" This involves coming up with a list of the consequences of reacting to an event (Budman, 1992). This means that they describe what emotions the activating event made them feel.
The principles facilitate being rational because they shift focus from emotions to logic. The group gets an opportunity to look at the problems they face from a rational perspective, which creates room for possibilities. Thinking rationally helps in creating many alternative solutions, and helps clients make decisions consciously and willingly. It also ensures that individuals in the group are responsible for their actions and this solves the problems that arise from shifting blame. This technique aims at challenging the logic behind the clients' responses.
Another technique is imagination disputation. Each client creates a scenario that would lead to a reaction and emotional consequences. The group members express how they would react in that situation and later discuss the appropriate way to react. This gives each member an opportunity to become rational about an otherwise irrational situation and be composed. It also helps the healing process because the clients are able to start practicing positive self-talk. They can also include it in their short- and long-term goals (Jacobs 2006).
Use of the Emotional Control Card is a somewhat weird but very effective technique for ensuring the sustainability of positive behavior change. This is an actual card written all the negative habitual responses of the clients, and the appropriate responses for the same situations. When feeling the urge to react inappropriately, the clients can read their cards and keep their reactions and responses in check. The therapist need not worry about relapses because this is one of the most effective ways of sustaining positive behavior change.
Finding the appropriate time for group counseling is one of the greatest challenges to this task. People spend their time at work or doing something important. They are hardly able to create…… [Read More]
Counseling and the Helping Professions
Counseling and related helping professions can be highly valuable for people who are struggling to cope with specific events in their lives (Constantine, 2007). Some people see counselors individually, and others go as a couple, group, or family. There are many reasons why people see counselors, depending on the areas of life with which they are having trouble. For those who get into counseling as a profession, there are different areas to choose from and specialties to consider in each one of those areas (Vogel, Wade, & Hackler, 2007). In order to be an effective counselor and help the largest number of people, it is very important to find a helping profession or counseling specialty with which a person is comfortable. That will allow that person to provide the most benefit to the largest number of people. Addressed here will be the specialties of several different kinds of counseling, their similarities and differences, the requirements and organizations related to those types of counseling, and the preference and interests of the writer.
The Specialties of Family Counseling
In family counseling there are many different specialties. These can include generalized family therapy, parenting problems, teen and adult anger issues, management of stress, physical and other types of abuse, codependency, blended family issues, and conflict resolution (Dillon, Worthington, Soth-McNett, & Schwartz, 2008). By addressing one or more of these areas, a person is more able to focus on the value and good in life, and he or she becomes better at putting problems into a more realistic perspective (Sommers-Flanagan & Sommers-Flanagan, 2006). With that in mind, many counselors who are focused on family counseling specialize in one or more of the specific areas within that counseling realm. That allows them to have a higher level of knowledge regarding how to help their clients and what kinds of issues are more specific to those clients and their families.
The Specialties of Couples Counseling
Where couples counseling is concerned, improving communication is a specialty. So are issues like love and intimacy, overcoming infidelity, sex therapy, separation and divorce difficulties, infertility, and gay and lesbian issues (Swift & Callahan, 2008). Couples counselors today are going to see more same sex couples than they did in the…… [Read More]
Describe the mental hygiene movement in Counseling Psychology.
Mental hygiene can be considered as a science of preventing disorders and maintaining a mental health at their full mental capability. This involves the precautions that are taken in order to encourage and safeguard the mental health. It offers therapy for the mentally disturbed, takes preventive measures of the ailment, and also assists in helping the patients cope with this stress. The community recognizes the relationship between mental health, the population affected by it, and also its effect on the society (Pointon, 2004). This division on mental health handles people with social problems which include drug addiction, and suicide attempts. Most of the people suffering mental ailments have been neglected by the society. Others have been mistreated while the rest have been isolated from the society. Treatment and prevention to this condition involves prenatal care, child abuse programs, and also counseling offered to the victims. Use of psychotherapy and drug therapy done sometimes by support groups has been of major help (Pointon, 2004).
Mental Hygiene movement was mostly introduced to curb prostitution and the health hazards that came along with it. This movement was introduced between the late nineteenth an twentieth century. The movement's aim was to protect the social purity professionally (Thorne, 2000). American Social Hygiene Association is a movement that was created in 1913 and was introduced to schools for teaching of hygiene purposes. By the twentieth century, counseling psychology was introduced to deal with those who were dealing with mental illness.
Instead of focusing on the mental treatment, the mental hygiene movements concentrated on how to prevent it. They also concentrated on how to promote the mental health. They placed their emphasis on children because research showed that most of these distresses were as a result of early childhood experiences. This made them reach out to the parents first to educate them on the effects of childhood on mental illnesses. The mental hygienists involved the schools in these programs so as to reach out to the children (Pointon, 2004).
During the 1920s, the mental hygiene movements had touched on the restorative perception on the problems faced by children every day. Clinics were put up and together with the juvenile courts; they were able to handle children's mental problems. The movements saw the need to introduce these programs in the form of a curriculum…… [Read More]
Counseling Immigrants and Refugees - Bring the World to your Backyard
Immigrants add depth to the American cultural landscape, and enhance the character of our already colorful communities. This is true in microcosms, such as school campuses. It is therefore critical to address the needs of immigrant populations. Addressing the needs of immigrant populations with specialized counseling services is a good way to minimize mental health problems, address physical health needs, and also provide the means by which to foster healthy community growth and social development. This proposal for an immigrant-specific counseling program takes into account the differential needs of immigrants based on culture of origin, nation of origin, languages of origin, gender, socio-economic class, and refugee status.
Refugees are a special category of immigrant, but both immigrants and refugees are foreign nationals who expatriate. In the United States, and indeed most developed countries, there is a clear and legal differentiation between immigrants and refugees. Refugees seek asylum from political persecution or crisis. Both immigrants and refugees move for "a better life," but there are more serious "push" factors involved in refugees' decision to leave their home country ("Immigrant vs. Refugee," 2013). One of the most important distinguishing features of a refugee vs. An immigrant is that, "In most cases, it is not possible for them to go back to their country," ("Immigrant vs. Refugee," 2013). The 1951 Geneva Convention definition of a refugee has been supplemented in the United States by the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) in section 101(a)(42)(United States Citizenship and Immigration Services, 2013). Refugees are said to seek political asylum; immigrants seek jobs.
According to the textbook, immigrants will become a substantial part of the American economic, social, and political future. "Immigrants living in the U.S. make up approx. 12% of the population - And about half of these 33.5 million people have arrived since 1990," (Text). Although half of all immigrants to the United States are from Central and South America, the biggest mistake is lumping all immigrants and refugees into one category. In fact, immigrants come from all over the world and are therefore a heterogeneous group. Even within the Latin American cohort, there will be some…… [Read More]
Prominent factors influencing group and individual counseling
(#3) Which approaches to individual and group counseling are best for new group counselors?
Successful theoretical approaches vary between individual and group therapy. Nevertheless, there is overlap in the efficacy of certain approaches. For example, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) has a strong success rate in both group and individual contexts (Beiling, McCabe, Antony, 2009). Although it is true that CBT was originally implemented in an individual setting, there are specific reasons why it is adaptable to a group format. Specifically, CBT endeavors to alter the way in which people distinguish between internal and external reality, changing how one responds to their environment rather than addressing psychological insight (Beiling, McCabe, Antony, 2009). Additionally, many CBT patients have anxiety disorders, and many patients find the group setting less intimidating than a private dynamic.
CBT is also particularly successful to either individual or group contexts because it is adaptable to many different settings and is action-based; therapists can therefore incorporate the entire groups at once rather than needing to focus on one individual at a time. For individuals, another successful theoretical approach is psychodynamic psychotherapy, which focuses on altering one's psychological makeup. Although CBT and psychodynamic therapy are amenable to new counselors, CBT may be more applicable for new counselors since it relies less on the interpretations and insights of the counselors and is more grounded in exercises and activities.
(#4): Aspects of individual and group counseling that are most challenging for a new counselor
There are many aspects of both individual and group counseling that are challenging for a new counselor. One challenging aspect that is germane to both settings involves the hostility that many therapists incur at the hands of their patient(s). Many patients are placed in therapy against their will, or are susceptible to drastic mood changes that may result in an angry outburst directed at the therapist.…… [Read More]
With patience, couples are less likely to be critical of their partners, and are more likely to understand them and try to be more cordial even in the face of issues. Using humor helps to diffuse tense situations and can stop a fight before it even begins. This can help because if an argument is avoided and humor is used to diffuse anger, then it helps to change the course of a situation and steer it in a more positive direction. Giving your partner a "Moment of Grace" is one of the best steps as far as communication because allowing for mistakes shows your partner that you are giving them time and room to change and grow. Giving your partner time to fix their mistakes allows them to realize their own mistakes and be more conscious of their actions. This technique of counseling was good to learn about because it showed that a step in counseling (such as communication) can be broken down into even more steps to become easier to understand. I wouldn't change any of the steps of this technique as I found them all quite useful and informative. I think they are easy to follow and if used together in the appropriate manner, should achieve the desired result. These techniques are things that I could use for my own spiritual formation, which means I can apply to my every day life.
I have learned in this class that techniques such as the twelve steps to spirituality and Multiple Counseling Techniques help people not only get closer to God, but to become a centered spiritual person through Christian counseling. In a sense, this class has helped me form my own spiritual formation. Using these techniques for future clients will help me to become centered and how the world works through God.
Nouwen, H. (2010). Spiritual Formation Foiiowing the Movement of the Spirit .
Sue, D.W. (2008). Counseling…… [Read More]
Counseling African Women UK
The people of the world are hurting. Worse yet, the economic downturn and the momentum toward cutting government costs at all levels with little regard to what that means suggests that those who have been treated poorly and unfairly in the past will be first in line to shoulder more suffering. And that bodes poorly for the African and black women of the UK who have only recently begun to be recognized as the true victims of serious systematic injustices that are resulting in or making worse a broad range of mental health concerns (Center for Mental Health, 2011).
This reality comes on top of the fact that it has not been until very recently that women and women of color of the UK have even begun being identified as in serious need of help. Only as recently as 2005 (Mayor of London, Blueprint for Action), 2006 (SCMH) and 2007 (Moore), several major economic and racial assessments really document the problems of the nation's mental health system, and even then in so doing these reports focused almost exclusively on economic costs not racial or gender issues. Not until The Equality Act in 2010, in fact, did gender get sufficient attention to ensure some level of fairness in the provision of services, and still the majority goes to White men before people of color or women (Wallcraft, 2011).
The depth of this neglect and its potential impact for minority and African Caribbean women in Britain (one of several classifications of blacks) can be seen an online factsheet for UK women in distress. This Q&A overview details the level of severity of problems for these women, and then offers ways that counseling and support can be better provided. While it is but one resource now becoming more recognized, it is important for building bridges to women of color who were often the victims of prejudices about their biology and gender in getting care or understanding their conditions. As such, most were left to their own networks for assistance or just got worse, often causing them to need more and more expensive help.
The online posting for Women and Mental Health begins by highlighting a number of conditions that those seeking to offer counseling need to be aware of because they indicate intervention approaches. Among the important findings listed at the beginning…… [Read More]
In line with narrative therapy techniques, describe how the counselor externalized Helen's problems. Why is externalization so important in this session? How effective is it with Helen?
Externalization is critical to narrative therapy, allowing the client to detach herself from the problem. The counselor externalizes Helen's problems first by ceasing to frame them as problems. Instead the counselor frames Helen's problems within the context of her life story, and encourages her to do the same. Problems become challenges, which Helen, the hero, is destined to overcome with the help of key allies like the counselor. One of the most notable ways the counselor externalizes Helen's problems is by personifying her problem as a character in a story: Nagging Dissatisfaction. Nagging Dissatisfaction becomes the antagonist to Helen, the protagonist. By externalizing Nagging Dissatisfaction, Helen can stop identifying with someone who is tormented and start to take action to achieve her goals. Nagging Dissatisfaction, and not Helen, is responsible for the "scare tactics and lies" that are only serving to "intimidate and confuse." By detaching the issues such as scare tactics and lies, Helen can observe them rather than identifying with them. Helen can address Nagging Dissatisfaction as the hero of her own narrative.
The counselor also uses externalization to place Helen's present situation within the context of a linear narrative with a distinct past, present, and future. Although the counselor permits non-linear methods of allowing Helen's story to emerge, there does appear to be a traditional beginning, middle, and probable future to the narrative that can help Helen to situate herself and contemplate her story from an objective stance. Thus, the counselor addresses Helen's childhood issues such as her not feeling "seen," and therefore planting the seeds for low self-worth. Present issues such as the marriage and Helen's identity within it, are externalized too. Her…… [Read More]
Socializing the client is an important approach in cognitivebehavioral therapy. It is visible in this video session with the manners the doctor is showing. She is showing very good explanatory manners. Introducing herself to the client, she goes on to elaborate what is going to happen and how they are about to take this process. In other words, it is very crucial to inform the client about what is about to happen to them. This is crucial because initially the clients are distressed and not feeling so good about the situation or about themselves. This causes to come up with depressing scenarios and predictions about what is to happen.
Socializing the client is basically telling the client the philosophy, stricter and the practices of this approach to therapy. It is important to tell the client about this so they understand why the doctor is taking this approach. Not only would the client understand this approach but they would also follow the therapy and apply it to themselves more. As mentioned before, it is crucial to tell the client about what is going to happen to them. In socializing the client to the therapy, they should be told about the principles and practices of the therapy.
This is basically a kind of counseling that the therapist carries forward on his or her clients. The first step is basically inquiring the client about what they already know. This is crucial so the client does not feel overwhelmed at first. The doctor shows in the video by asking the client how she is doing and how she last week was. This politeness is crucial so the client starts feels comfortable and is willing to talk to the client.
Another aspect of socializing the client is explaining why the doctors are doing everything. In other words, if you merely just direct…… [Read More]
Therapy may also be aimed at either children or adults. Usually a therapist will concentrate on one or the other, as children require special approaches and not all therapists work well with children (Good 22).
Couples and family counselors deal with marriage and family therapy in a brief, solution-focused way. This often means that the therapist addresses very specific problems and looks to attain therapeutic goals, with counseling done with the end in mind. There are a wide range of problems that the marriage and family therapist treats, and therefore the counselor should have graduate training in the field. This is a rewarding field, as over 98% of clients report therapy services as good or excellent.
The federal government has designated marriage and family therapy as a core mental health profession. There are 48 states that also support and regulate the practice through licensing or certifying these therapists. Ethical issues are taught along with various approaches as mentioned above. The initial interview is simply an exploration interview, to find out about more about the patients, the problem and to determine what approaches would best serve this problem. The counselor-patient relationship is established and carefully followed. Codes of ethics have been set up by various psychiatric organizations that are adhered to from this point on. Whether approaching family problems as a group (a family with several members) or as an individual (such as one child), the counselor has legal and professional guidelines to follow. Ethically, the counselor has a responsibility to maintain professional distance and keep within limits (Career FAQ's).
Though the role of the counselor is quite wide, once the practitioner determines their own strengths and weaknesses, they will determine which one of the several roads may be taken with regard to where they are led to practice. Counselor's behavior, values and beliefs will help determine where they are most effective and how they will approach problem-solving with individual or groups.
Career and Practice Information." American Association of Marriage and Family Therapy. AAMFT. 2007. http://www.aamft.org/faqs/index_nm.aspand http://www.aamft.org/resources/Career_PracticeInformation/career.htm.
Condic, Kristine. "Counseling: Resources for students, consumers, and professionals." College and Research Libraries, Vol. 66, No.…… [Read More]
Moreover, maltreated children reveal their feelings and situations when a counselor engages them in group counseling. Younger children perform well with growth playgroups where older children profit from activity groupings and treatment-oriented groups. Groups counseling is essential for sexually abused children because it lowers their guilt, differentness and shame feelings. Group counseling also helps abused children to learn ways in which they can defend themselves from any form of abuse.
Counseling maltreated children is difficult because it can inspire feelings that are more intricate to the counselor. A counselor may become angry with the abused child's parent or abusers. he/she may develop frustration and sad feeling in the course of the counseling process. However, the main role and focus of a counselor is to protect an abused child from more abuse (Kuehnle and Connell, 2010). The counselor handling sensitive concerns of abuse must seek supervision, consultation and treatment when they feel overwhelmed with emotions. Acknowledging their professional restraints is helpful and counselors should understand the counseling alone is not an effective strategy to protect an abused child. Any productive long-standing intervention requires a rigorous team perspective as well as a community that care to provided sufficient facilities for families in efforts for helping and protecting children.
Thomspson, C., & Lenderson, D. (2010). Counseling children. New York: Cengage Learning.
Deb, S., & Mukherjee, A.(2011). Background and adjustment of sexually abused girls and their perceptions of intervention. Child Abuse Review, 20, 213-230.
Kuehnle, K., & Connell, M. (2010). Child sexual abuse suspicions: Treatment considerations during investigations. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 19: 554-571.
Mart, E. (2010). Assessment and testimony in child abuse cases. Journal of Psychiatry & Law,
Mart, E. (2010). Common errors in the assessment of allegations of child sexual abuse. Journal of Psychiatry & Law, 38:325:343
Tuohimaa, K., Santtila, P., & Sandnabba, K. (2009). Expert judgment in cases of alleged child sexual abuse: Clinicians sensitivity to suggestive influences, pre-existing beliefs and base…… [Read More]
Several people who come into contact with troubles in their life look for counseling and therapy. The troubles that people encounter can be one or more of the following troubles: relationship troubles, school related troubles, hopelessness, nervousness, distress, and concerns from the bygone days that pessimistically influence the individuals every day performance. Though people look for therapy for numerous purposes, the majority of people go to therapy for the reason that they want assistance with particular troubles. Even after discussing with friends and family about the trouble, a lot of people are not in a position to recuperate things sufficiently on their own. In order for such people to have a discussion about their concerns and to produce some constructive elucidations, therapy could be considered as a secure method. (Counseling & Psychotherapy) In this paper, we wish to discuss on counselors working as a group and offering services to clients. Also, we wish to discuss about the benefits and disadvantages of the counselors working in a group to clients as well as to the counselors.
Psychotherapy and Counseling:
Psychotherapy is generally described as the treatment of mental and emotional turmoil or troubles. Psychotherapy engages a procedure in which a connection between a patient or client and a therapist is established. The therapist is an expert who had undergone training on paying attention intensely; responding compassionately; providing insight; offering feedback; serving the person to discover options; working as a guide or friend on the journey of investigation into the deep levels of emotions and experiences. Therapy sittings may take place once or more than once per week with each sitting taking about 45-50 minutes. The number of sittings is determined on the basis of the types of complexities experienced by the client; for instance, symptomatic relief can frequently be accomplished in a few sittings, longer and long-lasting alterations in pessimistic conduct patterns might take a year or longer and intense life issues might necessitate several years of treatment to conquer. (Psychotherapy, Relationship Help and Marriage Counseling)
Psychotherapists have identified several varied goals like: developing a deep understanding into troubles; learning to converse more successfully; learning to determine both internal and interpersonal disagreements; managing, decreasing or alleviating indications of emotional suffering; changing behaviors to get better social, relational or vocational performance; personal growth and progress; restructuring a life spoiled by defective adolescence experiences. Psychotherapy can alleviate several different types…… [Read More]
Guidance and Counseling
Role of the Counselor
Group vs. Individual Counseling
Role of the Counselor
The counselor interviewed became a school counselor because she loves children and feels a strong sense of purpose to give back to society by helping children. She works with children between the ages of about eight and twelve. The counselor started with a degree in educational psychology and chose to be a school counselor over other options such as a private counselor or family counselor. One of the main goals that the counselor described is careful listening. Listening is an important skill that allows children feel more comfortable with sharing their true feelings or problems. She also listed empathy as a critical skill towards the same end. When you empathize with children they are also far more likely to be more open and honest about the challenges they are experiencing.
The role of the counselor obviously depends on the individual perspective and professional identity that the counselor has developed. The professional identity process is dynamic and develops over time. One qualitative study focused on the development of this professional identity and found that conflict resolution was one of the most salient factors that influence the development of a professional identity (Brott & Myers, 2011). From the interview conducted, this seemed to fit the counselor's career development as well. She had learned many strategies through her background and her experience to help children feel more comfortable so that she could get as close as possible to whatever conflict they were experiencing in their lives.
Another role of school counseling that was identified in the literature was for the counselor to help students become self-regulator learners. Although this wasn't covered in the interview, self-regulating learning can empower students toward greater academic performances (Lapan, Kardash, & Turner, 2002). However, there are different levels of conflict that students face and focusing on learning strategies is often at a low priority than other more critical conflicts.
The counselor interviewed stated that they had a great deal of freedom to develop their own techniques in their work setting with a few exceptions. Furthermore, they saw their role as a mediator between the schools administration and the children's parents. There are also…… [Read More]
In this example, there is a clear need for the use of counseling skills in order to ensure positive outcomes for the client (Smyer & Intrieri, 1990). For example, giving proper medical counseling may make a difference in a person's quality of life. Formal helping relationships seek the deeper meaning of problems and utilize therapeutic skills to find resolution (Mowrer, 1940). Formal helping relationships are often more intense and longer in duration than informal relationships.
Informal helpers on the other hand may take the form of peers, family members, coworkers, or members of support networks (Dilley, 1967). These helpers often give advice and offer solutions to problems. These informal relationships are concerned with outward manifestations of the problem such as current symptoms or observable behaviors (Mowrer, 1967). Informal helping relationships such as those with family members and friends are often mutually beneficial and involve give and take activities such as advice giving and support. This differs from a formal counseling relationship that emphasizes the counselor as an objective source of support whose goal it is to help the client find resolution to their problem (Dilley, 1967).
Another major difference between formal counseling and informal helping relationships are the ethical standards that formal counselors are held to. Counselors must respect a client's right to privacy and confidentiality with few exceptions. Failure to do so could result in significant legal ramifications for the counselor. On the other hand, in informal helping there is a level of expectation of respect for privacy but there is significantly less certainty that this expectation will be met. Failure to maintain ones confidence in a helping relationship may result in social consequences for the betrayal of trust.
Dilley, J.S. (1967). Decision-making: A dilemma and a purpose for counseling. Personnel & Guidance Journal, 45(6), 547-551.
Mowrer, H.R. (1940). The nature of family counseling. Living, 2(2), 45-45.
Rogers, C.P. (1945). Counseling. Review…… [Read More]
And the problem lies in the fact that there is a shortage of good teaching on the subject. "Students are left to discover ethical solutions by 'osmosis'" he asserts, because "simply providing ethical information is not enough, students end up without sufficient skills to make ethical decisions."
As to what responsibility supervisors have in terms of their ethical duties towards supervisees, Carroll suggests supervisors not merely wait until issues arise within the supervisory duties to discuss ethics: rather, supervisors should practice good ethical behavior and insist that trainees be given full courses in ethics, not just three-hour seminars.
In their book Developing Counsellor Supervision, Colin Feltham and Windy Dryden point out (112) that in recent years "there has been a great deal of exposure of counselors who seriously and blatantly abuse their position and undermine public confidence" in the counseling profession. And while "sexual abuse" gets the headlines, Feltham et al. write that several other issues are considered ethical misdeeds. They mention "transgressing confidentiality," "exploiting clients financially...or emotionally," among some of the most obvious.
There are also ethical abuses such as being five minutes late to a counseling session (113), or "the failure to respect clients' autonomy and personal and cultural values." It is also possible, Feltham writes, to engage in "religious proselytizing" or "unwittingly sway clients towards certain moral, religious, political or other ideological views" on issues like abortion, sexual orientation, among others. Further, other ethical abuses include: "the failure to adapt to the individual needs of clients" (114); and a supervisor who is "dogmatic...because that is likely to inhibit supervisees' development and creativity in the service of clients."
In a book called Supervising Counsellors and Therapists: A Developmental Approach, the authors allude to the development of supervisees in three phases. The Level One supervisee focuses mostly on "self,' is very eager to become a good worker, and is very dependent on the supervisor. A Level Two supervisee becomes so attuned on "other" that…… [Read More]
Counseling Minor Clients: Ethical and Legal Requirements
The purpose of this work in writing is to define four ethical and/or legal issues related to counseling minors. This will be accomplished through an academic literature review in which the ethical and legal conflicts that arise in counseling a minor will be analyzed. This work will explain how each of these conflicts will be addressed.
Defining the Terms 'Minor', 'Legal' and 'Ethical'
It is important that the counselor who works with minors "discuss and clarify confidentiality limitations with students before counseling begins to help ensure that students understand the limits of confidentiality within the counseling process. (Froeschle & Moyer, 2004 in: Hall and Rushing, nd) The work of Glosoff and Pate (2002) states that the moral principles most often cited in relation to ethical practices of counselors include those as follows: (1) truth-telling; (2) equity and justice which is fairness; (3) doing no harm known as nonmaleficence; (4) doing good known as beneficence; (4) giving respect for individual free choice or autonomy; and (6) keeping ones' promises known as fidelity. (Glosoff and Pate, 2002, p. 1)
The moral principle of beneficence is stated to refer to the counselors' responsibility to assist their clients in gaining something positive from having engaged in counseling. It is stated that the application of moral principles involved in respecting the rights of minors when they are involved in counseling is not always easy as the counselor "must have a good grasp of issues reacted to the concepts of: (1) the minor individual's legal status and privacy ethics; (2) confidentiality; (3) privileged communication; and (4) informed consent. (Glosoff and Pate, 2002, p.1)
II. ACA Code of Ethics and Standards of Practice
The ACA (1995) Code of Ethics and Standards of Practice is stated to specifically mention the term 'minor' twice in regards to matters of consent. As well, the Ethical Standards for School Counselors (ASCA, 1998) is inclusive of standards relative to counseling minors however, neither one of the documents defines the term minor. Minors are generally defined as individuals under the age of 18 years of age. While minor clients are stated to have "an ethical right to privacy and confidentiality in the counseling relationship…[the] privacy rights of minors…" are stated to belong legally to the minors' parents or guardians.…… [Read More]
Minority groups, because of different cultural value systems, often do not seek out psychological counseling in the United States. Counselors are perceived as either lacking in authority or representing a dominant culture that cannot possibly understand the needs of the minority community. Therefore, many individuals fail to receive the proper health care services they require. For example, within the Asian community, reaching out for counseling is perceived as a sign of significant weakness and therefore the individual must be able to save face while at the same time receiving the necessary services. In becoming aware of the needs of the Asian community, a counselor can for instance cloak their services in way that preserves confidentiality, reduces implications of weakness, while at the same time recognizing the deeply-rooted Confucian values within the Asian community. Hierarchical structures imply that the counselor must assume an aura of authority in order to gain the trust and respect of the client. Similarly, within the African-American community, systematic disenfranchisement and persecution have led to suspicion toward white counselors. The ideal counterbalance for this situation is to train more African-American counselors. In areas in which African-American counselors are scarce, counselors of other ethnic groups should take the time to learn about the cultural nuances that underlie the African-American community, become aware of community services, spiritual support, and other services specific to the African-American client.
2. Much discussion and controversy surrounds the ingrained differences between men and women, concerning cognitive and communicative styles. Although research does not always concur in matters pertaining to gender differences, males and females generally have different priorities and areas of concern when they seek counseling services. Women tend to be more concerned about their relationship to others: their self healing is relevant only insofar as it improves their interpersonal relationships. While this is not always the case, women do need to be counseled with relationship issues in mind. Males in American culture deal with issues related to establishment of strong ego identity. While clients should be…… [Read More]
Counseling: Its Philosophy, Nature, And Dynamics
It is my view that science has provided an opportunity to discover and delve into the nature of humanity and the daily interactions that occur everyday among people. The development of psychology as a science had been pivotal in allowing modern society to know about the trends in attitude and behavior among humans. More specifically, it is through the area of counseling that I am able to apply the precision and deterministic nature of psychological science and human-centric quality of social communication and interaction. Through counseling, I was able to fuse my interest in social interaction and the human mind and knowledge in the science of psychology. Evidently, my philosophy in life is that there are multiple perspectives in understanding the nature of the individual, and among these perspectives are the scientific and humanistic approaches to human understanding.
Indeed, this has been the prevalent thought in counseling. Counseling theories have been formulated through scientific methods and analysis, but they were conceptualized and operationalized according to the principles of human interaction and behavior. My philosophy in life as a student and aspiring counselor, in fact, was derived from the basic foundations of counseling, which seeks to keep a balance between the objective and subjective characteristics of human life. Counseling theories, which were also based on psychological theories, were utilized in order to provide a "norm" or guideline through which human behavior is analyzed. However, more than anything else, these theories also serve as guiding posts to the process of discovery, wherein new ideas and concepts concerning counseling are further developed to add…… [Read More]
Counseling Models REVISED
CHART OF TYPES OF THERAPY
TYPE / / GOAL / / THERAPEUTIC RELATIONSHIP / / TECHNIQUES
Psychoanalytic. / / "To Turn Neurosis into Ordinary Unhappiness" / / Silent, occasionally venturing an interpretation, therapist as "one who knows" / / Dream analysis, attention paid to early childhood development and relations with parents
Adlerian. / / Encourage client's premises and goals / / Collaborative relationship / / Focuses on feelings of self that arise from relationships and conflicts
Existential Therapy / / Self-mastery, self-examination, creativity, client accepting responsibility for self / / Therapist as person, emphasis on quality of therapist-client relationship / / Not a technique-oriented therapy but instead a philosophical approach
Person-Centered Therapy / / Increased self-esteem and greater openness to experience / / Neutral and non-hierarchical and empathetic / / Restatement of client's statements in neutral language, unconditional positive regard, empathy
Gestalt Therapy / / Client awareness of self, environment, relation to others / / sharing client experience, giving feedback, a dialogue relationship without manipulation / / Internal dialogue exercises, guided fantasies
Cognitive-Behavior Therapy / / Goal and problem oriented, objective is for client to gain control of reaction to things by changing thoughts patterns / / Collaborative / / Homework, workbooks, self-observation of personal behavior and thoughts
Reality Therapy / / Learn better ways to fulfill basic needs and connect with people the client wants in his/her world / / Gets client to be specific about desired changes in life / / emphasis on choices made by client and how client can attain positive goals
Family Systems Therapy / / Understand client within context of larger family system / / will often treat client as part of larger system, focused on understanding the "homeostasis" of the system / / Reframing or redescribing problems, recognition that any change will necessitate a change in the entire system
Of the different therapeutic models…… [Read More]
Janet just completed her fourth divorce. She is in her early 30s. Her personal life is in chaos. She has children by three of her former husbands. Janet has struggled with addiction issues over the years including alcohol and drugs. She came from a very difficult family where her parents were alcoholics and often fought with each other. Janet was sexually abused by her uncle on more than one occasion when he lived with the family during her early teen years. Janet's problems with drugs and alcohol began as a teenager.
Janet has seemingly had a rough early adulthood that was turbulent. Changing her attitudes, belief, and values could be a difficult proposition and will mostly likely time a significant amount of time. It seems reasonable to suspect that Janet's basic human needs are not being met and this could also impact her children's quality of life. Counseling should initially focus on understand Janet's situation as well as treating the substance abuse issues. This paper outlines a proposed plan to help Janet.
1. Personal information
I would want to know first or foremost whether or not Janet's basic needs are being met as well as those of her children. Being a single mother of three can put a lot of pressure on an individual in the role as a parent. Results of one study confirmed relationships between needs and money attitudes; specifically, all of Maslow's needs appear to be strongly related to the money attitudes of evaluation and anxiety and men's and women's needs are highly correlated with obsession, budget, anxiety and particularly evaluation (Oleson, 2004). The pressures of being a parent could be influencing the substance abuse and therefore I would focus on the basic needs.
2. Personal Biases and Limitations
These issues could detract from counseling in many ways. For example, if a counselor had a strong religious perception about the sanctity of marriage, then they might be biased about Janet's four marriages and he character. This would represent a…… [Read More]