted the pigs with blind faith which led to them coming full circle in their oppression, despite how hard they had fought for independence.

At one point in the story, Napoleon also encouraged the other animals to feel patriotic toward the farm. The reason behind this was so the rest of the animals would not rebel against him. This is extremely similar to the way that Richard III continuously played up the loyalty angle to dissuade people from questioning his intentions and his decisions. Ultimately however, this propaganda is only designed to keep the people "controlled" like the animals on the farm. Machiavelli would undoubtedly agree, but he would also encourage these characters to form wiser partnerships. According to Machiavelli, "A Prince should be careful never to join with one stronger than himself in attacking others, unless, as already said, he be driven to it by necessity. For if he whom you join prevails, you are at his mercy; and Princes, so far as in them lies, should avoid placing themselves at the mercy of others" (Chapter XXI).

In Animal Farm, the pigs ruled the farm because the other animals were naive enough to allow them to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Machiavelli, Niccolo, The Prince, Harvard Classics, Web. 

Orwell, George. Animal Farm. New York: Penguin Books, 1946. Print.
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George Orwell's Dystopic Visions and

Words: 1239 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85593803

In Animal Farm, Orwell more directly satirizes real world events, as the overthrow of a farmer by his animals and the progression of the new order established there to a totalitarian dictatorship closely mirrors that of Russia's sudden transition to Communism and Stalin's iron-fisted rule. Whereas 1984 drops the reader immediately into the world of a government gone wrong, Animal Farm shows the emergence of such a government. Things begin happily once the farmer has been chased off, the animals all pitch in to accomplish the necessary work and "every mouthful of food was an acute positive pleasure, now that it was truly their own food, produced by themselves and for themselves" (Chapter III, par. 3). But eventually one of the pigs -- the species that had started the revolution -- wrests power from the other by having him driven off, and things on the farm enter a steady decline where the animals end up overworked and underfed.

In a strange way, the government in 1984 is almost more honest than that portrayed in Animal Farm. Although Big Brother's Party watches and controls everything that goes on, including rewriting history and "fact" to suit its own political purposes, it does…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Orwell, George. Animal Farm. 1945. Accessed online 30 September 2009. 

Orwell, George. 1984. 1949. Accessed online 30 September 2009.
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Cynicism and Perpetual Repression in

Words: 1269 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52863069

Each had distinct characteristics that made them endearing to the animal members in the farm. In this social order, animal farm members became idealistic and hopeful, adopting the political slogan, "Four legs good, two legs bad." However, this social order was also considered as a transitory phase in the shift of animal farm from being capitalist to totalitarian, because at this stage, Napoleon and Snowball were shown to subsist to different ideals. While Napoleon believed that a strong, peaceful, and stable animal farm was based on a strong military and massive political propaganda, Snowball believed in the provision of education and basic social services for the animals: "Until now the animals had been about equally divided in their sympathies, but in a moment Snowball's eloquence had carried them away..." This event led to the full transition of animal farm into a new social order, that of totalitarianism. In effect, Major's vision of a perfectly socialist order failed with Snowball's death and Napoleon's reign in animal farm.

Under Napoleon's leadership, Animal Farm became totalitarian. Animals no longer worked for the sake of their community, but rather, for the sake of Napoleon and his military of dogs, as well as the privileged…… [Read More]


Lenhoff, a. (2001). "Animals behaving badly." Writing, 23 (6).

Lucas, S. (2000). "The socialist fallacy." New Statesman, 129 (4488).

Martin, K. (1997). In George Orwell: the critical heritage. J. Meyers (Ed.). NY: Routledge.

Rodden, J. (2003). "Appreciating 'Animal Farm' in the New Millennium." Modern Age, 45 (1).
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Orwell Social Control Is the Cornerstone of

Words: 595 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54639354


Social control is the cornerstone of both 1984 and Animal Farm. However, the methods of persuasion and propaganda used in these two Orwell novels differ from one another. Animal Farm exemplifies overt forms of persuasion, intimidation, and violence. A revolutionary government is created; to maintain its power, the government becomes tyrannical and overbearing. It must therefore use methods of persuasion and treachery in order to retain its control over the animals. In 1984, methods of persuasion and social control are more covert in nature. Thought crime and the thought police comprise subversive methods of undermining individuality and creating a dystopic reality. Therefore, the primary difference between the methods of persuasion and social control in Animal Farm and 1984 is that the former utilizes straightforward, almost traditional methods of oppression; whereas 1984 takes propaganda and persuasion to a whole new, sinister level.

Animal Farm represents a typical coup d'etat: the animals revolt against their farmhand oppressors. Like many coups, the animals' proves ineffective and incomplete. Without a well-considered plan of good governance or cohesive political philosophy, the animals fail. Their government is unstable, and leaders quickly become corrupt because they are weighted down by their own power. The revolution starts…… [Read More]


Orwell, G. (1945) Animal Farm. Signet Classics (Harcourt, Brace).

Orwell, G. (1949). 1984. Signet Classics (Harcourt, Brace).
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Western Civ the Question of Leadership and

Words: 1551 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55025150

Western Civ

The question of leadership and government has always been a subject that concerned political theorists. One of the first political theorists to brake up with the Medieval tradition regarding rulers and the ethics of government, Niccolo Machiavelli, presented his theories related to the rules a prince should follow in order to be able to govern a state and stay in power as long as possible. Machiavelli left the question of ethics completely for religious subjects and treated his topic form a rationale point-of-view destined to prescribe the best recipe for a political ruler to follow in order to succeed. Shakespeare's Richard III and George Orwell's The Animal Farm present two different political regimes, the former focusing on dynastic battles in England in the fifteenth century and the latter on fictional animal characters that resemble real life characters form the early twentieth century revolutionary Russia. Despite the fact that the Shakespearean play and the film that was made based on the play in 1955 and The Animal Farm are presenting events and characters that lived in different times and in opposite forms of government is irrelevant because the aspiring leaders that will eventually seize power follow most of the…… [Read More]

Orwell, G. Baker, R. Animal farm: a fairy story. Signet Classic, 1996

Richard III, film, 1955.

Textbook. Machiavelli, N. The Prince
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Analyzing the Pro Veganism

Words: 5038 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91243962

Pro Veganism

A strictly vegetarian diet is best suited to the human body's needs, mankind's ability of survival on earth, and our inherent compassion. Switching to such a diet is fairly simple and creates the opportunity to lead a healthier, happier, and gentler life (Marcus, xi).

For numerous reasons, humanity has been increasingly taking to veganism since the last few years. Some vegan supporters assert their participation in a dietary regimen wherein consuming or utilizing animal products is unethical, according to their religious beliefs or values. Meanwhile, others put forward the argument of animal consciousness's ethicality and the industrial farming process. Those who claim to be vegans most probably do so owing to environmental, animal rights, or personal health concerns, which can alter with time. Several vegans begin as vegetarians, gradually ceasing consumption of milk, eggs and other animal by-products. Meanwhile, others turn purely vegan right from the outset. In Maurer's (2002) view, numerous vegan and vegetarian leaders are in agreement that vegetarianism isn't any static state. Rather, it represents a developing process characterized by individual motivational change and increase in commitment. (11) Donald Watson, who is credited with coining the word 'veganism' in 2005, stated that veganism represents the…… [Read More]


Primary Sources

Jacqui. Beyond Factory Farming: Sustainable Solutions for Animals, People and the Planet. A Report by Compassion in World Farming. 2009. Web. 15 July 2016.

Phillips, Frankie. "Vegetarian Nutrition." British Nutrition Foundation. Nutrition Bulletin, 30, 2005, pp. 132-167.

Rauma, Anna-Liisa. Vegetarianism and Vegan Diet. Physiology and Maintenance, vol. II. 2011. Web. 15 July 2016.
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Social Democracy Pamphleteering Has a

Words: 1968 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27797329

Northrop Frye recognized this fact but believed that the satire missed its mark:

It completely misses the point as satire on the Russian development of Marxism, and as expressing the disillusionment which many men of good-will feel about Russia. The reason for that disillusionment would be much better expressed as the corruption of expediency by principle (Frye 1987, p. 10).

What links 1984 and Animal Farm most directly is that both are anti-utopian in nature, for Orwell had developed a certainty that government in a utopian society would always be corrupted and would lose sight of its principles because of expediency.

Animal Farm was written during World War II. There is evidence that he was planning a novel that would become 1984 even before he wrote Animal Farm, and there is a relationship between the two books that is not often noted:

The form each book took was very different, but there was an intellectual continuity between the story of the revolution betrayed and the story of the betrayers, power-hungry in each case, perpetuating themselves in power for ever (Crick 1986, p. 54).

In the 1947 preface to Animal Farm Orwell explained his purpose in writing it as fulfilling the…… [Read More]


Brander, L. (1954). George Orwell. New York: Longmans, Green and Co.

Crick, B. (1986). The making of Animal Farm. In Critical Essays on George Orwell, B. Oldsey and J. Browne (eds.). Boston: G.K. Hall.

Frye, N. (1987). In George Orwell, H. Bloom (ed.). New York: Chelsea House.

Green, T.H. (1995). Liberal legislation and freedom of contract. In Sources of the Western Tradition, M. Perry, J.R. Peden, and T.H. Von Laue (eds.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
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Banerjee Mandira 2010 One Burger Hold the

Words: 721 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91905454

Banerjee, Mandira. (2010). One Burger, Hold the Meat -- Being Vegetarian in America.

New American Media. Retrieved April 7, 2013, from

Banerjee is a media specialist and she presents data in this article on how many

Americans are vegetarians. The bottom line is different from other research for this paper because it doesn't attack factory farming. Banerjee is interested more in numbers and explanations for why people turn to vegetarianism than in ethics and morality.

The value of this piece is that it presents data (7.3 million Americans are vegetarians and another 22.8 million are "inclined" towards vegetarianism). Interestingly, the number of people who embrace vegetarianism is not growing, but those in America interested in "eating more vegetarian meals, or who are vegetarian-inclined, is sky-rocketing" (Banerjee). The vegetarian culture in India is referenced (which is noted for its embrace of vegetarianism vis-a-vis Hinduism), as is the ghastly amount of water (390 gallons) needed to raise a pound of beef vs. only 25 gallons to produce a pound of wheat.

Devries, Juliana. (2012). Making Choices: Ethics and Vegetarianism. Dissent, 59(2), 39-41

In this piece Devries writes a personal journal about how she became a vegetarian.

She also relates to climate…… [Read More]

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Improving One S Teaching Capacity

Words: 1510 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77363066

Participation for Students


I would handle a preconference by initially asking the teacher who I am going to observe what the purpose of his lesson that day is. That way, I would be able to tailor the rest of my questions, and the sort of information that I am trying to gain, in such a way that they are aligned with his lesson. In the event that I was observing John Huber's Middle School English lesson, I would focus my learning process on how one can simultaneously teach the separate aspects of language arts in with one cohesive lesson plan. The different components of language arts including reading comprehension, composition, grammar and punctuation, and vocabulary. Therefore, I would impress upon the teacher that my overall purpose with this preconference is to determine how he is able to teach these various aspects of language arts comprehensively. I would want to make it clear that I am a graduate school student who is interested in teaching language arts, and that I want to ascertain the best way possible of doing so.

Another principal point of the pre-conference and its function is for me to learn how to best engage a group…… [Read More]

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2011 the State of California Has Been

Words: 700 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88919555

2011, the state of California has been in a drought condition. Recently, the media has been abuzz due to the governor's legislation to curtail domestic water use. The effort to curtail water use is a noble one. However, the governor needs to focus more on the real culprit: agribusiness. Because the state is the nation's largest agriculture producer by far, the governor of California has not imposed any restrictions on agriculture. Yet something needs to be done to change the methods by which the United States supplies itself with food. Because meat is linked to serious health problems, ethical issues, and environmental problems, a new policy should curtail factory farming.

Agro-Business Causes Drought

The drought in California highlights some of the problems related to food production and processing. Agriculture uses more than 80% of the state's total water (Sherman, 2015). Even if the current drought situation can be managed without changing agro-business, public policy must eventually come to terms with the unsustainability and stupidity of the current factory-farming model. As Lurie (2015) points out, the alfalfa used to feed cows is consuming the bulk of agricultural use water. It is not just the feed for animals that causes factory animal…… [Read More]


Goldbohm, R.H., et al. (1994). A prospective cohort study on the relation between meat consumption and the risk of colon cancer. Cancer Research 54.

Gossard, M.H. & York, R. (2003). Social structural influences on meat consumption. Research in Human Ecology 10(1). Retrieved online:

Lurie, J. (2015). 7 key facts about the drought. Mother Jones. 6 April, 2015. Retrieved online:

Sherman, E. (2015). 6 industries hurt by the California drought. Fortune. 9 April, 2015. Retrieved online:
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Enemy of the People Act

Words: 1222 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97636141

.. does it not?

STOCKMAN: That is so, the market may make cowards of all of us, ere long. The man who stops and considers how each action will effect his bottom line may refrain from taking actions he should take, and may begin to take actions he should not... all to please the fickle and evil majority. All that we can do is our absolute best... And we should hope that the market rewards our good work with fair reward, but we should not be surprised if the market only punishes us for failing to put finances before the Right.

Yet when the market works, this is how it works -- that people recognize and desire quality, and are willing to give more and spend more to achieve it.

STUDENT: And can the political system work the same way that an ideal market system works? Can people recognize and reward quality?

STOCKMAN: It is possible, of course. In an ideal system, beaurocrats would be guided by the best and the wisest minority, chosen by those elected by the majority. They would have information unavailable to the public, and they would have incentives to use it -- either because quality…… [Read More]

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Epidemiological Considerations Anthracis Originates in Soil in

Words: 2390 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43392196

Epidemiological considerations anthracis originates in soil in a lot of regions of this world in which we live. Environmental aspects (for example plentiful precipitation subsequent to a phase of water dearth) might improve spore mass in soil, even though the precise impact of such features remains badly understood (Bell, Kozarsky, Stephens, 2002).

The organism by and large subsists in the endospore shape in environment; germination of spores exterior to an animal congregation might take place when the subsequent situations are encountered (Bell, Kozarsky, Stephens, 2002):

Relative humidity >95%

Presence of sufficient nutrients

Temperature amid 8°C and 45°C

PH amid 5 and 9 (Bell, Kozarsky, Stephens, 2002)

Endospores are opposed to heat, drying, gamma radiation, ultraviolet light, and various antiseptics. Spores can continue in soil for decades, as exemplified by organic combat researches all through World War II on the Scottish island of Gruinard. All through 1943, as well as 1944, an expected 4 x 1014 anthrax spores were detached on the island all the way through volatile ways. Spores were nevertheless, measurable more than 40 years later. Disinfections of the island were lastly finished in 1987, by means of an amalgamation of seawater and formaldehyde (CDC, 2000).

Anthrax in Animals…… [Read More]


Bell, D.M., Kozarsky, P.E., Stephens, D.S. (2002). Clinical issues in the Prophylaxis, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Anthrax. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 8(2), 222-225.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2001). Anthrax Disease Information

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2201). Notice to Readers: Considerations for Distinguishing Influenza-Like Illness from Inhalational Anthrax. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 50(44), 984-6.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2201). Notice to Readers: Update: Interim Recommendations for Ant microbial Prophylaxis for Children and Breastfeeding Mothers and Treatment of Children with Anthrax. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 50(45), 1014-6.
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Orwell in Why I Write

Words: 1573 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10263533


Orwell presents a rather romantic picture of the life of a writer. A writer is someone who is driven internally, psychically, spiritually. The desire to write might initially be due to an admiration of a famous author, or a personal affection for the Harry Potter books. Or, the desire to write might be due to a want of recognition, fame, or even fortune. Writing can be used as a weapon as with bitter letters to politicians or ex-girlfriends.

Some writing is purely journalistic in tone, whereas other writing is all fluff. With his characteristic humor, Orwell takes a dig at journalists when he states, "Serious writers, I should say, are on the whole more vain and self-centered than journalists, though less interested in money." The essay "Why I Write" is an effective piece of prose because the author is credible, and bolsters his argument with humility as well as genuine and lighthearted humor. The essay is also effective because it is written in a straightforward manner that is right for the occasion. Orwell's essay is logical and well organized but personal and poetic at the same time. The inclusion of a poem rounds out the essay, just as the…… [Read More]


Orwell, George. Animal Farm. Signet, 1996.

Orwell, George. "Why I Write." Retrieved online:
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Innovation Culture Horibe F 2001

Words: 4283 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63023949

Both dissenters and innovators are outsiders -- thinking and acting outside the box. The very qualities that make these individuals annoying (e.g. arrogance, single-mindedness) are also part of the types of qualities (passion, drive, confidence) that are needed to keep ideas alive and vital. A good manager can deal with the package and manage the wheat with the chaff.

Talking Points

Usually impossible to get the type of innovators one wants without getting some of their own negatives (arrogance, inability to compromise, etc.).

Managing means eliciting the needed strengths out of each individual employee, and harkens back to the idea that not all employees are equal.

Managers often have the urge to tame the wild nature of a dissenter; to "bring them into the fold."

There are people who provide dissent because they are simply unhappy -- regardless of the situation. These types of dissenters rarely contribute innovation, but instead provide a litany of all the things they perceive as wrong with the company.

Recruit innovation -- don't be afraid of it.

Chapter 8 -- the Manager as Political Handler -- We've established that innovators and dissenters are able to provide valuable and insightful ideas to the organization, but need…… [Read More]

Cited in

Senge, P.M. (2006). The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning

Organization. Broadway.

Tichy, N. And a. McGill, eds. (2003). The Ethnical Challenge: How to Lead with Unyielding

Integrity. Jossey-Bass.
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Dystopia the Idea of the

Words: 4215 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4643949

The actions of these collective groups lead only to frustration, a lack of responsibility, ineptitude, and inefficiency.

What sort of world does this lead to? The people who are most capable seem to be disappearing, while the least capable are left in charge. Dagny wants to know why the capable people are disappearing, and she has to find the answer to this question in order to understand what is happening throughout society. The old virtues, virtues that sustained the business community and that made America great in the past, are no longer in force. People once took pride in their work and in the act of earning their own way. These things seem to have disappeared just as have the capable workers. The consequences are all around as things keep breaking down -- systems, machinery, people.

The villains in this story are socialists, or more descriptively those who oppose individualism and free enterprise. Wesley Mouch is representative of this group. He is a collectivist who sees the need for social programs and welfare systems that in essence protect the workers from having to work at all. He sees the big factories and manufacturing plants as places whose ownership should be…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ames, Russell. Citizen Thomas More and His Utopia. Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1949.

Baker, James T. Ayn Rand. Boston: Twayne, 1987.

Fleischer, Richard. Soylent Green. Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, 1973.

Huxley, Aldous. Brave New World. New York: HarperCollins, 1932.
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US History Before 1865

Words: 1056 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36110116

Reception, Perception and Deception: The Genesis of Slavery

Progress has a way of making itself known to the world, even in a situation where there exists resistance. Considering Olaudah Equiano's "The Interesting Narrative, the issue of slavery throughout the colonial world was as much about assimilation as it was oppression. The conflict between cultures is shown in the nature of the cultural assumptions each makes concerning the other. The British are caught in a tunnel vision that doesn't allow for any considerations outside the belief that their way of life is superior and assume that the tribal culture will logically want to adapt to fit into the more modern way of life. They cannot accept the natives as equals, even as they verbalize their intention as one of attempting to create a hybrid culture. The Ibo, for their part, assume that the British will recognize and honor the way of life they have perfected and which is in harmony with their past and their environment. They are equally as unwilling to recognize the reality of the other's perceptions

There existed slavery within the African culture before the coming of the Europeans. Between the Essaka community and its slaves "there was…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Equiano, Olaudah. "The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano." In The Classic Slave Narratives, ed. Henry Louis Gates. New York, NY: 1987.

Freehling, William W. "Founding Fathers and Slavery." American Historical Review, (1972): at

Richter, Daniel K. Facing East from Indian Country: A Native History of Early America. Cambridge, MS: Harvard University Press, 2001.