"Educational Goals Essays"

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Educational Leadership Essay

Words: 5923 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49888068

Educational Leadership

Select five empirical articles from peer-reviewed journals that you consider critical to your understanding of your specialization

In the last several years, educational leadership has become an integral part of helping schools to outperform their peers. This is because the techniques which are utilized will have a dramatic impact on the teacher's ability to connect with stakeholders. To achieve these objectives, they will often turn to those who can inspire others and offer guidance for reaching key benchmarks.

There are a number of theories which are used to influence the practices educators are using. For instance, Darling (2009) found that leadership is essential in helping to inspire others around them. In this study, she is seeking to understand which leadership techniques are most effective in comprehending what motivates stakeholders. The research was conducted through utilizing the qualitative method. This is when different studies are examined to understand various trends and support issues for further clarification. (Darling, 2009)

Once this occurred, is when comparative analysis was conducted. This is where the various responses were contrasted with each other to understand the basic patterns. Any kind of anomalies were disregarded as statistically insignificant. The threats to the validity of the study; were to have different researchers present their findings. This ensured that everyone remains objective throughout the entire project. (Darling, 2009)

Evidence of this can be seen with Darling saying, "The content of professional development can make the difference between enhancing teachers' competence and simply providing a forum for teachers to talk. The most useful professional development emphasizes active teaching, assessment, observation, and reflection rather than abstract discussions. Professional development that focuses on student learning and helps teachers develop the pedagogical skills to teach specific kinds of content has strong positive effects on practice. In a recent national survey teachers reported that their knowledge and skills grew and their practice changed when they received professional development that was coherent, focused on content knowledge, and involved active learning. Hands-on work that enhanced teachers' knowledge of the content and how…… [Read More]

Choo, H. (2010). Practicing Intersectionality. Sociological Theory, 28 (2), 129 -- 149.

Darling, L. (2009). Teacher Learning. How Teacher's Learn, 66 (5), 46 -- 53.
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Educational Grants School Districts Across the Country Essay

Words: 948 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15604066

Educational Grants

School districts across the country are experiencing shrinking budgets. One way to increase the funds available for education is to apply for educational grants. They can take many forms, including those requiring rigorous research designs as well as others that might provide funds for equipment or the money to implement promising but unproven programs.

Two organizations that provide educational grant money are the Beaumont Foundation of America and the Institute of Education Sciences.

The Institute of Educational Services (IES) requires an extensive application and applies rigorous scientific research principles when considering which applications to fund. Their specific focus is to increase the body of knowledge regarding best practices in education. Their goal is to fund research being done in the "practice community" -- that is, schools and school districts (IES, 2005). They have a preference for rigorously controlled studies that involve students from multiple schools who are randomly assigned to either the intervention group or the control group. To support this rigorous approach, they provide substantial funding for up to three years. They will consider a quasi=experimental design under certain circumstances. In addition, they require that the team conducting the research demonstrate the competency to conduct the study, including statistical competency. They require a literature search and other justification for the approach to be used in the study.

The Beaumont Foundation takes a markedly different approach to grants. They specifically provide technology to schools in the form of laptop computers and other technological equipment. Their intent is to support the school's technology program, not replace it. In other words, the school must have educational goals beyond simply replacing or increasing their computers. The Beaumont Foundation specifically targets schools from lower economic status areas; they require that 50% of the students be eligible for the National School Lunch program. Since they will provide funds to small private schools, they require that the school have been in operation for three years.

While both organizations either require or strongly encourage a "letter of interest," the rest of the…… [Read More]


Beaumont Foundation of America (BFA). "2005 Education Grant Guidelines." Accessed via the Internet 8/15/05.

Institute of Education Sciences (IES). "Grant Application Submissions for 2005." Accessed via the Internet 8/15/05.
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Educational Reform We Understand That Essay

Words: 2536 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95641008

Fullan, et al.'s approach is to employ "greater specificity without suffering the downside of prescription," (9) meaning that curriculum design must teach people how to do something within the proper context and that all details must be included without the complicating and ineffective method of saying that all children must be taught the same subjects in the same manner ("prescription"). The attending result, then, would be that curriculum would be designed with an inherent awareness of all learning modalities, with the flexibility to be taught to all students in any number of different manners, with ultimate flexibility - in short, massive textbooks would give way to a more interactive multi-branched approach that the teachers would actively control during the classroom much like a boat captain pilots a tricky inner-harbor channel. To allow this, curriculum design would be a collaborative process not only within the schools and districts but between the teacher and the subject and the students. In essence, curriculum designers would be providing lists of resources, questions, outlines, contextual links, activities, etc., and the teacher would take all of these elements and construct them in their own unique style and manner that they have determined best fits the needs of their students.

How, then, do we accomplish the task of teaching teachers how to do this? We start at the university level. The authors begin with the idea that all teaching begins with a moral core. "We see the need to combine moral purpose with feasible powerful strategies that give schools confidence that they can accomplish educational goals never before achieved. Our basic beliefs are founded on the moral purpose of education, not just for students, but for teachers as well." (12) From here, the authors list four "nonnegotiable beliefs." One, that all students can achieve high standards given significant time and support. Two, that all teachers can teach to high standards, given the right conditions and assistance. Three, that high expectations and early intervention are essential. Four, that teachers need to learn all the time, and they need to be able to articulate both what they do and why they do it (12). From these standards, the author's take the necessity to reform teacher education to a new level.

What…… [Read More]

Fullan, M., Hill, P. & Crevola, C. (2006). Breakthrough. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. pp109.
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Educational Theory and Philosophy in Essay

Words: 5040 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21973033

Nearing the end of the 1960s, the analytic or language philosophy became the central focus point which led to the isolation of the classroom setting and the problems that came with it (Greene, 2000).

Most of the educational philosophers of the time were inclined towards restricting themselves to the official aspects and problems like the sovereignty of the system without any influence from the society and the surrounding environment and the assessment of the calls and school structure conducted for its growth or for the progression of the epistemology that it embodied (Greene, 2000).

All those setups that seemed to be coming across as invasive or seemed to add a personalized bias where it didn't belong were quickly identified and removed. This was one of the reasons that led to the obsession of the possible consequences that could exist due to the practicality of the philosophical theories. Inflexibility was adeptly achieved by isolating what was practiced from its related theme, which was believed by many researchers to be the only efficient way that a sense of unbiased logic could be developed in an individual. One of the important things to note is that the application of the "movements" theory also made the examination unbiased because of its dependence on the overviews borrowed from different schools of thought. However, the philosophical theories that were based on pragmatism, reconstruction, existentialism and pure philosophical analysis were not successful at allowing the individual to form an impersonal conclusion (Greene, 2000).

Educational Theory and Philosophy during 1970's

The 1970s was a significant decade for both the philosophical and educational spheres as it saw some of the most crucial social and philosophical reforms in the history of the U.S. First, it was near the beginning of the decade that man landed on the moon after numerous tries. The Vietnam clash and the extensive instability and disorder of the university going youngsters dampened the beginning years of the decade. It was in the beginning of this decade that numerous smaller movement groups gained popularity and momentum especially the "Women's Movement" and the "Gay Liberation Movement." Also, the "American Indian Movement" took up a much more aggressive approach by the early 1970s. Outside the U.S. events that influenced the dealings of the U.S. were events like the Watergate break-in, the demise of President Nixon, the infamous slaughter of My Lai which led to the tribunal of…… [Read More]

Aleman, a.M. (1999). Que Culpa Tengo Yo? Performing Identity and College Teaching. Educational Theory 49, no. 1: 37-52;

Arons, S. (1984). Playing Ball with the Rodriguez Court: Three Strikes and You're Out. Educational Theory 34, no. 1: 23-27.
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Educational Assessment in the Future Essay

Words: 758 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97209750

Educational assessment in the future seems to be moving towards teacher-oriented and performance-based assessments. Societal forces are driving this move, spurred by the increasing amounts of knowledge, and the demand for individuals capable of manipulating large amounts of information. As standardized tests slowly lose importance, the special needs environment will likely benefit from teacher-oriented assessments that allow instructors to focus curriculum on a child's individual needs and capabilities.

Stiggins (1991) argues that educational assessment in American schools is currently undergoing a rapid change that represents "the end of a six-decade assessment era and the beginning of a whole new era" (p. 263). The past 60 years have been dominated by assessments based upon standardized versions of objective tests. In this system, teachers "would teach.. And assessors would assess" (Stiggins, 264), thus clearly separating teaching and assessment.

This method of assessment began to come under fire, argues Stiggins, as society began to demand schools outcome for the educational achievement of their students. Largely, this demand came from changes in society that demanded that students require more complex thinking and problem-solving skills in keeping with society's need for efficient managers of information, rather than individuals who memorize information (Stiggins).

Stiggins argues that performance assessment is becoming increasingly popular in schools. In this technique, student achievement is assessed through the professional judgment of a qualified assessor. Performance assessment requires a method of sampling "desired behaviors or products," as well as a defined set of performance criteria that acts as the standard for evaluation (p. 264). Alternative tools include new performance assessment methodologies (Stiggins).

Taylor et al. (1993) note that assessment within the special education field is also shifting, and that the field is moving "beyond the assessment = testing paradigm" (p. 113). Nonetheless, there appears to be a place for traditional assessment in the future, albeit in a somewhat modified version. Taylor notes that norm-referenced testing will begin to focus on fewer tests that have been researched more thoroughly. Further, identifying learning disabilities in the future will focus on new assessment procedures focusing on identifying underlying processes like metacognition and phonological processing. In addition, Taylor et al. note that consumers will demand that norm-referenced measures be technically adequate.

Teacher-oriented assessment is expected to become an increasingly important part of the assessment of…… [Read More]

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Educational Theories Guiding Educational Experience Description of Essay

Words: 3172 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29439383

Educational Theories Guiding Educational Experience

Description of an education event experienced

I am a dentist, and I have started a course on teaching dentistry. My experience with education was never a particularly encouraging one as my teacher was always absent. When I was at school, the teachers went on strike, and that left us with no attention from them. We had to do much of the studying alone, and all required research lay squarely on our shoulders in the absence of teachers for as long as they were striking. Whenever the teachers came around school, they applied a work to rule strategy and that was extremely devastating. Lecturers were never available for any extra consultation, and we had to take our learning as individual responsibilities instead of waiting for support or guidance from lecturers. Any difficulties, which we may have faced during the study never, had a chance in the lecturers mind. They only offered the basics of teaching and left us on our own.

Many are occasions when we could depend on our own efforts and one day, we sat in a room with a book and had to teach ourselves. The teacher did not provide homework and clearly had no lesson plans. Teachers provided what they thought and felt was essential without any clear concern for our fate. The effect their actions had on our educational experience was extremely negative and, furthermore, as students, we had nothing to do with their reason for going on strike. It was an unusually unethical move for our teachers to leave us grappling with education in the absence of their guidance. Worse, more, even on occasions when they appeared in class, their interest in our performance remained questionable. This was because of their lack of guiding materials like lesson plans and assistive experiments through assignments. It affected me and made me promise myself never to be like him and always do my best for whoever is relying on me. When we could never have our teachers…… [Read More]

Annand, D. (2011). Social presence within the community of inquiry framework. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 12(5), 40-56. Aristotle.

(2002). Aristotle nicomachean ethics. (J. Sachs, Trans.). Newburyport, MA: Focus
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Educational Administration Supervision Educational Supervision Essay

Words: 1670 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12447933

98). The need for ongoing research to identify optimal solutions in a given setting is also made clear by the reliance on experimental methods to measure options. The efficacy of the scientific method is well established, of course, and it is not surprising that many educators are drawn to this super-philosophy as a way of formulating effective solutions to convoluted problems. For instance, Glickman and his colleagues add that, "The use of trial and error in a laboratory setting is the key to evaluating the outcome of action. Therefore, experimentalists do not view knowledge as absolute or external to human capabilities. Rather, knowledge is a result of the interaction between the scientific person and the environment" (p. 97).


The research showed that educational supervisors are faced with a complex set of challenges in their day-to-day work that demands a viable educational super-philosophy. For this purpose, the research also showed that experimentalism provides educational supervisors with the framework they need to evaluate alternatives and identify optimal solutions in different settings. Although the approach is democratic by definition, it is the ultimate responsibility of the educational supervisor to determine which opinions should be afforded serious consideration. Finally, a consistent theme that emerged from the relevant literature was the temporary nature of the optimal solutions identified by the experimentalist process wherein knowledge is not absolute and the dynamic nature of the human condition will also require ongoing reevaluation of existing approaches to determine if changes are needed.… [Read More]

Brubacher, J.S. (1939). Modern philosophies of education. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Ediger, M. (1995, Spring). Demonstration teaching in the schools. Education, 115(3), 371-375.
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Educational Path While Other Children Essay

Words: 343 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83257804

In my personal studies, I have proven my ability to solve difficult math problems, as well as understand economic trends and international and domestic economic reports. In 2006, I entered the United States in order to study business at community college. After adjusting to life in the United States and learning of the opportunities available to me, I set my sights on the best -- the University of Michigan.

I am convinced that the opportunity to study economics at the University of Michigan will give me the best preparation for a career in financial analysis. The University of Michigan is highly regarded for its tradition in teaching economics and business to students around the world. I hope to nurture my economic and financial interests and abilities at your school in order to become a greater asset to…… [Read More]

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Educational Mission the Unc Health Care System Essay

Words: 917 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27540462

Educational Mission

The UNC Health Care System runs a teaching hospital that publishes its mission statement, statement of core values, and nursing philosophy on the organization's Web site at < http://www.unchealthcare.org/site/Nursing/nurseleadership/visionvalues >. The mission is stated briefly as: "to be a leader in providing compassionate, quality care focusing on the unique needs of patients and their families." Key words in the mission statement include "compassionate," "quality care" and "unique needs." The core values of the UNC Health Care System's nurses include five main elements. Those elements include "My patient," "My team," "My Hospital," "My Community," and "My Profession." Phrasing these five main values in terms of "my" helps the nurse to feel like an integral part of the organization.

Furthermore, the nursing philosophy of the UNC Health Care System is outlined as being a reflection of the vision and values of the organization as a whole. The main principles of the nursing philosophy include the delivery of "individualized, compassionate, and culturally appropriate" care. Moreover, the nursing philosophy mentions the need for collaboration with patients, families, and healthcare team members. Collaboration with others also entails "support the experience of loss and death" when needed. One of the core values of the UNC Health Care system is the provision of "holistic, coordinated, and effective patient care" that is "based on scientific and ethical principles, research findings, cultural understanding and experience-based intuition." A "shared governance" approach is indicated as being effective, as is "interdisciplinary collaboration." Nursing advocacy is an integral part of the UNC Health Care System nursing philosophy, too. The last component of the UNC Health Care System nursing philosophy relates squarely to the professional environment and organizational culture. The organization intends to create a climate that "nurtures and supports clinical expertise, education, shared governance and research, fostering the recruitment and retention of nursing staff who demonstrate the highest integrity, competence, and qualifications." This nursing philosophy is therefore committed to the improvement of the practice of nursing.

At the…… [Read More]

East Carolina University College of Nursing (2012). Philosophy of the college of nursing. Retrieved online: http://www.nursing.ecu.edu/philosophy.htm

UNC Health Care System (2007). Nursing mission, core values, philosophy. Retrieved online: http://www.unchealthcare.org/site/Nursing/nurseleadership/visionvalues
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Educational Psychology An Overview the Topic of Essay

Words: 3935 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70187039

Educational Psychology: An Overview

The topic of educational psychology, or psychology as it is practiced within a school system, has become increasingly important in recent years as the number of special education demands on school systems and especially public school systems has increased. While educational psychologists tend to work in universities and other research settings rather than in the school system per se, they are continually affected by what is happening in schools as they seek to respond to the changing needs of student bodies. Thus the needs of school psychologists tend to be reflected at least in some measure in the research of educational psychologists, who in turn affect the practice of school psychologists. Thus one area of research that is becoming increasingly important to educational psychologists is one that is among the most pressing demands made on the school psychologist today. This topic is how to help autistic students benefit from the public education system without their needs diverting too many resources from general education classrooms and students. This paper examines current research on this topic while outlining a research methodology for a proposed future project in the area.

Educational psychology is an interdisciplinary field, for in addition to interacting with the practical concerns of school psychology (a field that is now developed within and maintained by school certification programs and so is attuned to the needs of school districts rather than research). It is based primarily in psychology, of course, but also draws on research from education, neurology, counseling, and organizational studies, among others. The research that educational psychologists perform, in turn, influences the work performed by many of the disciplines that provide direct support services in the school system. The research that educational psychologists perform is used to help design curricula, especially for special education programs; to help create new educational technology, especially assistive technology for students with a range of disabilities; and even classroom management strategies.

Educational psychologists are primarily concerned with the development…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Alberto, P., & Troutman, A. (2003). Applied behavior analysis for teachers (6th ed.). Columbus, OH, USA: Prentice-Hall-Merrill.

Cameron, J., Pierce, W.D., Banko, K.M., & Gear, A. (2005). Achievement-based rewards and intrinsic motivation: A test of cognitive mediators. Journal of Educational Psychology 97, 641 -- 655.
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Educational System School Improvement the Essay

Words: 1073 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32804940

6% total attendance) while dropout rates decreased by amazing percentiles (300% decrease from 8 to 1.9%). This is not only in Maryland's schools but in others as well.

III. Outcomes Reported in National Reports

The work entitled "Engendering School Improvement Through Strung Instructional Leadership" a study of the Sale Elementary School and Columbus Municipal School District in Columbus, Mississippi, by author Gregory E. Woods states that "effective schooling research identified schooling practices and characteristics were the focus of "the outcomes of measured practices in the classroom in relation to the achievement of and improvement in leadership in the instructional prices of the teachers. Through District-wide effort the school, with a 51.2% African-American population and 48 percentage of other the 5,840 students enrolled passed a 17 million bond for funding reorganization in the district and through efforts such as the school librarian, Virginia Lindsey, who gained a grant for the school for the purchase of two computers and the Macmillan reading program. That in combination with other reading programs such as STARS (Students readings silently) there was a 72% increase of STA reading scores in the percentage in 1992 and 1993 was witness to the spot of the top 75 percentile range.


It is clear that the school improvement initiatives are showing improvement efforts and outcomes that give validation to the purported 'best practices' in education. "Whole School" improvement or that of "School- and District-Wide implementations inclusive of technological benefits such as email and forum contact of teachers as well as benefits to students are shown effective with positive outcomes. The claims many positive outcomes.


Conversations between teachers "online" via the web and on a National basis reveals the new 'globalization' taking place in education and the need for technological provisions of learning in classrooms as well as the preparation of teachers for instructional practice in the classroom. Ongoing evaluation of goals and programs are stated as integral for continuing success in school improvement. The importance of instruction in essential subject and skill areas in schools is vital to the initiation, sustenance and maintenance of school improvement.

There will be differential expressions…… [Read More]

Shaughnessy, Joan M. (2001) Preparing High school Students for the World of Work in a Tech Prep Program - St. Mary's County Public Schools "school Improvement Research Series (SIRS) Online available at5

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Educational Groups -- a Literature Essay

Words: 1175 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42034981

Many of these activities commonly focus on happy and positive feelings and thoughts, at the expense of allowing an examination of more painful issues. This is especially problematic for disenfranchised and failing students, who, through this type of structure, receive direct and indirect messages from the group structure to not deal with the depths of their pain, anger, frustration, sadness, hurt, anxiety, or fear." (Bemak, 2005, p.1)

The need for a culturally diverse approach must not be lost, either in the approach of education of counselors and educators, despite the need to build teams and effective groups. Controversially, Bemak entertains the suggestion that an ethnic and gender match between students and guidance counselors might be a needed additional support for students from at-risk groups, although he finally rejects the idea as impractical. (Bemak, 2005, p.5) the article is provoking and challenging to accepted norms, suggesting that the need to build a school community must not conceal individual differences and special needs of students, and that the need for harmony must not cloud adminstrator's eyes to the reality of the student's home and social envionments. Any human resource professional should read this article and find interest in its unapologetic defense of the need to acknowlege the problems of creating a community filled with differences, although Bernak could have included more examples of effective use of groups that fostered the children most in need, whom are the primary preoccuation of his aricle.

Marzano, Robert Timothy Waters & Brian a. McNulty. (2005) School Leadership that Works. Association for Supervision & Curriculum Development, 2005.

Robert J. Marzano, Timothy Waters, and Brian a. McNulolty offer a comprehensive, step-by-step guide to implement a leadership program based upon faculty meetings, consultations with parents, and generating a more interactive environment between administrators and staff within a school. Situational leadership, or flexible to on-site attention student needs is deemed key, as well as communication between faculty members. The authors strike a contrast between what they call first-order change or incremental change and second-order change which is a sudden, decisive step taken by the educational leadership. Although both forms of change are necessary, and first order change is inevitable, the authors stress the need for second-order, seismic changes to create better ways to monitoring and evaluating student success for quality, build a positive teaching culture based on communication and mentoring between faculty…… [Read More]

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Educational Research What Do You Essay

Words: 560 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8573025

Policy assessments must be based on the most appropriate data sets. Qualitative data is the most appropriate data set in educational research.

Interactions abound in education. Those interactions create a complex matrix of issues affecting education effectiveness: class, gender, and learning style all impact learning but those variables also interact with classroom environment and peer group issues. Education is a process of communication, communication between the learner and his or her environment. The teacher is only one part of that student's environment. Qualitative research allows the ubiquity of interactions to be examined in a scientific framework.

As the accepted processes of educational science change, educational policy will too. The next generation of educators need to pressure their coworkers and community activists to lobby for wholesale changes in the government. Parents must also begin expressing their discontent with No Child Left Behind more vehemently. Until then, scholars of education need to work harder to reintroduce qualitative research into the accepted rubric of scientific methodology.

The consequences could be far-reaching and may extend into other social sciences. Psychology and sociology could benefit tremendously from introducing more qualitative analyses. A host of issues related to mental illness, developmental disability, and criminology can be addressed better with qualitative than quantitative data. Any field in which context complicates variables, and any field with ubiquitous interactions will benefit from a paradigm shift. The NRC will gradually accept the failure of No Child Left Behind and welcome a new vision of education that will truly leave no child behind.… [Read More]

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Educational Attainment Is the Concept Essay

Words: 728 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20876522

Unfortunately, there is great controversy in the debate over educational testing. This especially revolves around SAT scores, and other standardized tests that many believe are placing students at a disadvantage. Recently, SAT scores declined significantly, which made many in power to blame schools as providing inefficient educational programs. As a result, many states began increasing the number of tests and their weight in terms of school funding as a way to entice schools to achieve better scores. Essentially, some believe that standardized tests are not the most accurate ways to measure intelligence and student achievement. Many students do not perform well on tests, and research shows there may be a clear racial bias in regards to cultural elements not translating well into a standardized test methodology.

Despite loosing some power over the last few decades, parents do still have a number of choices in terms of their children's educations. Parents may not be able to pick particular teachers, but they can choose whether or not their children will attend public, private, or more alternative charter schools. Greater parental involvement often leads to greater child success, and so parents can use their ability to choose, as well as devotion to governing over their child's academic performance to guarantee greater levels of success.

The chapter also outlines a number of issues concerning diversity in higher education. There are a number of different sources which posit that diversity in a university environment is beneficial to all students involved. This has pushed many universities to try to recruit more minority students in order to provide a more multifaceted student body. Currently, affirmative action plays a big role in recruiting and funding minorities in universities all across the nation.

Finally, the chapter explores how well the group model aids in understanding the difficulties associated in developing educational policies. This model shows how each group is different, and how they influence each other. Yet, these groups are not always in accordance with each other. Thus, the model also shows how group conflict can create problems in effectively reforming school and…… [Read More]