494 results for “Animal Farm”.
The plot of 'This report is a short summary of George Orwell's "Animal Farm." The novel was set in Hertfordshire which was the community where Orwell was known to have lived and where he wrote frequently. Orwell was an avid poultry farmer so his understanding of rural and farm living seems obvious but his insights in the oppression and governmental abuse is not as obvious. The layout of his south of England home served well as the background of the Old Major's dreams. The novel was originally a children's story because the book follows the style of a children's books. But like modern day cartoons that must take into consideration that parents will be watching along with the kids, Animal Farm has sophisticated humor and wit and can satisfy an adult audience. Animal Farm can also be considered a fable because the characters are talking animals with human…
The pigs formulate a rudimentary constitution by condensing the tenets of Animalism into Seven Commandments. Animalism is a doctrine centering on freedom and liberation, and especially on resisting human tyranny. Most of the animals on the farm become involved with the revolution and support it directly or indirectly.
Animals like Boxer the horse especially toil for the common good of the farm. A pro-labor worker ethic becomes the core philosophy of Animal Farm. Fellow Animal Farm residents refer to each other as "comrades" in direct reference to the communist revolution. The animals' solidarity proves strong, at least on a military front because they stave off Mr. Jones' attempt to take back the farm in the Battle of the Cowshed. Moreover, the Animal Farm leaders present their community as a nation-state using symbols like the flag and Mr. Jones' rifle. Community meetings are regular like parliament or congress.
However, the animals…
Animal Farm starts with Mr. Jones, the owner of Manor Farm, drunkenly heading to bed. The animals gather for a meeting to hear Old Major, the prize boar, who tells them about how the humans exploit the farm animals and how they can get rid of their oppressors through a rebellion. Major tells the animals that "all animals are equal" and the humans are their enemy.
Old Major dies soon and the animals are now tutored in the basics of rebellion by three smart pigs, Napoleon, Snowball and Squealer. The rebellion breaks out unexpectedly when Mr. Jones neglects to feed the animals and they break into a store shed to get food. As they are caught and whipped by the humans, the animals attack the humans who flee the farm. The new leaders of the animals, the pigs, change the name of the farm as "Animal Farm" and ask the…
George Orwell's Animal Farm (1945) is a satirical allegory of the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia and the conditions that prevailed in the country under Stalin's dictatorship. Direct parallels can be drawn between several characters in Animal Farm and real life people, e.g., Napoleon: Stalin; Snowball: Trotsky; Squealer: Goebbels. An alternate interpretation of the novel is that it depicts the general human condition and applies to the political and social conditions in several other countries besides the Soviet Russia. Given the fact that Orwell often drew parallels in his writings between the totalitarian regimes of Stalin and the fascist regimes in Germany and Italy at the time, Animal Farm probably did portray the Soviet Union under Stalin.
The concept of Communism was first forwarded by Karl Marx, who described it as a utopian state, following a revolution and a proletariat dictatorship, in which there would be no need for a government and everyone would live in equality and a state of happiness. Such a utopian Communist state, however, has never existed. The most famous experiment in Communism was the Russian Revolution of 1917 that led to the formation of the Soviet Union, degenerated into the totalitarian regime of Joseph Stalin, and eventually collapsed in 1991.
The main reason for the 'failed experiment' of Communism appears to be that the concept directly conflicts with the strongest urge in human nature, i.e., self-interest. The failure of Communism contrasts sharply with the success of Capitalism -- a system in which everyone works for his or her own economic interest, thereby contributing to collective economic progress. On the other hand, in a utopian Communist state, people are supposed to work for collective benefit. Since an urge to work for collective benefit rather than for self-interest does not come naturally to humans, they have to be forced into acting against their nature. This results in a totalitarian, tyrannical regime such as the one established by Joseph Stalin. The Animal Farm depicts such degeneration.
Napoleon refuses Snowball's plan to build a windmill and thereby make life more comfortable for all animals, on the grounds that it will take too much time to build the windmill, but his motivation may not be that innocent. When Snowball tries to get the animals to vote on the windmill, Napoleon has Snowball chased off of the farm (and perhaps killed) by a pack of vicious dogs. Napoleon then claims the windmill idea as his own, and blames poor Snowball for all of the farm's problems. Napoleon eventually breaks one of the principles of Animalism by trading with neighboring farms, and Napoleon overall becomes a ruthless dictator, moving into the farmer's house. All of the Seven Commandments are broken by the pigs, and eventually they cannot be distinguished from the humans at all.
There are many parallels between Animal Farm and the Russian Revolution. Orwell was making the comment…
Fitzpatrick, Sheila. The Russian Revolution. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.
Hunter, Lynette. "Animal Farm: Satire into Allegory." George Orwell: Contemporary Critical Essays. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1998.
Orwell, George. Animal Farm.
Pipes, Richard. A Concise History of the Russian Revolution. New York: Vintage Books, 1995.
The Use of Fear in Animal Farm
The use of fear plays a significant part in the campaign of Napoleon to gain control of Animal Farm in George Orwell's "fairy story" of the same name. The satirical representation of Stalin uses, of course, other tactics to consolidate his power -- such as the propaganda spewing by Squealer, historical revisionism, and the exploitation of the sheep's ignorance. However, fear underlies each of these elements, and this paper will provide two examples to show how Napoleon uses fear to turn Animal Farm into a communist environment.
The most obvious example of the use of the fear tactic comes when Napoleon trains the pups of the farm (Jessie and Bluebell's litter, to be exact) to be his own personal guard dogs -- ferocious, vicious animals that repulse any threat to Napoleon's position of authority. The dogs that Napoleon raises come to…
Orwell, George. Animal Farm. 2003. Web. 5 Sept 2011.
Animal Farm, a group of farm animals overthrew their human masters in order to establish a society where all animals would rule and benefit equally from their own labor. Three pigs -- Squealer, Napoleon and Snowball -- set about running the farm after Mr. Jones is defeated in the battle. All animals come together to work towards the common goal of the farm's prosperity, supposedly for the common good of all the farm animals.
Before long, however, it becomes apparent that this goal is largely untenable. All are supposedly created equally, but some animals like Boxer the carthorse do most of the work. By extension, all animals' opinions should matter equally, but any animal who opposes Napoleon's orders are beset by the leader's attack dogs.
Through this depiction, Orwell skillfully demonstrates how revolutions often fail to live up to their goals of equality. Such examples are seen throughout history. The…
Some wise and well-spoken pigs step up to the plate, stating their destiny, and leading them to revolt. As a result, led by Snowball and Napoleon, the animals eliminate Jones and write the new rules of their new society upon a barn wall. Powered by the partnership of Boxer and Benjamin, Animal Farm becomes a society of full equality.
In 1984, betrayal strikes again, as Winston Smith goes through a painful, mind altering experience with devastating results. Winston is forced to betray the woman he loves. He betrays his beliefs and one true love by accepting what the all-powerful Big Brother and O'Brien tell him. The novel 1984 takes place in Oceania, and society included a Party who controlled what individuals were doing at all times and what their beliefs were. "Freedom is the freedom to say that two plus two make four." (1984, p. 69) to citizens of Oceania,…
Orwell, George. 1984. (New York: Signet, 1992): 56, 58.
George Orwell, Animal Farm (Middlesex: Penguin Books, 1951): 54, 69.
Animal Farm and 1984: Similarities and Differences in Themes
S.S. And the West. I personally did not believe that such good relations would last long; and, as events have shown, I wasn't far wrong.
The novel is a great example of allegorical satire that doesn't go beyond its limits. it's very tasteful even if a reader doesn't subscribe to the same views. Orwell presents everything in simple yet highly effective language. Readers should read the book knowing the history even though the book itself is great enough to be read without historical support. However the reason it is better to know history is because we can then truly grasp the depth of Orwell's political thought. Was he a socialist who had reservations about his own principles? Did he think communism was as evil as capitalism? If hatred doesn't work, how should revolutions be brought about?
When studied closely, we realized that these questions are very important. If Orwell was…
V.I. Lenin, What Is to Be Done? Burning Questions of Our Movement (New York: International Publishers, 1969)
Sanford Pinsker, a Note to the Teaching of Orwell's Animal Farm," CEA Critic (1978): 18-19.
Appendix II, Animal Farm (Knopf edition), p. 113.
It was certainly the hope for the socialists and for the Bolsheviks in Russia before the revolution was taken over by Stalin and turned into a different sort of stat than had been envisioned. It was the hope of those fighting the Nazis in Spain, making it also the hope Orwell had when he entered that battle. His disillusionment with the process derives from the fact that human nature enables some to thwart the desires of the many and turn any revolution to their own ends. This begins to take place at Manor Farm as the goods that should be shared by all begin to disappear. Many of the events that take palce are reminiscent of the way the Russian state developed. Boxer the horse is admirted and celebrated fgor his devotion to the cause, much as certain workers were given awards and celebrated in Soviet Russia even as the…
Orwell, George. Animal Farm. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1954.
An Analysis of Orwell's Animal Farm
George Orwell's Animal Farm is a highly symbolic "fantasy" in which modern day revolution, ideologues, working class members, media and human nature are represented by the animals of Jones' Farm, the setting for the staged rebellion and the institutionalization of Totalitarianism. This paper will analyze Animal Farm from the perspective of plot, character, setting, theme, point-of-view, style and symbolism and show how Orwell's novel satirizes major players of his day and age.
The plot of Animal Farm is simple: Old Major calls the animals together one evening to tell them of a dream he has had. It is the dream of a Romantic, in which equality and class elevation are the ideals. He represents the ideals of the Romantic/Enlightenment era. When he dies, his ideals are pushed forward by the equally romantic Snowball, who encourages the animals to unite against Farmer Jones,…
Animal Farm Book vs. MovieThe 1999 film Animal Farm is much different from the 1945 Orwell novel of the same name. For one thing, the film opens up with one of the animals musing on the fall of Napoleon and all his evil ambitionsa scene that is nowhere to be found in the novel but a scene that is added most likely to reflect the fall of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s. For another thing, the film focuses on the cruelty of the humans to the animals in its opening, with the human children slinging rocks at the sheep and their father allowing it because it is fun for them. The novel opens on the other hand with Old Majors dream of revolution, and the animals are obviously representative of the Soviet leaders, Trostky, Lenin, Stalin, and so on. Thirdly, the film is more dramatic than it is…
Orwell, George. Animal Farm. 1945. https://files.libcom.org/files/animal_farm.pdf
Animal Farm. 1999. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cGzRf0Ow1qU&ab_channel=mojomojo
The term, factory farming, is one which is used to represent intensively mechanized systems specifically aimed at raising and managing huge livestock numbers which are commonly in their several thousands. The system managers commonly breed these livestock in confinement in order to manage and care for them more easily. It is very common for them to breed poultry and castrated male pigs (hogs) in the same building and to prevent them from going out. The cooling, heating, watering, feeding and ventilation systems of the building are controlled automatically. Every animal is identified via a special identification number instead of a name. Those farmers who operate small farms often find it difficult to compete with the factory farms in the market. Another name for factory farming is corporate farming (Factory farming, 2016 p.1).
A number of people have stated that factory farming causes coldness and cruelty towards livestock. They are…
USSR and How Communism is Affiliated with Animal FarmThe Bolshevik revolution in Russia came about in much the same way the revolution at Manor Farm comes about in Orwells Animal Farm. Under tsarist Russia, the peasant class was not very prosperous and there were many unsatisfied people. Lenin was one of the early Bolshevik leaders who took up the plight of the working class and called for revolution: Lenin was inspired by Marx, and the Bolshevik revolution in Russia in 1917 was the moment when Marxist-trained Communists seized power and institutionalized the revolution. If Lenin offered up the original dream for Communism, inspired by Marx, Trotsky became the mouthpiece for that vision and the potential new leader of it in Russia. However, Stalin emerged as more powerful andcraving still more powerchased Trotsky away and led a purge of all opposition in order to consolidate his grip on the USSR. Under…
Fitzgerald, S. Everyday Stalinism. UK: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Marx, K. & Engels, J. Manifesto of the Communist Party, 1848.
O’Malley, JP. Trotsky’s day out: How a visit to NYC influenced the Bolshevik revolution. https://www.timesofisrael.com/trotskys-day-out-how-a-visit-to-nyc-influenced-the-bolshevik-revolution/
Analyzing Animal Farm
An authoritarian regime is defined as a form of government controlled by one individual or a small group of people who are able to wield control over the state (Authoritarian Regimes, n.d.)—i.e., over the “bundle of specialized political institutions serving as the primary authority over a particular territory and the people who live there” (Origins and Transformations of the State, n.d.). The authoritarian regime may have present a constitution—a set of rules or laws—to the people, but the regime is not held accountable to the same rules or laws and is not responsible for adhering to the constitution to the public. This situation describes perfectly the case in George Orwell’s Animal Farm, and it also reflects the real world cases of the Soviet State in Russia, the Communist state in China, and the Democratic-on-the-Outside-but-Authoritarian-on-the-Inside government of the U.S.). This paper will analyze Orwell’s Animal Farm according to…
Steel can create a very durable and rugged car that will often outlast the animals that are drawing it. However aluminum is as durable and element resistant as well as being extremely lightweight and is often the material of choice for many countries. Pneumatic or inflatable tires also have been a boon to carts by helping to absorb some shock as well as to distributing the weight over a wider surface without significantly increasing drag on the vehicle.
Aluminum casting is already a technique that is widely used in many parts of Africa and other developing countries. Africa, usually to make cooking utensils and the like. "Aluminium wheels with integral roller bearings could be made by these artisans and would provide a very low cost solution to the wheel and bearing problem." (Oram173) See figure 6 below:
These designs element the ordinary friction involved in a typical axle joint design…
Carts." Nation Master Encyclopedia. Nationmaster.com. http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Cart
The Golovan one-ox cart," in Land, June 1997 from Dept. Of Agriculture, sought Africa http://www.nda.agric.za/docs/Infopaks/golovancart.pdf
Light Single Drum Water Carrier." Animal Cart Programme. Development Technology Unit, Department of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry, England http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/sci/eng/research/dtu/pubs/tr/animals/tr30.pdf
Oram. CE. "The development of low-cost animal-drawn carts." Meeting the challenges of animal traction Starkey P. And Kaumbutho P (eds), 1999 Harare, Zimbabwe. Intermediate Technology Publications, London.
Animal Production: Biotechnology
Biotechnology has achieved some dramatic advances in recent years in both crop and livestock production. Food production results from the interaction of humans, animals, land and water; to help speed up this process, make it safer and more efficient, biotechnology has been involved. These include transferring a specific gene from one species to another to create a transgenic organism; the production of genetically uniform plants and animals (clones); and the fusing of different types of cells to produce beneficial medical products such as monoclonal antibodies. Today, biotechnology has a number of applications in livestock production. It is being used to hasten animal growth, enhance reproductive capacity, improve animal health and develop new animal products. In 1999, FFTC carried out a regional survey to draw up an inventory of technologies and products which have been developed using biotechnology for livestock production. Some of these are now being applied…
Boyd, Emily. "Societal Choice for Climate Change Futures: Trees, Biotechnology, and Clean Development." Bioscience 60.9 (2010): 742-750. Environment Complete. EBSCO. Web. 30 Jan. 2011.
Devendra, Canagasby. "Sustainable Animal Production from Small Farm Systems in South East Asia." (London: Daya Publishing House, 1998).
Devendra, C., Thomas, M.A., and Zerbini, E. "Improvement of livestock production in crop- animal systems in rain-fed agro-ecological Zones of South Asia." (Kenya: International Livestock Research Institutie, 2000)
Kingiri, Ann. "Experts to the rescue? An analysis of the role of experts in biotechnology regulation in Kenya." Journal of International Development 22.3 (2010): 325-340. Environment Complete. EBSCO. Web. 30 Jan. 2011.
69). Petting a dog lowered blood pressure and respiratory rate -- even if the dog was somebody else's. Pet owners that have heart surgery recover faster and stand a better chance of full recovery. Touching a warm furry animal gives them relief.
Moreover, pet ownership is a predictor of survival after hospitalization for any serious illness (Gunter & Furnham, 1999).
Demello (1999) found that the "mere presence of an animal" could lower blood pressure and that the effect persisted even after the animal was gone. Visual contact with an animal, although it helped, was not as good as touching. Heart rates decreased significantly in a three-minute period of physical contact with the animal (Demello, 1999).
A story in Time magazine (2001) tells how a brain-injured man needed help to get back his sense of balance. Ginger, an Australian shepherd, liked to fetch, so physical therapy for this man was to…
Brodie, S., Biley, F.C., and Shewring, M. (2002). An exploration of the potential risks associated with using pet therapy in healthcare settings. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 11 (4), 444-456.
Demello, L. (1999). The effect of the presence of a companion-animal on physiological changes following the termination of cognitive stressors. Psychology & Health, 14 (5), 859.
Gunter, B. And Furnham, a. (1999). Are pets good for our physical well-being? In Pets and People: The Psychology of Pet Ownership, Chapter 5, 6. London: Wherr Publishing, 66-81/
Hooker, S.D., Freeman, L.H., and Stewart, P. (2002). Pet therapy research: A historical review. Holistic Nursing Practice, 16 (5), 17-23.
The Impact of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations
In the past century there has been a substantial change in the way human beings raise and keep animals meant for food. hile in the past there were great numbers of widely spaced small individual farms, now there are relatively few, but extremely large industrialized farms. And as the numbers of animals kept and slaughtered for human consumption increases, these industrialized farms, known as Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations or CAFO's, are having more and more of an impact on the environment and people around them. The concentration of animals causes a major problem with the waste products they produce, as well as the gases, chemicals, and other types of byproducts. And the increased use of antibiotics in the animals is beginning to have a profound effect on the health of not only the environment but the communities that exist around these industrialized…
"Energy Use and Climate Change." GRACE Communications Foundations. Web. 15
April 2013. http://www.gracelinks.org/982/energy-use-climate-change
"Pollution from Giant Livestock Farms Threatens Public Health." NRDC. Web. 15
April 2013. http://www.nrdc.org/water/pollution/nspills.asp
Animal Liberation: A Triangular Affair
In his essay "Animal Liberation: A Triangular Affair," J. Baird Callicott discusses the animal liberation movement in relation to Aldo Leopold's "land ethic" as a means of demonstrating that although the two strains of thought appear at first glance to share more than a passing similarity, when considered more closely, the theoretical and practical underpinnings of animal liberation and environmental ethics are so fundamentally different that the two may ultimately be considered contradictory. These contradictions result in the "triangular affair" the title refers to, because Callicott determines that the animal liberation movement is not only locked in a conflict with conservative philosophizers maintaining a fundamental break between humans and animals, but also with environmental ethicists who propose a much broader scope for the application of ethics to realms beyond human interaction. Hopefully by examining Callicott's essay in greater detail, the validity of his argument concerning…
Callicott, J. Baird. "Animal Liberation: A Triangular Affair."
Society Feels About Animals
As a first order primate, humans have a natural affinity with animals of all types that has contributed to their mutual relationships throughout history. In fact, animals of different types have been since the time of the ancient Greeks to improve the emotional and functional status of humans (Mccauley, 2006, p. 358). Animal-assisted therapy (AAT) has grown in popularity in recent years based on its proven efficacy in treating a wide range of healthcare and mental health conditions. Although dogs and cats are most commonly used in AAT settings, horses, rabbits and even fish can also be used. For instance, according to Macauley, "The use of animals ranges from companion animals that provide camaraderie and emotional support to assistance animals that provide direct physical-functional support to therapy animals that aid with the habilitation-rehabilitation in physical, occupational, speech-language, and recreation therapy" (2006, p. 358). Moreover, some researchers…
Becker, D. (2013, August 26). "Four-Legged Therapy for Military Veterans with PTSD."
Healthy Pets. [online] available: http://healthypets.mercola.com/sites/healthypets / archive/2013/0.
Bleich, A. (2004, October 1). "Mental Disability." The Israel Journal of Psychiatry and Related
Sciences, 41(4), 235-237.
, 2000, p. 686). Virtually all swine CAFOs must cope with a significant amount of waste materials on-site that have been linked with serious odors and contain antimicrobials, nutrients, organics, and pathogenic microbes (Cole et al., 2000). For instance, raw swine manure can contain as much as 100 million fecal coliform bacteria per gram (Crane, Moore & Gismer, 1983). Futhermore, it has been estimated that 100 million lions tons of feces and urine are produced annually by the 60 million hogs raised in the United States (Meadows, 1995). According to Cole et al. (2000), the detection of specific exposures and diseases in the communities surrounding swine CAFOs has presented a challenge for the industry and healthcare officials alike because of the additional complexities of environmental dispersion of agents and human exposure pathways. In addition, the susceptibility of community residents to contaminants and pathogens may be substantially different from that of…
Buttel, F.H. (1992). Environmentalism: Origins, Processes, and Implications for Rural Social Change. Rural Sociology, 57(1), 1-27.
Cole, D., Todd, L., & Wing, S. (2000). Concentrated Swine Feeding Operations and Public Health: A Review of Occupational and Community Health Effects. Environmental Health Perspectives, 108(8), 685.
Crane, S.R., Moore, J. a, Grismer, M.E., & Miner J.R. (1983). Bacterial pollution from agricultural sources: a review. Trans ASAE 26:858 -- 866 in Cole, Todd & Wing (2000), p. 687.
Edward, B. & Ladd, a.E. (2002). Corporate Swine and Capitalist Pigs: A Decade of Environmental Injustice and Protest in North Carolina. Social Justice, 29(3), 26.
Welfae in Captive Wild Animals
The Holy Bible gets the elationship between humankind and wild animals out of the way ealy on in Genesis 1:26 when God said, "Let us make mankind in ou image, in ou likeness, so that they may ule ove the fish in the sea and the bids in the sky, ove the livestock and all the wild animals, and ove all the ceatues that move along the gound." Humanity clealy took this divine gift seiously, and the elationship between humankind and wild animals has been lagely one-sided since people climbed to the top of the food chain. Since the second half of the 20th centuy, though, thee have been gowing calls fo impoving the manne in which humans teat animals in geneal and wild animals maintained in captivity in paticula. The ecent closue of Ringling and Banum and Bailey's "Geatest Show on Eath" due to…
Sejian, V and Lakritz, J (2011, August), "Assessment Methods and Indicators of Animal Welfare." Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, vol 6, no. 4, pp. 301-315.
Spallone, C (2014, April 18). "Rescue groups helping former lab animals." One Green Planet. [online] available: http://www.onegreenplanet.org/animalsandnature/5-awesome-rescue-groups-helping-former-lab-animals/ .
Wise, SM (2000). Rattling the Cage: Toward Legal Rights for Animals. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books.
Yarri, D (2005). The Ethics of Animal Experimentation: A Critical Analysis and Constructive Christian Proposal. New York: Oxford University Press.
Proteomics is the study of proteins, and focuses on the role that proteins play in the organism, including how those proteins are structured. Animal proteomics focuses on proteins in animals. It is a very interesting component of reproductive biology because proteins can be modified in various organisms through genetic manipulation. In fact, the term proteomics reflects the combination of protein and genomes and demonstrates that proteins are subject to genetic modification. Some of these modifications may be accidental; stress and time can lead to changes in protein structure and function. However, many of these modifications are an intentional part of modern animal husbandry, where genetic manipulation and reproductive biology techniques are frequently more responsible for the creation of new animals than actual sexual reproduction. Understanding animal proteomics helps further the modern agricultural industry, which relies upon mass production of animal meat in a tightly controlled environment. Proteomics is…
Bendixen, E., Danielsen, M., Hollung, K., Gianazza, E., & Miller, I. (2011). Farm animal proteomics- a review. J Proteomics, 74(3), 282-93.
Picard, B., Berri, C., Lefaucheur, L., Molette, C., Sayd, T., & Terlouw, C. (2010). Skeletal muscle proteomics in livestock production. Brief Funct Genomics, 9(3), 259-78.
To be an “experiencing subject of a life” means to be something that is here, now, alive, in this world, being part of the grand mystery that is life. So basically anything that exists has life—from people to birds to trees to grass to even water and rocks. There is a grace and power and beauty and soul that is woven through all of it. To disregard something as not worth our concern or as something that can be annihilated or abused is to be disconnected from this grand harmony.
However, I do not think that being the subject of a life means that one has equal inherent value. As a human being, I feel that we can derive a sense of our value from religious teachings—particularly the traditional Christian teachings that hold that we are created in the image and likeness of God. This teaching points to a special…
Should Animals Be Used in Scientific Testing for Medical Research or Commercial Products?
The fear and dread of you will fall on all the beasts of the earth, and on all the birds in the sky, on every creature that moves along the ground, and on all the fish in the sea; they are given into your hands. – Genesis 9:2 (c. 1450 BCE)
Studies published in prestigious medical journals have shown time and again that animal experimentation wastes lives—both animal and human—and precious resources by trying to infect animals with diseases that they would never normally contract. -- People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (2019)
As the epigraphs above clearly show that humankind’s views about using animals for their own purposes have changed significantly over the past several millennia, but despite increasing condemnation by animal rights advocates, animal testing for medical research or commercial products continues around the…
Language Objectives: 1) Students will develop key vocabulary of farm animals.
2) Students will be able to exchange and discuss information
3) Students will verbally identify animals from sight to their partners.
animal, barn, chicken, cow, duck, egg, goat, farmer, horse, pig, sheep
Book: The Big Red Barn by Margaret Wise Brown.
Animal picture worksheets, coloring instruments
Preparation Scaffolding Grouping Options
_yes__ Adaptation of Content _yes__ Modeling _yes__ Whole Class
_yes__ Links to Background _yes__ Guided practice _yes__ Small Groups
_yes__ Links to Past Learning _yes__ Independent Practice _yes__ Partners
_yes__ Strategies Incorporated _yes__ Comprehensible Input _yes__ Independent
Integration of Processes Application Assessment
_yes__ Reading _yes__ Hands-on _yes__ Individual
_yes__ Writing _yes__ Meaningful _yes__Group
_yes__ Speaking _yes__ Linked to objectives _yes__ Written
_yes__ Listening _yes__ Promotes engagement _yes__ Oral
Introduce Concept and language objectives
Preparation: Introduction of visiting farm animals:…
Arguments For: In response to those allegations, Bill Mattos, the president of the California Poultry Federation, said that he had invited California Senate representatives to visit poultry farms -- and to see for themselves that allegations of inhumane treatment are not true -- but his offer was declined (Fitzenberger). "To me, it's propaganda disguised as research," Mattos said in response to the report the California state Senate Office of Research produced.
Essayist Bart Gruzalski (Ethics and Animals, p. 253) writes that "the use of animals for food can be justified on utilitarian grounds even if we take into account only the pleasures and pains of the animals involved." Gruzalski quotes pig farmer James Cargile, who buys "several pigs" every year "from a neighboring hog farm"; Cargile raises them "to slaughter for food" but sees no meanness because the pigs "are given lots of room and food, everything a pig…
East Bay Animals Advocates (EBAA). (2005). Foster Farm Facts. Retrieved June 23, 2009,
From http://www.fosterfacts.net .
Fitzenberger, Jennifer M. (2004). California report criticizes animal cruelty at large cattle
And poultry farms. Sacramento Bee, Retrieved June 22, 2009, from http://www.sacbee.com.
The main concern in virtue ethics becomes about a person's moral character. When people choose to develop their moral character, better virtues will be created, and thus there will be more people acting in virtuous ways in all aspects of their lives -- and this includes how they treat all animals.
One example to be considered when thinking about how a person with a strong sense of virtue might behave is to counter it with how a person with a strong sense of duty might behave. From a duty sense, if one were a livestock farmer, he or she might believe that his or her duty lies in what is best for the people because, after all, the job is about raising livestock for slaughter, which will then become food for people. Therefore, the first duty would be to humans and the second duty to animals (Panaman 20008) (which may…
Garner, R. (2005). Animal ethics. Cambridge: Polity.
Gruen, L. (2011). Ethics and animals: An introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press;
Hursthouse, R. (2000). Ethics, humans and other animals: An introduction with readings. New York: Routledge.
Cultural Attitudes Towards Animals in India
India has long held the cow to be a sacred animal (hence the famous phrase 'sacred cow'). But the attitude of Hindus towards cows has often been described as perplexing and irrational by esterners, particularly given the high rates of poverty in the nation. It is not uncommon to see cows wandering through the streets while starving people beg, causing observers from other ethnicities and faiths to wonder why Indians do not slaughter the cows for food. Even an Indian anthropologist, M.N. Srinivas, an Indian stated: "Orthodox Hindu opinion regards the killing of cattle with abhorrence, even though the refusal to kill the vast number of useless cattle which exists in India today is detrimental to the nation...the large animal population is more a liability than an asset in view of our land resources" (Harris 1)
According to Orthodox Hindu doctrine: "the cow is…
"Animals in Indian culture." Sri.Venkateswara Zoological Park [24 Apr 2012]
Harris, Marvin. "India's sacred cow." Sociology 101. [24 Apr 2012]
Figures dressed in bright colors that are small and have impish expression upon their faces dance around him and engage in sin. However, most of the devils are portrayed as dark figures in the form of winged creatures. This creates a distinct contrast between the saint, the holy light of his practice, and the darkness of evil.
Both paintings feature a contrast of color as well as theme. The supernatural glow of the central saint contrasts with the darkness of temptation, just like the pure light of the music of Orpheus contrasts with the darkness of the wilderness. Both paintings, as well as depicting a subject, thus also convey an ideological point-of-view of the subject. In Orpheus Charming the Animals, even the wild beasts are stilled by the ability of Orpheus to play, reflecting the power of the human art of music. In Teniers' painting, the holy focus of the…
Kummer, Julie. "The Temptation of Saint Anthony." [18 Nov 2011]
Seiferth, Michael. "Renaissance." English 222. [18 Nov 2011]
As Earleywine points out, "By 850 a.D., the Vikings had dragged the ropes with them to Iceland. In 1000, hemp ropes helped the Italian navy dominate the seas. The hemp crop was so important that British farmers were commanded to grow cannabis or pay fines. Kings ordered the American colonies to export the crop, but they used it to make rope and fabric of their own" (p. 25).
The newly founded American colonies found hemp to be an ideal source for rope and fabric as well, and Earleywine attributes it use by the emerging republic as being a fundamental factor in its ultimate success in achieving independence from Great Britain. It would also appear reasonable to suggest that these valuable aspects of hemp are not being lost on manufacturers of all types in the 21st century either. For example, Earleywine suggests that even though synthetic alternatives have been developed over…
Bock, a.W. (2000). Waiting to inhale: The politics of medical marijuana. Santa Ana, CA: Seven Locks.
Bowles, T.P. (2004, August 22). The pleasures of flesh. The Mail on Sunday (London, England), 51.
Earleywine, M. (2002). Understanding marijuana: A new look at the scientific evidence. New York: Oxford University Press.
Small, E. & Marcus, D. (2002. Hemp: A new crop with new uses for North America. p. 284- 326. in: J. Janick and a. Whipkey (eds.), Trends in new crops and new uses. ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA
Each had distinct characteristics that made them endearing to the animal members in the farm. In this social order, animal farm members became idealistic and hopeful, adopting the political slogan, "Four legs good, two legs bad." However, this social order was also considered as a transitory phase in the shift of animal farm from being capitalist to totalitarian, because at this stage, Napoleon and Snowball were shown to subsist to different ideals. While Napoleon believed that a strong, peaceful, and stable animal farm was based on a strong military and massive political propaganda, Snowball believed in the provision of education and basic social services for the animals: "Until now the animals had been about equally divided in their sympathies, but in a moment Snowball's eloquence had carried them away..." This event led to the full transition of animal farm into a new social order, that of totalitarianism. In effect, Major's…
Lenhoff, a. (2001). "Animals behaving badly." Writing, 23 (6).
Lucas, S. (2000). "The socialist fallacy." New Statesman, 129 (4488).
Martin, K. (1997). In George Orwell: the critical heritage. J. Meyers (Ed.). NY: Routledge.
Rodden, J. (2003). "Appreciating 'Animal Farm' in the New Millennium." Modern Age, 45 (1).
The question of leadership and government has always been a subject that concerned political theorists. ne of the first political theorists to brake up with the Medieval tradition regarding rulers and the ethics of government, Niccolo Machiavelli, presented his theories related to the rules a prince should follow in order to be able to govern a state and stay in power as long as possible. Machiavelli left the question of ethics completely for religious subjects and treated his topic form a rationale point-of-view destined to prescribe the best recipe for a political ruler to follow in order to succeed. Shakespeare's Richard III and George rwell's The Animal Farm present two different political regimes, the former focusing on dynastic battles in England in the fifteenth century and the latter on fictional animal characters that resemble real life characters form the early twentieth century revolutionary Russia. Despite the fact that…
Orwell, G. Baker, R. Animal farm: a fairy story. Signet Classic, 1996
Richard III, film, 1955.
Textbook. Machiavelli, N. The Prince
Justice or Equality
For years now, we have been taught to fight for equality: equality this and equality that. One of the major things we have been taught about equality is that women are equivalent to men and should be treated the same. This is based on the argument that equality involves treating every individual the same regardless of whether he/she is male or female. However, that is not the case. Women are not created equally to men, nor are we the same, but rather similar to each other. Women are set out to be different from men, and men are set up to be different from women. For instance, men think about things differently from the way women do, which demonstrates that men and women are not the same. Why is it that we ask for such a burden, when we can ask for fairness and just actions instead?…
A strictly vegetarian diet is best suited to the human body's needs, mankind's ability of survival on earth, and our inherent compassion. Switching to such a diet is fairly simple and creates the opportunity to lead a healthier, happier, and gentler life (Marcus, xi).
For numerous reasons, humanity has been increasingly taking to veganism since the last few years. Some vegan supporters assert their participation in a dietary regimen wherein consuming or utilizing animal products is unethical, according to their religious beliefs or values. Meanwhile, others put forward the argument of animal consciousness's ethicality and the industrial farming process. Those who claim to be vegans most probably do so owing to environmental, animal rights, or personal health concerns, which can alter with time. Several vegans begin as vegetarians, gradually ceasing consumption of milk, eggs and other animal by-products. Meanwhile, others turn purely vegan right from the outset. In…
Jacqui. Beyond Factory Farming: Sustainable Solutions for Animals, People and the Planet. A Report by Compassion in World Farming. 2009. Web. 15 July 2016. http://www.compassioninfoodbusiness.com/media/3817096/beyond-factory-farming-report.pdf
Phillips, Frankie. "Vegetarian Nutrition." British Nutrition Foundation. Nutrition Bulletin, 30, 2005, pp. 132-167.
Rauma, Anna-Liisa. Vegetarianism and Vegan Diet. Physiology and Maintenance, vol. II. 2011. Web. 15 July 2016. http://www.eolss.net/sample-chapters/c03/E6-54-03-06.pdf
Northrop Frye recognized this fact but believed that the satire missed its mark:
It completely misses the point as satire on the ussian development of Marxism, and as expressing the disillusionment which many men of good-will feel about ussia. The reason for that disillusionment would be much better expressed as the corruption of expediency by principle (Frye 1987, p. 10).
What links 1984 and Animal Farm most directly is that both are anti-utopian in nature, for Orwell had developed a certainty that government in a utopian society would always be corrupted and would lose sight of its principles because of expediency.
Animal Farm was written during World War II. There is evidence that he was planning a novel that would become 1984 even before he wrote Animal Farm, and there is a relationship between the two books that is not often noted:
The form each book took was very different,…
Brander, L. (1954). George Orwell. New York: Longmans, Green and Co.
Crick, B. (1986). The making of Animal Farm. In Critical Essays on George Orwell, B. Oldsey and J. Browne (eds.). Boston: G.K. Hall.
Frye, N. (1987). In George Orwell, H. Bloom (ed.). New York: Chelsea House.
Green, T.H. (1995). Liberal legislation and freedom of contract. In Sources of the Western Tradition, M. Perry, J.R. Peden, and T.H. Von Laue (eds.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Banerjee, Mandira. (2010). One Burger, Hold the Meat -- Being Vegetarian in America.
New American Media. Retrieved April 7, 2013, from http://news.newamericamedia.org.
Banerjee is a media specialist and she presents data in this article on how many
Americans are vegetarians. The bottom line is different from other research for this paper because it doesn't attack factory farming. Banerjee is interested more in numbers and explanations for why people turn to vegetarianism than in ethics and morality.
The value of this piece is that it presents data (7.3 million Americans are vegetarians and another 22.8 million are "inclined" towards vegetarianism). Interestingly, the number of people who embrace vegetarianism is not growing, but those in America interested in "eating more vegetarian meals, or who are vegetarian-inclined, is sky-rocketing" (Banerjee). The vegetarian culture in India is referenced (which is noted for its embrace of vegetarianism vis-a-vis Hinduism), as is the ghastly amount of…
Participation for Students
I would handle a preconference by initially asking the teacher who I am going to observe what the purpose of his lesson that day is. That way, I would be able to tailor the rest of my questions, and the sort of information that I am trying to gain, in such a way that they are aligned with his lesson. In the event that I was observing John Huber's Middle School English lesson, I would focus my learning process on how one can simultaneously teach the separate aspects of language arts in with one cohesive lesson plan. The different components of language arts including reading comprehension, composition, grammar and punctuation, and vocabulary. Therefore, I would impress upon the teacher that my overall purpose with this preconference is to determine how he is able to teach these various aspects of language arts comprehensively. I would want to…
2011, the state of California has been in a drought condition. ecently, the media has been abuzz due to the governor's legislation to curtail domestic water use. The effort to curtail water use is a noble one. However, the governor needs to focus more on the real culprit: agribusiness. Because the state is the nation's largest agriculture producer by far, the governor of California has not imposed any restrictions on agriculture. Yet something needs to be done to change the methods by which the United States supplies itself with food. Because meat is linked to serious health problems, ethical issues, and environmental problems, a new policy should curtail factory farming.
Agro-Business Causes Drought
The drought in California highlights some of the problems related to food production and processing. Agriculture uses more than 80% of the state's total water (Sherman, 2015). Even if the current drought situation can be managed without…
Goldbohm, R.H., et al. (1994). A prospective cohort study on the relation between meat consumption and the risk of colon cancer. Cancer Research 54.
Gossard, M.H. & York, R. (2003). Social structural influences on meat consumption. Research in Human Ecology 10(1). Retrieved online: http://storage.globalcitizen.net/data/topic/knowledge/uploads/2011083092023705.pdf
Lurie, J. (2015). 7 key facts about the drought. Mother Jones. 6 April, 2015. Retrieved online: http://www.motherjones.com/environment/2015/04/everything-you-wanted-know-about-california-drought
Sherman, E. (2015). 6 industries hurt by the California drought. Fortune. 9 April, 2015. Retrieved online: http://fortune.com/2015/04/09/6-industries-hurt-the-most-by-the-california-drought/
WASTE MANAGEMENT Waste Management, Environment, and Human HealthPart 1: Documentary Food. Inc.Food. Inc. is an American documentary that shows what it takes the food we eat to be on our tables. It explores the processes through which our food comes from the plants or animals to our plates. The message conveyed in the movie is quite alarming since the food labels and charts shown on the product descriptions do not appear as shocking as the processes through which they come to the sale display shelves. The consumers are unaware of the procedures and food industry practices that the food has been gone through as the company owners have modified ways scientifically rather than keeping them organic and close to nature (Shanbaum, 2016).The film provides evidence in different categories, such as the industrial production of meat portrayed as inhumane for the animals and human consumption, environmentally unsustainable, and economically difficult in…
ReferencesShanbaum, E. (2016, August 30). Ethics on Film: Discussion of “Food.Inc.” Carnegie Council. https://www.carnegiecouncil.org/publications/ethics_onfilm/0019Thompson, K. (2016, September 19). Food Inc. - A summary. Revise Sociology. https://revisesociology.com/2016/09/19/food-inc-a-summary/
.. does it not?
STOCKMAN: That is so, the market may make cowards of all of us, ere long. The man who stops and considers how each action will effect his bottom line may refrain from taking actions he should take, and may begin to take actions he should not... all to please the fickle and evil majority. All that we can do is our absolute best... And we should hope that the market rewards our good work with fair reward, but we should not be surprised if the market only punishes us for failing to put finances before the Right.
Yet when the market works, this is how it works -- that people recognize and desire quality, and are willing to give more and spend more to achieve it.
STUDENT: And can the political system work the same way that an ideal market system works? Can people recognize and…
Epidemiological considerations anthracis originates in soil in a lot of regions of this world in which we live. Environmental aspects (for example plentiful precipitation subsequent to a phase of water dearth) might improve spore mass in soil, even though the precise impact of such features remains badly understood (Bell, Kozarsky, Stephens, 2002).
The organism by and large subsists in the endospore shape in environment; germination of spores exterior to an animal congregation might take place when the subsequent situations are encountered (Bell, Kozarsky, Stephens, 2002):
elative humidity >95%
Presence of sufficient nutrients
Temperature amid 8°C and 45°C
PH amid 5 and 9 (Bell, Kozarsky, Stephens, 2002)
Endospores are opposed to heat, drying, gamma radiation, ultraviolet light, and various antiseptics. Spores can continue in soil for decades, as exemplified by organic combat researches all through World War II on the Scottish island of Gruinard. All through 1943, as well as 1944,…
Bell, D.M., Kozarsky, P.E., Stephens, D.S. (2002). Clinical issues in the Prophylaxis, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Anthrax. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 8(2), 222-225.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2001). Anthrax Disease Information
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2201). Notice to Readers: Considerations for Distinguishing Influenza-Like Illness from Inhalational Anthrax. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 50(44), 984-6.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2201). Notice to Readers: Update: Interim Recommendations for Ant microbial Prophylaxis for Children and Breastfeeding Mothers and Treatment of Children with Anthrax. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 50(45), 1014-6.
Orwell presents a rather romantic picture of the life of a writer. A writer is someone who is driven internally, psychically, spiritually. The desire to write might initially be due to an admiration of a famous author, or a personal affection for the Harry Potter books. Or, the desire to write might be due to a want of recognition, fame, or even fortune. Writing can be used as a weapon as with bitter letters to politicians or ex-girlfriends.
Some writing is purely journalistic in tone, whereas other writing is all fluff. With his characteristic humor, Orwell takes a dig at journalists when he states, "Serious writers, I should say, are on the whole more vain and self-centered than journalists, though less interested in money." The essay "Why I Write" is an effective piece of prose because the author is credible, and bolsters his argument with humility as well as…
Orwell, George. Animal Farm. Signet, 1996.
Orwell, George. "Why I Write." Retrieved online: http://orwell.ru/library/essays/wiw/english/e_wiw
Both dissenters and innovators are outsiders -- thinking and acting outside the box. The very qualities that make these individuals annoying (e.g. arrogance, single-mindedness) are also part of the types of qualities (passion, drive, confidence) that are needed to keep ideas alive and vital. A good manager can deal with the package and manage the wheat with the chaff.
Usually impossible to get the type of innovators one wants without getting some of their own negatives (arrogance, inability to compromise, etc.).
Managing means eliciting the needed strengths out of each individual employee, and harkens back to the idea that not all employees are equal.
Managers often have the urge to tame the wild nature of a dissenter; to "bring them into the fold."
There are people who provide dissent because they are simply unhappy -- regardless of the situation. These types of dissenters rarely contribute innovation, but instead…
Cited in www.fastcompany.com.
Senge, P.M. (2006). The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning
Tichy, N. And a. McGill, eds. (2003). The Ethnical Challenge: How to Lead with Unyielding
Reception, Perception and Deception: The Genesis of Slavery
Progress has a way of making itself known to the world, even in a situation where there exists resistance. Considering Olaudah Equiano's "The Interesting Narrative, the issue of slavery throughout the colonial world was as much about assimilation as it was oppression. The conflict between cultures is shown in the nature of the cultural assumptions each makes concerning the other. The British are caught in a tunnel vision that doesn't allow for any considerations outside the belief that their way of life is superior and assume that the tribal culture will logically want to adapt to fit into the more modern way of life. They cannot accept the natives as equals, even as they verbalize their intention as one of attempting to create a hybrid culture. The Ibo, for their part, assume that the British will recognize and honor the way of…
Equiano, Olaudah. "The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano." In The Classic Slave Narratives, ed. Henry Louis Gates. New York, NY: 1987.
Freehling, William W. "Founding Fathers and Slavery." American Historical Review, (1972): at http://edweb.tusd.k12.az.us/uhs/APUSH/1st%20Sem/Articles%20Semester%201/Artiles%20Semester%201/Freehling.htm
Richter, Daniel K. Facing East from Indian Country: A Native History of Early America. Cambridge, MS: Harvard University Press, 2001.
And there are always a few racists in any town. But I believe we have a great, open, accepting community. e entertain tourists from all over the planet, and many of them are from ethnic cultures different from ours. They say they feel welcomed here.
Q: hat use does the community foundation make of the local AM station KMHS-AM?
M: I'm glad you asked. e have learning programs for parents and students. And students make up their own little reports and broadcasts. Topics range from the environment, world news, California news and Coos Bay news.
Q: Typically what news items from Coos Bay do you use on KMHS?
M: e interview people who are doing interesting things in town and with businesses. Biologists from the college and local fishermen. The news in this town isn't really very earth shaking. Look at the list of news items on the orld's ebsite…
City of Coos Bay, Oregon. (2010). Welcome to Coos Bay. Retrieved February 3, 2011, from http://www.coosbay.org/ .
City-Data.com. (2010). Coos Bay, Oregon. Retrieved February 3, 2011, from http://www.city-data.com/city/Coos-Bay-Oregon.html .
Coos Bay School District. (2010). Middle School -- Grade 8 -- Reading / Language. Retrieved February 2, 2011, from http://cbd9.net.
Coos Bay School District. (2010). Welcome to Coos Bay School District. Retrieved February 2,
Newfoundlandese, if You Please" by Diane Mooney brings into attention the existence of diversity in Newfoundland, in the form of linguistic differences and variation. This unique variation of linguistic diversity in Newfoundland is reflected on the fact that it carries with it its history of Irish, English, British, and French influence in its speech. Inevitably, of course, Mooney points out how these foreign European influences through language have helped create distinct cultures and societies within the province. To prove this point, she goes on to enumerate and describe the different languages extant, which include languages originating from East Coast Newfoundland, which is primarily Irish-influenced. Central Newfoundland, meanwhile, have traces of Irish character though it evolved its own language, which sometimes display Irishness or a deviation from its original Irish character. The third comparison, which is that of West Coast Newfoundland, reflects the influence of the French, though Mooney also mentions…
Lucy's Home For Girls aised By Wolves
The short story as a literary form has the power to convey ideas as complex and nuanced as longer-form fiction. As King (2007) notes, short stories often struggle to find an audience, despite being on the surface easier to digest. Their length makes them perfect for brief reading, but the audience seems constantly dwindling. Yet the short story medium has precisely the power to articulate everyday issues in meaningful ways, something seen in Karen ussell's St. Lucy's Home for Girls aised by Wolves, for example.
Minus (2009), in reviewing an anthology of short stories, supports King's idea that there are still some excellent short story writers in America, if they are a dying breed. Short stories should have a fairly high energy level, moving quickly through their narrative, as compact as it is, in order to convey ideas. This should be a pinnacle…
Brown, J. (1997). Ethnicity and the American Short Story. Wellesley College.
King, S. (2007). What ails the short story. New York Times Magazine. Retrieved April 17, 2016 from http://www.nytimes.com/2007/09/30/books/review/King2-t.html
Minus, E. (2009). Competent, fair, good, better, best. Sewanee Review. Vol. 117 (2)
Russell, K. (2009) St. Lucy's home for girls raised by wolves. Retrieved April 17, 2016 from http://cisyeo.pbworks.com/f/Girls+Raised+By+Wolves.pdf
In this regard, Meyers concludes that, "As for Flory, environment has been too much for him, for he is not really alcoholic or crapulous by nature, and he regrets it when a girl from England arrives to stay at Kyauktada; she is a poverty-stricken little snob on the look-out for a husband, but he has not seen a spinster for a decade, and he succumbs on the spot whereupon his discarded Burmese mistress makes a scene in front of her and every one else, and he ends by committing suicide" (Meyers 52). hile it may seem that Flory simply got what he deserved given his wishy-washy nature and lack of fortitude when it came to standing up for his friend, Dr. Veraswami when put to the test, but the suicide of the protagonist provides a useful literary vehicle whereby Orwell advances the plot and highlights just how shallow the friendship…
Aung-Thwin, Maitrii. 2003, "Brave Men of the Hills: Resistance and Rebellion in Burma, 1824-
1932." Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 34(2): 376-377.
Brunsdale, Mitzi M. Student Companion to George Orwell. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press,
Treatment of Democratic Principles and Individual Action
George Orwell's legacy in literature can be reflected in his great novels Nineteen Eighty-Four and Animal Farm, two political satire novels that criticized the basic foundations of political systems prevalent during his time (mid-20th century), specifically, Stalinism/socialist-communist leadership that 'governed' the Soviet Union during this period of modernization. While he was known for the political nature of his novels, he has also written essay that provoked analytical thought through his deconstructive narrative of topics that seemed to be non-political. In these essays, Orwell was able to "politicize" these topics, critically exploring their nature and dynamics and contextualize his analysis in the overall political environment from which these topics emerged and prevailed. Examples of these seemingly 'apolitical' topics are sports and "good bad books," and insightfully, writing. For the discussion that follows, each topics that were given analytical treatment are represented through the following…
Orwell, G. (1995). E-text of "Good Bad Books." Accessed 19 May 2011. Available at: http://orwell.ru/library/reviews/books/english/e_books
____. (1995). E-text of "The Sporting Spirit." Accessed 19 May 2011. Available at: http://orwell.ru/library/articles/spirit/english/e_spirit
____. (2003). E-text of "Writers and the Leviathan." Accessed 19 May 2011. Available at: http://www.george-orwell.org/Writers_and_the_Leviathan/0.html
Spanish Civil War
The famous Spanish Civil War fought from the year 1936 to 1939. This war was fought between two groups; the Republicans and the Nationalists. The Republicans were the supporters of the established Spanish republic; meanwhile the latter were a group of rebels who were led by General Francisco Franco. Franco emerged victorious in this war and ruled Spain for the next 36 years as a dictator.
After a group of generals (led by Jose Sanjurjo) of the Spanish Republican Armed Forces declared opposition against the government of the Second Spanish Republic, the war ensued. At that time the President of Spain was Manuel Azana. This group of rebels had gained support from a couple of conservative groups that included the Spanish Confederation of the Autonomous Right, Fascist Falange and Carlists (Payne, 1973).
Military units formed in urgos, Pamplona, Corodova, Morocco, Cadiz and Seville supported this group of…
Beevor, Antony. The Battle for Spain: The Spanish Civil War 1936 -- 1939. London: Weidenfield and Nicolson. 2006
Buckley, Ramon. "Revolution in Ronda: The facts in Hemingway's For Whom the Bell Tolls." The Hemingway Review. 1997
Hemingway Ernest. "For Whom the Bell Tolls." New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 1940
Meyers, Jeffrey. Hemingway: A Biography. London: Macmillan. 1985
avich discusses the privatization of public schooling. What does she mean by privatization? And what does avich say is the main problem of today's education industry? Do you agree?
In one sense, avich appears to pull back the layers of politicization of education by arguing that it is not the schools that are failing but rather our society, with its complete disregard for poverty and social equality especially in urban areas. It is her contention that by failing to address these issues, society sets the standard for schools: essentially, she argues that no one can be educated properly if they are living in poverty. But what does she mean by this? For example, schools in Zimbabwe in the 1960s were privately run by landowning families, who provided education for the impoverished children. These schools were successful because the families who ran the schools cared about the service they were providing…
Ravich, D. (2013). Reign of Error. NY: Random House.
Animals Rights Rhetorical Analysis
Philip ollen's "Animals Should Be Off the Menu" is a 10 minute speech that champions animal rights. During the course of this speech ollen sparsely utilizes statistics, stories, and a number of references to the impact of disparate industries if meat was eliminated as a form of human food. He also advocates ending the process of humans killing and grinding up animals to serve as the food for livestock, and notices that at both ends of this practice, animals are actually suffering (since the livestock will eventually get slaughtered to provide a steak for someone).
In helping to prove his point, ollen approaches this topic from a number of different angles. The one that he utilizes first (and which perhaps might be the most convincing) is the health ramifications regarding the human consumption of animals. The author alludes to the fact that consuming meat and a…
Wollen, Philip. "Animals Should Be Off The Menu." www.youtube.com Web. https://youtu.be/uQCe4qEexjc
From the point-of-view of the variation and flexibility of the species such cultivated woody crops rank as no more than cornfields. While the tree farms are conveniently be stretched on the private lands, national forests those are considered priceless reservoirs of most of the biological diversity of the nation cannot expand so easily. The commercial logging is considered as the greatest danger for survival of the national forest system. The timber sales are growingly concealed beneath the post fire recovery and fire prevention missions, forest health initiatives and restoration programs. (Endangered Forests: Endangered Freedoms)
Declining wetlands and reservoir construction are having spectacular influences on a global scale. (the Importance of Wetlands and the Impacts of eservoir Development) the data of USF & WS reveals that the United States added 2.3 million acres in ponds and inland mudflats during the period of mid 1950s and mid1970s. The country added…
Acid Rain -- a Contemporary World Problem. Retrieved at http://www.geocities.com/narilily/acidrain.html. Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Acid Rain: Do you need to start wearing a rain hat? Retrieved at http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/acidrain.html . Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Barney, Gerald O. The Whole World in Our Hands. SF Chronicle. 31 December, 2000. Retrieved at http://www.mindfully.org/Sustainability/in-Our-Hands.htm. Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Bryant, Peter J. Biodiversity and Conservation: A Hypertext Book. Retrieved at http://darwin.bio.uci.edu/~sustain/bio65/lec05/b65lec05.htm. Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Yet even when Douglass is the slave of a good white woman who treats him well physically by satisfying his bodily appetite for food and he is "better off in the regard" that he always has bread with him, unlike "many of the poor white children in the neighborhood," he does not regard himself as a happy child and envies the free white boys. In fact, "I used to bestow upon the hungry littler urchins," this bread of slavery, for the poor white boys, "in return, would give me that more valuable bread of knowledge."(1898, Chapter IIV)
Beasts can eat, but only human beings can think and learn. After Douglass gains literary knowledge, "I envied by fellow-slaves for their stupidity. I have often wished myself a beast. I preferred the condition of the meanest reptile to my own. (1899, Chapter IIV)
But slaves true higher nature that they possess as…
Douglass, Frederick. "Narrative of the Life of an American Slave." From the Norton Anthology of American Literature. Volume 1. New York: W.W. Norton & Co.
Environmental Effects on Species Habitats in the Southern California Mountains
Southern California is not for everybody. "Some people view the climate and laid-back lifestyle with longing. Others perceive the area, and its inhabitants, as a little too far over the edge" (Hutchings 2001:4D-Z). hile the region may not appeal to all types of humans, it does attract a wide range of species who make their home in the mountainous areas of Southern California. In fact, Southern California is dotted with several mountain ranges, including the San Gabriel, San Bernardino, San Jacinto, San Bruno, Santa Rosa, Cuyamaca, the Palomar Mountains and even the Chocolate Mountains (Havert, Gray, Adams & Gray 1996). One of the most biodiverse and well-studied of these ranges is San Gabriel (ake 1996). This paper will provide an overview of the ecosystems in these mountain ranges in general with an emphasis on the San Gabriel mountain range in…
Adams, Jonathan S., Lynn S. Kutner and Bruce A. Stein, eds. Precious Heritage: The Status of Biodiversity in the United States. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Baur, Donald C. And Karen L. Donovan. The No Surprises Policy: Contracts 101 Meets the Endangered Species Act. Environmental Law, 27(3):767-90.
California's Plants and Animals. (November 24, 2003). Habitat Conservation Planning Branch, California Department of Fish and Game. Available: http://www.dfg.ca.gov/hcpb/species/lists.shtml.
Dasmann, Raymond F. (2004). Habitat Conservation. In Encyclopedia Britannica.com [premium service].
In tropical regions, freshwater species were especially hard-hit; the index shows they suffered a 35-percent drop between 1970 and 2000." Terrestrial species are affected by over-farming and deforestation: the change has been swift and alarming: The world's wildlife declined by 27% since 1970 overall (Humans blamed, 2008, CNN).
Even domestic animals have suffered from humanity's engineering of the environment. Many cannot life in the wild without the help of humans, given how selective breeding has reduced the capacity of the dog, the cat, and the horse to forage for itself. In the case some animals raised for consumption, such as cattle, humans force them to eat an unnatural diet of corn. Corn-fed cows are fatter than grass-fed cows, but they must be fed antibiotics to be able to digest what for them is an unnatural substance (Pollan 2004). In general, domestic animals have smaller brains and are fatter and less…
Humans blamed for sharp drop in wildlife. (2008, May 16). CNN.com.
Retrieved October 31, 2009 at http://www.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/europe/05/16/wildlife.shortage/index.html
Pollan, Michael. (2002, May 24). Power steer. Michael Pollan.
Retrieved October 31, 2009 at http://www.michaelpollan.com/article.php?id=14
Pig welfare has been receiving a tremendous amount of attention in both scientific literature and in public policy analysis. The UK Department for Environment Food and ural Affairs (2013) and Crown legislation both offer detailed guidelines for humane pig husbandry. Central to pig welfare is the reduction of stress within the farm environment. Current policy and legislation covers such issues as pen size, prevention of fighting amongst pigs, castration, sanitation, and feeding. However, tail docking -- the cutting of pig tails -- remains relatively common practice even in the UK, where pig welfare rules are stricture than they are in the European Union given the latter's continued routine practice of castration ("Balancing Pig Welfare, Castration and Boar Taint," 2009). Whereas UK Department for Environment Food and ural Affairs (2013) advocates against tail docking as a means to reduce pig-on-pig aggression, it does admit to the usefulness of the practice as…
Animal Welfare Institute (2016). Pigs. Retrieved online: https://awionline.org/content/pigs
AVMA (2016). Animal welfare policy statements. Retrieved online: https://www.avma.org/KB/Resources/Reference/Animalwelfare/Pages/Animal-Welfare-Policy-statements.aspx
"Balancing Pig Welfare, Castration, and Boar Taint," (2009). The Pig Site. Retrieved online: http://www.thepigsite.com/articles/2553/balancing-pig-welfare-castration-and-boar-taint/
Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs (2013). Guidance: Caring for pigs. Retrieved online: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/code-of-recommendations-for-the-welfare-of-livestock-pigs/pigs-welfare-recommendations
Environmental Themes in Grapes of rath
This essay reviews environmental themes from the following five books: Dust Bowl by Donald orster, The Grapes of rath by John Steinbeck, Everglades: River of Grass by Marjory Stoneman Douglas, Killing Mr. atson by Peter Matthiessen, and River of Lakes by Bill Belleville. This paper discusses the role that culture has played in environmental issues during the past century. Five sources used. MLA format.
Humans from the very beginning of their existence have had an impact, for better or worse, on the environment. Man has for the most part tried to control the environment to suit his needs or tastes of the era. Over-grazing, over hunting, ignoring the importance crop rotations, dam building, and toxic dumping, are but a few of the ways man tries to control. Few societies have ever considered any of the above when it comes to the environment.…
Belleville, Bill. River of Lakes. University of Georgia
Douglas, Marjory Stoneman. The Everglades River of Grass.
Pineapple Press. 50th Anniversary Edition. 1997.
Reintroduction of wolves in Idaho started in 1995. Classified as endangered species, the government had the leeway in the process of reintroducing the grey wolf pack in Idaho. The process sparked off battles between stakeholders in the state. In 1966 when the idea was introduced to congress, the main concern was the critically high elk population in the region and this was because of the eradication of the wolves by the residents. For decades, the elk population grew tremendously because there were no predators in Yellow Park causing ecosystem instability. Soon after, other species disappeared such as the aspen because of the huge population of elks. The coyotes could not manage the large ungulate population; moreover, the large coyote population diminished the red fox. The government struggled with the wolf issue from the 1974 when a wolf recovery team was established. The general public has been engulfed in the wolf…
ABC News. "Court Rules Yellowstone Wolves Can Stay." ABC News, January 14, 2000.
Cockerham, Sean. "Idaho Gov. Otter to feds: Pony up more cash for wolves." www.idahostatesman.com. March 8, 2012. http://www.idahostatesman.com/2012/03/08/2026038/otter-to-feds-pony-up-more-cash.html (accessed April 7, 2012).
Duffield, J. "An economic analysis of wolf recovery in Yellowstone: Park visitor attitudes and values." Report for Yellowstone National Park, 1992.
Duffield, John, Chris Neher, and David Patterson. "Wolf Recovery in Yellowstone: Park Visitor
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