Learning and Assessment Basics
In a regular education classroom, eighth grade learners can be difficult to work with. That is largely because they are starting to develop more than they have in the past - not just physically, but mentally and emotionally, as well. With that in mind, teachers who work with eighth grade learners must be aware of what these students want and need in their learning experience (Pellegrino, Chudowsky, & Glaser, 2001). It is certainly the job of the teacher to keep order and ensure that students stay on the right track, but it is also very important to make sure that the students' voices are heard. Too often, teachers focus so much on the material the students need to learn that they fail to notice how the students need to learn (Pashler, et al., 2009).
Not everyone learns in the same way, of course, but there are basic formulas that generally work with the majority of students that fall within a particular age group (Tremblay, 2010; Pashler, et al., 2009). By finding and understanding those basic formulas, teachers can help their eighth grade learners get through a time that has traditionally been thought to be difficult for them from an academic and personal standpoint. By recognizing students' needs and their differences, teachers help students find their own place in the classroom and the world, and they show students that they are valuable just the way they are. Knowing they do not have to change to be accepted can be very important for an eighth grade learner, because they are often at an awkward and somewhat uncomfortable age in their eighth grade year.
Because eighth grade is a time of growth and development in so many different ways, the design of instructions and assessment must focus on those issues (Pellegrino, Chudowsky, & Glaser, 2001). Cognition and learning is far different in students in an eighth grade classroom than it is in students who are in kindergarten or who are in college. While these eighth grade students are much better at thinking logically than their younger counterparts, they have still not developed the critical thinking skills of adults. That places them in a unique area of…… [Read More]
Learning is one of the vital and fundamental elements in the life of a person that leads to growth and development, as it continues from birth till death. This learning process is noticeably witnessed by the individuals through the behavioral change pattern that occurs with the passage of time. In addition, the process commence from the time a person starts his education, matures and develops with their professional life (Kamble, 2007).
An individual encounters numerous people that belong to diverse backgrounds and experiences all the way though his learning voyage, which may leave an influential impact to great extent on his performances. The impact of others on the individual can be either motivating that would induce the individual to achieve his ambitions with strength or be discouraging which would lead to poor quality in the learning process (Kamble, 2007).
Response and reactions towards the happenings and activities in the surrounding environment is an outcome that comes from the learning process. In addition, the perceptions and viewpoints in general are also developed due to the learning process because it provides the individual with the information that one can convert into understanding to differentiate what is correct and incorrect (Kamble, 2007).
However, experts and specialists have segregated the entire process of learning into seven learning styles that can be used by an individual for personal or professional growth and also to enhance their overall personality. According to Howard Gardner's learning theories (Leonard, 2002), the seven styles include spatial intelligence, interpersonal intelligence, intrapersonal intelligence, bodily-kinesthetic intelligence, musical intelligence, logical-mathematical intelligence and linguistic intelligence. Linguistic Intelligence on a broad spectrum is also known verbal intelligence (Kamble, 2007).
Verbal linguistic learning or intelligence style is defined as the skill or capacity of an individual to solve complicated problems, provide reasoning and overall learning by means of a language. Both written and oral speech is engaged with the verbal style. This means that the verbal stimulus is the key source through which the individual become cognizant of and gain the…… [Read More]
Learning Through Play
How Do Children Learn Through Play? How Does Teacher Intervention Support Or Limit Learning Through Play… [Read More]
Learning Style Inventory
My results: learning style inventory
When I learned that my predominant learning styles were those of a visual learner and a social learner, I was not surprised. The theory of multiple learning styles of Howard Gardner resonates what I have known intuitively for a long time: different people are innately talented at different things. "Unlike the established understanding of intelligence -- people are born with a uniform cognitive capacity that can be easily measured by short-answer tests," the theory of multiple intelligence suggests that there are different intelligence profiles of which "each person has a unique combination…no two individuals have them in the same exact configuration -- similar to our fingerprints" (Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences, 2013, PBS). Of course, it is certainly possible to learn how to do things without an innate talent. For example, even though my strongest talent does not lie in the sphere of logical analysis, I can learn how to do math problems with hard work. But some of my friends can 'ace' a math test without studying, simply by using their innate problem-solving abilities. Rather than focusing on generalized intelligence, learning style theory suggests that everyone learns differently and has a constellation of different strengths and weaknesses. The theory remains extremely controversial in the academy and many clinical and research psychologists dispute Gardner's theory. However, anecdotally, "it has met with a strongly positive response from many educators. It has been embraced by a range of educational theorists and, significantly, applied by teachers and policymakers to the problems of schooling" (Smith 2008).
For example, someone with a visual learning style such as myself tends to think in images and pictures and enjoys doodling. Visual learners remember images better than words and use 'mind maps' to remember things and understand problems. In contrast, the aural learning style is gifted at music. To learn in a more conventional, non-musical classroom setting, remembering things by creating a song or rhythm is helpful; so is creating acronyms or mnemonic devices. The verbal learning style is less sound-oriented than word-oriented and also exhibits a strong preference for word-oriented learning techniques such as mnemonics and rhymes.
But the verbal learning style is more likely to flourish in a conventional classroom setting than the aural style, given that the learner exhibiting this style tends to favor word-based…… [Read More]
Learning a Second Language
Psychological Aspects of Learning
Psychological Aspects of Learning a Second Language
A foreign or second language "L2" can be defined as a language that is studied in such environment where it is not the common language for daily interaction. The reasons for learning second language (L2) vary from person to person because different people learn a second language for different purposes. Some learn it for enjoyment and internal satisfaction that they gain from learning a new language while others may learn for getting an extrinsic reward like promotion or increment in salary. Therefore, people have different motives and goals for leaning a second language, which are the central concepts in learning a second language. however, there are several factors like age, aptitude, anxiety, personality traits, learning strategies and learning styles etc. that play a critical role when learning a second language.
Learning a second or foreign language is a difficult task for the people. Some learners have special ability 'aptitude' which makes it easier for them to learn second language quickly. In contrast, others find it extremely difficult and are not able to take advantage from the opportunity. This is due to the reason that different factors are responsible behind the second language learning process. These include the internal/individual as well as external psychological factors that affect the learning of a second language (L2). This paper explores and describes the different psychological aspects of learning a second language in the light of deep research conducted by the experts. The factors discussed in this paper include internal factors; age, aptitude, motivation, anxiety and the external factors; learning styles and learning strategies.
The age factor is one of the important factors to be considered for exploring the individual differences in learning a second language. In order to know the effects of age in learning the second language, it is important to consider the effect of age on the rate of learning, the route of learning and the ability or proficiency of learning the second language.
Adults have advantage of learning quickly, especially grammar of the second language. According to the studies performed by the experts, adults perform better than the children…… [Read More]
Learning: Concepts and Theories
What makes us human? Many would say it is our opposing thumb, but others would posit the fact that we are intelligent thinkers. Our ability to learn from the world around us is what separates us from many of the other creatures in the animal kingdom. We can learn from our experiences in order to create a better world for ourselves. Yet, the concept of how we learn is often still mysterious, even despite generations of fundamental research on the topic. There are a number of theories that present the process of learning as being much different; yet, they all still share some common principles that give us a more detailed idea of how we learn.
If learning a one of our most successful attributes, how can we best define it for proper course of study? Essentially, learning is the training process in which we train our brain to understand and cope with the outside world around us. Our ability to learn helps us get through the many obstacles we face in this very uncertain life. Without strong physical features to give us a competitive edge, we must often rely on our heightened rational abilities to solve complicated problems and generate the methods for fulfilling the needs of our survival. We learn from our experiences; utilizing our prior knowledge to build upon what we know and learn more and more things about the external environment in which we live our lives. Learning is a process that begins almost the second we open our eyes at birth. The first few years of our development are filled with intense earning, as we learn to behave, think, and speak in our social world. Yet, learning does not stop after we can talk and walk. It continues well into childhood, and even well into adulthood. It never really stops, as the learner continues to adapt and change to meet the demands of his or her surroundings.…… [Read More]
Improving Learning Strategies Based on the VARK Aural Style
The VARK questionnaire has been developed to identify students' learning preferences from five potential styles, these are visual, aural, read/write, kinesthetic and multimodal (VARK, 2012) . The short questionnaire is not the identification of a true learning style, which deals with many different dimensions and can include many dimensions including elements such as environmental preferences and temperature, but a simple assessment of a learning preference (VARK, 2012). When undertaking the test the result can give guidance on learning strategies that maybe best employed by a student; these can be compared with practice and aid in the development of a learning strategy that may improve the effectiveness of personal study and learning (Hawk and Shah, 2007). It may be noted that whole the test will identify a dominant style out of the five potential outcomes, this does not discount learning from other sensory inputs, the degree to which a single style dominant will be indicated by the scores (VARK, 2012).
Where the results indicate a heavy preference of an aural style this means that a student will gain the most benefit from listening to input, so that it is based on the sensory input of sound (Murphy et al., 2004). Aural inputs are already widely used within academia, these include benefiting from attending classes and lectures where the teacher it talking to the class or in tutorials which support the classroom learning (VARK, 2012). Other sources of potential optimal learning experiences with high aural input include the ability to discuss issues with teachers, taking part in discussions with peers in the classroom or in more informal settings and listening to recordings (VARK, 2012). In the modern environment this may incorporate the use of podcasts which are being used by universities as well as the more traditional recordings.
Techniques that are recommended for recall include looking at notes and slides and verbally describing them or reading the content out loud (VARK, 2012). Another useful strategy may be remembering interesting examples of stories that one may associate with the issues to be learned and recalled (VARK, 2012). It is noted that students with an aural style may produce notes which are lacking as a result of their preference for the auditory input (VARK, 2012). To overcome…… [Read More]
Learning and Development
Evaluation differs from or relates to: validation, assessment and monitoring in the following ways.
Evaluation in the process of learning and development is a process that is used to study the outcome of the learning process with the aim of informing the design of future learning processes. It can be termed as a comparison between the actual and real expectations from a learning process with the predicted outcome from the same process. The emphasis or evaluation is the need to reflect on what was achieved in the process in comparison with what was expected (Mavin, S. Lee, L. & Robson, and F. 2004).
Validation is the process that involves a confirmation that an existing program that is used in the process of learning and development is effective and therefore it can be incorporated or continued to be used. It can be used in some contexts instead of accreditation although validation is not explicitly linked to evaluation on a conceptual level; validation can be termed as based on evaluation.
Assessment refers to a process by which information is obtained relative to known objective or goal of a process of learning and development. Assessment uses instruments and processes o collect information of performance characteristics. The process of assessment can therefore include testing which is special form of assessment. Tests are assessments that are made under contrived circumstances so that they can be administered. Evaluation can therefore use information from assessment to support decisions on changing or discarding instructional practices in learning process.
Monitoring involves the establishment of indicators of how efficient, effective and the impact the learning process has. It entails the setting up of systems to collect information that relate to these indicators and using this information to make decisions on the overall process of learning. Monitoring involves various tools such as questions, assignments, periodic reviews, correction tests and performance data collecting and recording. Monitoring can be viewed as an aspect of evaluation since through monitoring conclusive decisions can be made on the evaluation process. Therefore monitoring and evaluation can be termed as central in the sustainability of a learning process.
Typical…… [Read More]
Online vs. Traditional Learning
Online learning has become a reality in the past decade and most traditional institutions have come to embrace this method of education. However, arguments remain regarding the effectiveness of online educational opportunities vs. those offered in the more traditional manner. Many possible reasons for this reluctance to fully embrace the technology exist, but the main reason seems to be that people are just not used to this method of education so it is difficult to alter one's perceptions. Those who have been embracing the digital education revolution have suggested that there may be a type of student who will benefit greatly from this type of education due to the way that they learn. This paper looks at learning styles as they correlate to online vs. traditional learning, and also examines the conjecture introduced by some that online learning may foster some traits, such as those required of leaders, better than traditional learning.
Online vs. Traditional Learning
The first argument made by those who believe that online learning students suffer compared to those in a traditional environment is that the online learner has no direct connection with an instructor. This is one of the many problems that is being addressed while online education programs are streamlined. As a matter of fact, the absence of a single instructor teaching a large number of students may make the environment better for those in the class. Researchers have begun to realize that there can be more individual instruction with in an online environment, and that this help can be more immediate (Dagorret, 2010).
Other benefits can be seen such as a reduced overall cost to the consumer (Dagorret, 2010), the flexibility and direct feedback (Online Education, 2012), and the fact that classes are often more convenient (Kennedy, 2007). The benefits that researchers have found though seem to be limited by some of the difficulties some learners have in the online environment. A problem occurs for those who are not ready to be self-directed in their quest for education. Because the online environment is less constrained, individuals will often fall behind in their courses and perform poorly. This type of message was at the core of research conducted by Ladkin, et al., (2009) which looked at the type of learner that…… [Read More]
Serial learning is a process in which the learner is exposed to series of stimuli; later the learner is asked to recall his memory in the same sequence in which stimuli have been exposed to him (Jensen, 1965). Examples of serial learning include baking a cake, visiting friend's home and driving a car.
Primacy and Recency Effect
According to Mcleod (2008) serial position effect means when people are exposed to series of stimuli; either they recall most of the recent ones (recency effect) or first few stimuli (primacy effect) most likely. The items in the middle are mostly hard for people to recall.
Series of prizes are mentioned for playing a game. We mostly remember the first few prizes giving the most importance to the first few prizes.
Being close to a friend for years and then recently you have a fight with her; will make you change your opinion about her because of the recent fight. This is the recency effect bias.
Free Recall, Cued Recall, and Recognition Memory
Learners are exposed to several stimuli. Later on the learners are asked to recall the items
In free recall learners are allowed to recall in any sequence. Whereas in cued recall, learners are given hints to recall the stimuli. Selective retention is done through the process of recognition memory.
Free Recall -- when an accident happens news reporter asks witness to know what happened. The witness recalls freely and describes the incident.
Cued Recall -- when the accident is recalled by the eye witness; the reporters asks him about criminal's identification (how he looks, what he was wearing) which the eye witness might not able to recall if he is not given hints.
Recognition Memory -- once the suspects of the accidents are captured by the police; eye witness is asked to recognize…… [Read More]
Learning disabilities in children are sometimes difficult to identify. Children can go years without proper diagnosis. If they are never diagnosed, they can go well into adulthood without knowing anything was wrong, impacting their academic performance and career choices. Therefore it is important to understand what some of these learning disabilities are in order to identify it sooner and assist children once identified, by properly instructing the disabled child to achieve positive results in an academic situation. The learning disabilities researched are: developmental dyslexia, impaired reading comprehension; and mathematical learning disability or dyscalculia.
In a study by Baird, Slonis, Simonoff, & Dworzynski (2011), the authors discovered both the relationship of reading impairment and language impairment (former and present) and whether kids with language impairment, who also possess some degree of reading impairment, demonstrate a disparity impairment in NWR from other spoken recollection measures associated with youngsters with language impairment who do not possess any degree of reading impairment. Their results revealed a strong connection with language and reading impairment, so much so that most kids who had language impairments showed some degree of reading impairment and vice versa. The areas of the brain controlling language, specifically in regards to speaking and reading appear to be connected in regards to impairment probability. Meaning, if one of these two areas are affected, then the other might be as well. Their results explain:
In those children whose language problems persist beyond the age of 51/2 years, approximately 50% of children with language impairment have reading problems. In studies of reading impairment where language competence has been measured, approximately 50% of children have been found to have some language difficulties (Baird, Slonis, Simonoff, & Dworzynski, 2011, pp. 711-716).
This connection can very well help school staff and doctors identify children with difficulties faster and perhaps understand the reasons behind these impairments more thoroughly. The article…… [Read More]
LEARNING OBJECTIVES Begin learning objectives guide practicum hours, activities undertake achieve objectives.
One of the most essential learning objectives that will guide the completion of my practicum hours is to "Conduct a comprehensive and systematic assessment of health and illness parameters in complex situations, incorporating diverse and culturally sensitive approaches" (American Association, 2006, p. 16). The parameters that I will be assessing will relate specifically to the area of treatment that the patients I service require. For instance, if I work with patients who are sedentary and require turning for their medication and treatment, I will systematically research and then test various theories and factors that are relevant to turning patients (WOCN, 2012). What is of immense importance of this practice of mine is to attempt to vary it as much as possible to account for the individuality of the patient. In the aforementioned example, for instance, this would require researching and possibly practicing turning male patients in a way that is different than for female patients -- or in accord with the particular type of wound or injury from which they are recovering. I would also need to research and specify this assessment of the relevant parameters according to cultures, which may vary based on religion, sexuality, race and ethnicity, as well as a host of other factors. Both my research and my incorporation of this research into my assessment and practice are the key activities for this objective, which should be conducted during the first third of my practicum hours.
My second learning objective is to unequivocally "design, implement, and evaluate therapeutic interventions based on nursing science and other sciences" (American Association 2006, p. 16). Again, the fulfillment of this particular objective hinges upon research into the various sciences that apply to the therapeutic interventions that specifically relate to my patients and their particular ailments, and requires me to formulate a plan of action based on that research. While researching this objective, I definitely plan to consider methodologies and germane applications…… [Read More]
Gokhale, a. (1995). Collaborative Learning Enhancing Critical Thinking. Journal of Technology Education, 7, 22 -- 31.
In the article titled, Collaborative Learning Enhances Critical Thinking, the authors are seeking to understand the true effect that technology will have on what is known as collaborative learning. This is where students will work together to increase the overall amounts of comprehension of the subject matter. In this article, researchers wanted to know if learning was more effective in those environments, where there was more of an emphasis on individual learning. To determine which methods was most effective, researchers would survey 48 students using the individual method and then having the student learn collectively. The results of the study were that both methods were effective, in helping to increase the amounts of learning comprehension. However, when collaborative learning is used, students were more prepared for a variety of situations that they could face in the real world and were more flexible. This is because, these skills were often necessary in order for the student to be able to be a productive member of the group. As a result, the total amounts of learning comprehension increased when both collaborative efforts were utilized, as students would think with increased amounts of logic. This is significant, because it shows how the traditional method of individual learning is effective. Yet, in order for learning comprehension to increase as much as possible both models must be used. Part of the reason for this, is the collaborative approach will give students more than just way to learn the material, which will cause the overall amounts of learning comprehension to increase. (Gokhale, 1995)
Lou, Y. (2001). Small Group and Individual Learning with Technology. Review of Educational Research, 449 -- 521.
In this article, the authors are seeking to determine if students learn more effectively using technology in group or individual settings. Where, researchers examined 486 different…… [Read More]
Critically reflect on your organizational context (procurement department) and how it contributes to or hinders a learning organization
Enhancing Individual Learning at the Procurement Department
Unlike traditional organizations, which were static, organizations are becoming dynamic with the consistent changes that are taking place in the market, and in order to take a competitive advantage constant learning is essential. This has formed the basis for a learning organization, whose idea is to gain a competitive advantage through learning. According to Saw, Wilday, and Harte (2010), a learning organization is one that not only appreciates and promotes learning from its own practices, but also looks further than its own systems for lessons, and avoids self-satisfaction. This means that the learning process should be both an internal and external process with the organization appreciating that learning from daily experiences is critical. Learning organization gets its basis on the idea that both individual and collective learning are the key to the long-term survival of any organization (Jones & Robinson 2012). A learning organization builds up itself through smoothing the progress of learning of its members. Several tools exist to register the development of an organization in its mission to develop into a learning organization or accomplish organizational learning (Small & Irvine 2006).
A procurement department is in charge of running the purchasing activity for an organization. Two types of purchasing or procurement departments exist, and the difference is the way in which the process of requesting for materials occurs. Whereas in a centralized model all requests for materials centre to this department, in a decentralized model, various departments have the autonomy to process their own requests. However, even in the decentralized model, it is the duty of the procurement department to manage the supply chain. Organizations can adapt supplier development programs to make value for organizations through the creation and transfer of information among supply chain partners (Giannakis 2008). This means that the department has an obligation of ensuring that there is continuous learning at individual and collective levels.
Developments in the current world such as technical evolution, globalization, and deregulation are shifting the competitive formation of the marketplace in a way that the efficiency of conventional sources of an organizations' competitive advantage is imprecise, and firms need to focus in…… [Read More]
Analyze Concept Learning Organization, • The Organizational Conditions Suited A Managerial Intervention; • Its Implications Managing People; • Its Likelihood Success
Under what conditions is it likely to be successful?
The idea of a 'learning organization' has become one of the most popular concepts in managerial theory. It originated with the theorist Donald Schon, who stressed that given the mutability of the exterior environment, business organizations must likewise be responsive to changes and change with the times (Smith 2001) . Only by learning from the exterior environment can an organization be effective, and that means creating a workforce that is similarly responsive, teachable, and able to 'learn' in a dynamic fashion.
However, the extent to which such a concept can be realized and what constitutes a learning organization has been hotly debated. "While there has been a lot of talk about learning organizations it is very difficult to identify real-life examples. This might be because the vision is 'too ideal' or because it isn't relevant to the requirements and dynamics of organizations" (Smith 2001). The most commonly-cited examples of learning organizations include Apple and Google -- organizations which encourage employees to take risks and are highly supportive of workers for doing so. For example, Google famously allows its employees to spend up to 20% of their time on their own projects, which has generated new and exciting ideas for the company, as well as improved retention and made the organization a magnet for top talent (Gargulio 2002). With its positive employee engagement, Google states: "our voluntary turnover is 4% or less in an average industry of 22%, and we estimate it is saving the company hundreds of millions in company turnover" (Gargulio 2011). Talented workers are attracted to the organization's many perks, including the ability to learn and grow with Google.
A number of researchers have noticed a there is often confusion between studying organizational learning and what constitutes a learning organization: "The literature on organizational learning has concentrated on the detached collection and analysis of the processes involved in individual and collective learning inside organizations; whereas the learning organizations literature has an action orientation, and is geared toward using specific diagnostic and evaluative methodological tools which can help to identify, promote and evaluate the quality of learning processes inside organizations" (Easterby-Smith and Araujo 1999: 2; see also…… [Read More]
The presenter will maintain a checklist during the course of the presentation and will identify each topic as it has been completed. This will allow the presenter to make sure that all the necessary topics are covered in time and there is room to perform the activities. The presenter will also distribute feedback forms to the participants. They will be required to complete these feedback forms at the end of the presentation and deposit them with the presenter or at a designated desk before leaving. The information on the forms will enable the presenter to assess whether the goals of the presentation have been met. The feedback forms will also have space where the participant may enter an email address so that the presenter may contact them to learn how they are progressing with the implementation of the ideas shared during the presentation.
Intermediate division teachers can create effective learning environments by incorporating the needs and interests of the students, open communication channels and variety in seating arrangements. The presentation will identify these critical aspects and describe how they contribute to effective learning by addressing student needs for autonomy, interest and self-esteem. Participants will learn the skills and be encouraged to adopt positive attitudes towards these ideas. The ideas will be reinforced and assessed through a number of activities.… [Read More]
Learning and Cognition
Learning is defined as a route or process that is a product of a relative consistent change in behavior or behavior potential. Learning takes place only through experience and making responses that will impact his or her environment. Experience can be defined as taking, evaluating, and transforming information. Learning incorporates a response impacted by memory and learned behavior does not become modified simply based on physical maturation or brain progression. However, some permanent behavioral changes facilitate the need for maturational readiness.
There are two types of learning, which are simple non-associative and associative. Habituation and sensitization belong to the former, while classical conditioning makes up the latter. The first reflects a weakened response when a stimulus is repeated over time. Sensitization is the opposite of the aforementioned type of learning, which means as a stimulus is repeated over and over; the response that follows becomes stronger and more efficient. Classical conditioning is the process where an activity is taught through association with a separate, pre-occurring element, which is also known as associative learning. It is a basic form of learning that engages in a repeated activity, where one stimulus or event predicts the occurrence of another stimulus of event. The person learns a new interrelation between two stimuli, which involve a stimulus that did not extract a response, or a neural stimulus, and another that did educe a reaction or known as the unconditioned stimulus.
Behavior and learning are linked in that as the latter takes place, which is when the person is able to demonstrate results, then the former changes. Learning is apparent from improvements in his or her performance. However, sometimes performance isn't a rubric for everything learned. Sometimes, it is when an individual has acquired a general mindset or viewpoint, for example, a valuing or understanding of something. Although learning is not always quantifiable, the person has achieved a potential for behavior change. It is because he or she has acknowledged and attained attitudes and values that can influence his or her actions and performance. It has been noted by Greeno the differentiated behavior among students who pursue performance goals or learning goals. The former is when students want to do well, and the latter is when such individuals want to become more capable. Those who participate in the former tend to believe intelligence is a fixed trait, so he or she is…… [Read More]
A child can learn that pressing a button on remote changes a channel on a television set. The experiment used two set of participants where one set learnt from a machine while the others learnt from a human participant. It was evident that the use of a ghost machine yielded better results compared to the use of a participant (Nairne, 2011).
The method used to learn how observational learning influences children will be the use of questionnaires. Short questionnaires will be sent to twenty baby care centers to evaluate the observational learning skills possessed by the caregivers. The questionnaires will be filled by the participants using three main methods. Centers that are a long distance from researcher's location will be provided with the questionnaires through emails. Centers where the care giver is busy will be called when convenient and the questionnaire filled through a telephone conversation. Centers that are near the researcher will be filled by the use of interviews. The phone conversations and interview will be recorded using an audio recorder and later transcribed using NVIVO.
The questionnaire will have question that evaluate the experience of the caregiver. This ensures that the caregiver has adequate experience with young children. The questionnaire will also evaluate the observational skills taught in the center. The questionnaire will also evaluate the benefits of this mode of teaching. The teachers will give the reasons why thy use this form of teaching in the centers. All the information collected from the questionnaires will then be compiled to ensure that the results are used to give a credible conclusion.
The information collected from the centers will be treated using NVIVO and excel spread sheets. The spread sheets will be used in comparing the information from the different centers. The use of NVIVO software will be effective in transcribing the information recorded in the audio recorder. The recordings will take an average of thirty minutes. All the information collected from the research will be compiled to evaluate the characteristics of the data. The researcher should ensure that the…… [Read More]
Learning Outside the Classroom
Can One Really be Popular by Being Honest?
I got my first summer job at the swimming pool, giving away samples of a new chlorine-repellent shampoo to the visitors, who mostly were young and enthusiastic - but fussy and critical when the talk came to money matters.
Going home thirsty and exhausted, I felt thankful to find a bottle of berry juice to drink while resting on the couch. That was where I found Van Fleet's "Conversational Power: The Key to Success With People" that my father's colleague left on the cushions.
Here is the interesting part. Van Fleet (1973) said, "Perfection increase the tense of the conversation; nobody would find it comfortable speaking with someone who knows everything (someone who is ready to reflect their "intelligence" to the crowd." He said that it was not the way if someone wants to be popular.
I agree absolutely. In fact, I enjoyed saying "I don't know" anytime it is necessary, despite the fact that we need to avoid that during classroom presentation, or advertising talk for example, unless one wants to lose sales. Did I? Well, of course not. However, my friend at work made three times as much as I did. I thought he might spoke better than I did, counting any phony details about how the shampoo get rid of chlorine…… [Read More]
(3) According to the Multiple Intelligences Survey, I have quite a bit of intrapersonal and interpersonal intellegence and a moderate amount of musical and kinesthetic intelligence. This makes sense because I enjoy analyzing people and situations; and, I decided to leave my old job because I was bored sitting still behind a desk and not talking to anyone for most of the day.
As I was enjoying the surveys so much, also I took Kolb's Learning Styles Inventory and discovered that my learning style consists of doing and feeling or what Kolb would abbreviate as "CE/AE." When these findings are placed on the two-by-two grid by Kolb, my learning style is accommodating. An accommodating learning style is often times referred to as a "hands-on" style and one that relies upon intuition over logic. In fact, these findings also did not surprise me because I have to do something at least two times before I understand how to do it; and, I'd much rather try to figure out how to put together a dresser from IKEA on my own as opposed to have to do the logical thing which would be to actually unfold and read the directions!
The last learning styles quiz that I took revealed that I am a true visual learner with kinesthetic learning coming up a close second. This does not surprise me because I have to be able to visualize something in my head or I won't remember it. This could be a function of aging or my lack of gingko biloba, but I do believe that if I am allowed to move, to pace, or to tap my feet, I will generally retain the information better.… [Read More]