Learning Through Play
How Do Children Learn Through Play? How Does Teacher Intervention Support Or Limit Learning Through Play… [Read More]
Learning a Second Language
Psychological Aspects of Learning
Psychological Aspects of Learning a Second Language
A foreign or second language "L2" can be defined as a language that is studied in such environment where it is not the common language for daily interaction. The reasons for learning second language (L2) vary from person to person because different people learn a second language for different purposes. Some learn it for enjoyment and internal satisfaction that they gain from learning a new language while others may learn for getting an extrinsic reward like promotion or increment in salary. Therefore, people have different motives and goals for leaning a second language, which are the central concepts in learning a second language. however, there are several factors like age, aptitude, anxiety, personality traits, learning strategies and learning styles etc. that play a critical role when learning a second language.
Learning a second or foreign language is a difficult task for the people. Some learners have special ability 'aptitude' which makes it easier for them to learn second language quickly. In contrast, others find it extremely difficult and are not able to take advantage from the opportunity. This is due to the reason that different factors are responsible behind the second language learning process. These include the internal/individual as well as external psychological factors that affect the learning of a second language (L2). This paper explores and describes the different psychological aspects of learning a second language in the light of deep research conducted by the experts. The factors discussed in this paper include internal factors; age, aptitude, motivation, anxiety and the external factors; learning styles and learning strategies.
The age factor is one of the important factors to be considered for exploring the individual differences in learning a second language. In order to know the effects of age in learning the second language, it is important to consider the effect of age on the rate of learning, the route of learning and the ability or proficiency of learning the second language.
Adults have advantage of learning quickly, especially grammar of the second language. According to the studies performed by the experts, adults perform better than the children where their exposure to the second language is controlled (Lownthal and Bull, 1984). However, a study conducted by Snow and Hoefnagal-Hohl…… [Read More]
Learning: Concepts and Theories
What makes us human? Many would say it is our opposing thumb, but others would posit the fact that we are intelligent thinkers. Our ability to learn from the world around us is what separates us from many of the other creatures in the animal kingdom. We can learn from our experiences in order to create a better world for ourselves. Yet, the concept of how we learn is often still mysterious, even despite generations of fundamental research on the topic. There are a number of theories that present the process of learning as being much different; yet, they all still share some common principles that give us a more detailed idea of how we learn.
If learning a one of our most successful attributes, how can we best define it for proper course of study? Essentially, learning is the training process in which we train our brain to understand and cope with the outside world around us. Our ability to learn helps us get through the many obstacles we face in this very uncertain life. Without strong physical features to give us a competitive edge, we must often rely on our heightened rational abilities to solve complicated problems and generate the methods for fulfilling the needs of our survival. We learn from our experiences; utilizing our prior knowledge to build upon what we know and learn more and more things about the external environment in which we live our lives. Learning is a process that begins almost the second we open our eyes at birth. The first few years of our development are filled with intense earning, as we learn to behave, think, and speak in our social world. Yet, learning does not stop after we can talk and walk. It continues well into childhood, and even well into adulthood. It never really stops, as the learner continues…… [Read More]
Improving Learning Strategies Based on the VARK Aural Style
The VARK questionnaire has been developed to identify students' learning preferences from five potential styles, these are visual, aural, read/write, kinesthetic and multimodal (VARK, 2012) . The short questionnaire is not the identification of a true learning style, which deals with many different dimensions and can include many dimensions including elements such as environmental preferences and temperature, but a simple assessment of a learning preference (VARK, 2012). When undertaking the test the result can give guidance on learning strategies that maybe best employed by a student; these can be compared with practice and aid in the development of a learning strategy that may improve the effectiveness of personal study and learning (Hawk and Shah, 2007). It may be noted that whole the test will identify a dominant style out of the five potential outcomes, this does not discount learning from other sensory inputs, the degree to which a single style dominant will be indicated by the scores (VARK, 2012).
Where the results indicate a heavy preference of an aural style this means that a student will gain the most benefit from listening to input, so that it is based on the sensory input of sound (Murphy et al., 2004). Aural inputs are already widely used within academia, these include benefiting from attending classes and lectures where the teacher it talking to the class or in tutorials which support the classroom learning (VARK, 2012). Other sources of potential optimal learning experiences with high aural input include the ability to discuss issues with teachers, taking part in discussions with peers in the classroom or in more informal settings and listening to recordings (VARK, 2012). In the modern environment this may incorporate the use of podcasts which are being used by universities as well as the more traditional recordings.
Techniques that are recommended for recall include looking at notes and slides and…… [Read More]
Learning and Development
Evaluation differs from or relates to: validation, assessment and monitoring in the following ways.
Evaluation in the process of learning and development is a process that is used to study the outcome of the learning process with the aim of informing the design of future learning processes. It can be termed as a comparison between the actual and real expectations from a learning process with the predicted outcome from the same process. The emphasis or evaluation is the need to reflect on what was achieved in the process in comparison with what was expected (Mavin, S. Lee, L. & Robson, and F. 2004).
Validation is the process that involves a confirmation that an existing program that is used in the process of learning and development is effective and therefore it can be incorporated or continued to be used. It can be used in some contexts instead of accreditation although validation is not explicitly linked to evaluation on a conceptual level; validation can be termed as based on evaluation.
Assessment refers to a process by which information is obtained relative to known objective or goal of a process of learning and development. Assessment uses instruments and processes o collect information of performance characteristics. The process of assessment can therefore include testing which is special form of assessment. Tests are assessments that are made under contrived circumstances so that they can be administered. Evaluation can therefore use information from assessment to support decisions on changing or discarding instructional practices in learning process.
Monitoring involves the establishment of indicators of how efficient, effective and the impact the learning process has. It entails the setting up of systems to collect information that relate to these indicators and using this information to make decisions on the overall process of learning. Monitoring involves various tools such as questions, assignments, periodic reviews, correction tests and performance data collecting and recording. Monitoring can be viewed as an aspect of evaluation since through monitoring conclusive decisions can be made on the evaluation process. Therefore monitoring and evaluation can be termed as central in the sustainability of a learning process.
Typical purpose of evaluation for 3 different stakeholders
Evaluation is a very important aspect of the learning and development process. It's typical purpose can be divided and looked…… [Read More]
Online vs. Traditional Learning
Online learning has become a reality in the past decade and most traditional institutions have come to embrace this method of education. However, arguments remain regarding the effectiveness of online educational opportunities vs. those offered in the more traditional manner. Many possible reasons for this reluctance to fully embrace the technology exist, but the main reason seems to be that people are just not used to this method of education so it is difficult to alter one's perceptions. Those who have been embracing the digital education revolution have suggested that there may be a type of student who will benefit greatly from this type of education due to the way that they learn. This paper looks at learning styles as they correlate to online vs. traditional learning, and also examines the conjecture introduced by some that online learning may foster some traits, such as those required of leaders, better than traditional learning.
Online vs. Traditional Learning
The first argument made by those who believe that online learning students suffer compared to those in a traditional environment is that the online learner has no direct connection with an instructor. This is one of the many problems that is being addressed while online education programs are streamlined. As a matter of fact, the absence of a single instructor teaching a large number of students may make the environment better for those in the class. Researchers have begun to realize that there can be more individual instruction with in an online environment, and that this help can be more immediate (Dagorret, 2010).
Other benefits can be seen such as a reduced overall cost to the consumer (Dagorret, 2010), the flexibility and direct feedback (Online Education, 2012), and the fact that classes are often more convenient (Kennedy, 2007). The benefits that researchers have found though seem to be limited by some of the difficulties some learners have in the online environment. A problem occurs for those who are not ready to be self-directed in their quest for education. Because the online environment is less constrained, individuals will often fall behind in their courses and perform poorly. This type of message was at…… [Read More]
Learning and Cognition
Learning is defined as a route or process that is a product of a relative consistent change in behavior or behavior potential. Learning takes place only through experience and making responses that will impact his or her environment. Experience can be defined as taking, evaluating, and transforming information. Learning incorporates a response impacted by memory and learned behavior does not become modified simply based on physical maturation or brain progression. However, some permanent behavioral changes facilitate the need for maturational readiness.
There are two types of learning, which are simple non-associative and associative. Habituation and sensitization belong to the former, while classical conditioning makes up the latter. The first reflects a weakened response when a stimulus is repeated over time. Sensitization is the opposite of the aforementioned type of learning, which means as a stimulus is repeated over and over; the response that follows becomes stronger and more efficient. Classical conditioning is the process where an activity is taught through association with a separate, pre-occurring element, which is also known as associative learning. It is a basic form of learning that engages in a repeated activity, where one stimulus or event predicts the occurrence of another stimulus of event. The person learns a new interrelation between two stimuli, which involve a stimulus that did not extract a response, or a neural stimulus, and another that did educe a reaction or known as the unconditioned stimulus.
Behavior and learning are linked in that as the latter takes place, which is when the person is able to demonstrate results, then the former changes. Learning is apparent from improvements in his or her performance. However, sometimes performance isn't a rubric for everything learned. Sometimes, it is when an individual has acquired a general mindset or viewpoint, for example, a valuing or understanding of something. Although learning is not always quantifiable, the person has achieved a potential for behavior change. It is because he or she has acknowledged and attained attitudes and values that can influence his or her actions and performance. It has been…… [Read More]
Serial learning is a process in which the learner is exposed to series of stimuli; later the learner is asked to recall his memory in the same sequence in which stimuli have been exposed to him (Jensen, 1965). Examples of serial learning include baking a cake, visiting friend's home and driving a car.
Primacy and Recency Effect
According to Mcleod (2008) serial position effect means when people are exposed to series of stimuli; either they recall most of the recent ones (recency effect) or first few stimuli (primacy effect) most likely. The items in the middle are mostly hard for people to recall.
Series of prizes are mentioned for playing a game. We mostly remember the first few prizes giving the most importance to the first few prizes.
Being close to a friend for years and then recently you have a fight with her; will make you change your opinion about her because of the recent fight. This is the recency effect bias.
Free Recall, Cued Recall, and Recognition Memory
Learners are exposed to several stimuli. Later on the learners are asked to recall the items
In free recall learners are allowed to recall in any sequence. Whereas in cued recall, learners are given hints to recall the stimuli. Selective retention is done through the process of recognition memory.
Free Recall -- when an accident happens news reporter asks witness to know what happened. The witness recalls freely and describes the incident.
Cued Recall -- when the accident is recalled by the eye witness; the reporters asks him about criminal's identification (how he looks, what he was wearing) which the eye witness might not able to recall if he is not given hints.
Recognition Memory -- once the suspects of the accidents are captured by the police; eye witness is asked to recognize the criminals.
Encoding and Retrieval of Information from Memory
Encoding is a process…… [Read More]
LEARNING OBJECTIVES Begin learning objectives guide practicum hours, activities undertake achieve objectives.
One of the most essential learning objectives that will guide the completion of my practicum hours is to "Conduct a comprehensive and systematic assessment of health and illness parameters in complex situations, incorporating diverse and culturally sensitive approaches" (American Association, 2006, p. 16). The parameters that I will be assessing will relate specifically to the area of treatment that the patients I service require. For instance, if I work with patients who are sedentary and require turning for their medication and treatment, I will systematically research and then test various theories and factors that are relevant to turning patients (WOCN, 2012). What is of immense importance of this practice of mine is to attempt to vary it as much as possible to account for the individuality of the patient. In the aforementioned example, for instance, this would require researching and possibly practicing turning male patients in a way that is different than for female patients -- or in accord with the particular type of wound or injury from which they are recovering. I would also need to research and specify this assessment of the relevant parameters according to cultures, which may vary based on religion, sexuality, race and ethnicity, as well as a host of other factors. Both my research and my incorporation of this research into my assessment and practice are the key activities for this objective, which should be conducted during the first third of my practicum hours.
My second learning objective is to unequivocally "design, implement, and evaluate therapeutic interventions based on nursing science and other sciences" (American Association 2006, p. 16). Again, the fulfillment of this particular objective hinges upon research into the various sciences that apply to the therapeutic interventions that specifically relate to my patients and their particular ailments, and requires me to formulate a plan of action based on that research. While researching this objective, I definitely plan to consider methodologies and germane applications for a number of disparate disciplines (which are actually all related to nursing) such as "biophysical, psychosocial, behavioral, sociopolitical, cultural, economic and nursing science as appropriate" (American Association, 2006, p. 16) to my particular area of specialty. Many of…… [Read More]
Critical thinking input: Good teachers that truly understand how distracted today's young people are (with technology, etc.) learn how to get the most out of students by combining proven strategies of engagement with scholarship challenges that are both entertaining and compelling to their active minds.
Historical views of transfer. When something is said to you and it reminds you (without you having to conjure up memories) instantly of something from the past. You transfer, or project your feelings to that moment in the past, or that person in the past. Dr. Michael Conner (psychologist) explains that transference responses are caused "by unmet emotional needs, neglect, seductions and other abuses that transpired when you were a child" (Conner, 2009). Perhaps a loved one was seriously injured or killed and the sound of the first responder's emergency vehicle arriving stays in the back of the mind; years later when that person hears a siren of an emergency vehicle, the transference back to that very bitter, sad day is instantly accomplished in his mind.
How learning occurs (Skinner). Learning is a function of "changes in overt behavior" which in turn result from an individual's "response to events (stimuli) that occur in the environment" -- according to Skinner. When a particular "stimulus-response" pattern is rewarded or reinforced then the individual who initiated the action learns to respond (www.tip/psychology.org/skinner.html). Typically factors that influence learning are: a) reinforcement in the form of praise given verbally or in writing; reinforcement in the form of a better grade or a personal feeling of satisfaction. This is Skinner's operant conditioning -- a kind of behavior modification that reinforces -- and it can be continuous, interval, and ratio reinforcement; b) punishment can influence learning but Skinner believed that while punishment can create fear that fear can fade away and the behavior that was punished originally can and will return. Information processing: Skinner believed that information should be presented to learners in small amounts, so they could digest it, absorb it, and retain it. Cognitive information processing looks at the role of three of memory's stages, according to Purdue University's educational department. Those three stages are sensory memory, short-term memory and long-term memory; the stages, according to Skinner retrieve information and transfer it for storage and for availability to be recalled when needed. The sensory portion of memory gives the learner the power to organize patterns or…… [Read More]
Toyota has specifically created the TPS to break down the organizational barriers between suppliers and create a more effective approach at managing knowledge workflows between suppliers and also with Toyota itself. To accomplish this, Toyota actually works with suppliers to re-engineer their internal learning processes, making available a system integration team that is responsible for creating the necessary process integration links within and between suppliers (Dyer, Nobeoka 2000). This integration of processes within suppliers and just Toyota itself can take up to a year or longer, and when overlaid to the broader supplier network, it can take easily up to eighteen months to two years. All of this effort and investment made by Toyota however is focused on transforming knowledge of processes and quality standards into a competitive advantage. Toyota is unique in that it's open nurturing of suppliers and the continual investment in cross-supplier collaboration (Amasaka, Sakai, 2009). Clearly Toyota is competing primarily on knowledge and second on products (Dyer, Nobeoka 2000). This approach to creating a learning ecosystem is also prevalent in the approach taken for integrating lean manufacturing concepts throughout factories globally, where the TPS is modeled in specific markets where supply chain coordinated at the local level is critical (Black, 2007).
The structure of the learning organisation then is more attuned to a continuous learning process (Amasaka, Sakai, 2009) to ensure trust and continual enrichment is attained across the entire supplier base. For organisations to sustain this level of continuous learning processes the velocity of information and the quality of it must be consistently high; this was a key lesson learned by Toyota in terms of keeping suppliers participating in the knowledge transfer aspects of their TPS (Dyer, Nobeoka 2000). Further, the consensus-based approach to integrating new it investments throughout the supply chain globally also ensured a higher level of adoption initially as well, especially in the area of shared manufacturing metrics (Amasaka, Sakai, 2009). The continuous learning process then became an essential part of the learning ecosystem. Suppliers began to rely on the TPS cross-supplier coordination and collaboration to better understand how to stay in compliance to…… [Read More]
Chance tries to explain the key differences in Pavlovian procedures by stating that "the most important difference is that Pavlovian conditioning involves pairing stimuli (the CS and U.S.) while operant learning involves pairing responses and stimuli." (pg 111) the average reader is likely not to readily discern the difference that easily.
Turning back to the section on Pavlovian conditioning is imperative at this point in the book and therefore another reading may be in order. The reader who does so reinforces (there is that word again) the learning behavior that Thorndike and Skinner both professed. However, Pavlov may have classified such an action as a conditional reflex as compared to an unconditional reflex. Chance states that Pavlov was instrumental in discovering and naming these two reflexes and the stimulus and responses that are paired with them.
Pavlov discovered that an unconditional reflex was a reflex that every individual was born with and it occurs 'more or less unconditionally.' While a conditional reflex is a reflex that can be found whenever conditions are met. "Pavlov called these conditional reflexes because they actually do depend on very many conditions." (pg 61)
Further studies as found in Learning and Behavior show that Pavlov also developed (or discovered) the unconditional stimulus and unconditional response as well as the conditional stimulus and conditional response. Pavlov conducted a number of tests on canines and discovered that they when they were environed in consistently in a conditional stimulus circumstance then they would evoke a conditional response. "When the sight of a food dish regularly evokes salivation, the food dish is a Conditional Stimulus (CS) while the salivating is a Conditional Response (CR)." (pg 61) When every dog he tested automatically salivated when food was placed in the mouth, Pavlov called that unconditional response to an unconditional stimulus.
Chance goes on to explain in more detail how the conditioning process works using the Pavlovian procedures. He writes of the higher-order conditioning, trace conditioning, delayed…… [Read More]
Students level of skills
How students are relating to vocabulary usage
Time segments in minutes
Notes need help (more than 20% are unable to process)
Students are spending more time working independently. Fewer students need assistance from teacher.
A somewhat skilled (10-20% need some assistance from teacher) working independently (fewer than 10% need assistance from teacher
Learning Styles used
Time segments in minutes
Student Engagement Indicators - Make notes of overall impression of the lesson:
Students Given Choices
Give 1 to Get 1 activity gave students choices when deciding on which vocabulary terms to write out first.
Learning Put in Context
Students were able to relate new vocabulary terms to chapter problems.
Students working independently
As can be seen from the observation checklists examined above, the students used many different learning styles as the times of the activities increased, thereby indicating that they preferred these learning styles once they understood what the material was and became comfortable with it. Other ways of learning were quickly introduced, however, and these were not necessarily chosen by the teacher to occur at any specific period of time but instead happened spontaneously as the students found new ways to deal with problems or as they responded to instructions that the teacher supplied them with for information that they needed. This allowed the students to use some techniques for learning that have been suspected for some time to be effective but that did not necessarily work for all students or that had not been tried yet in this type of setting.
The students that were in the class where different types of learning were allowed performed better overall than students in a traditional class, as the following tables will strongly indicate.
Assignment Progress Summary (Class with Different Learning Styles):
Student 8…… [Read More]
Businesses are now pushing more so than ever before for schools and educators to adopt a community or learning community based approach to student education, in the hopes students will graduate with more applicable skill sets they can apply to the immediate global workplace.
Where did they originate?
Learning communities originated from "theory-drive evaluation" research focusing on school reform initiated by education policy specialists (Felner, et al., 1997:520). The idea was to create a central idea that would link students, educators, families, communities and businesses with each other so that information sharing and exchange networks could be created. The purposes of these networks was to prepare students for the future. The theory underlying this was one that established how important it was to understand the context in which children grow, develop and actively participate as members of society (Felner, et al., 1997). These ideas begin originated as early as the early 1980s (Bucknam & Brand, 1983) when researchers began meta-analysis of the successes and potential for experiential-based learning in the classroom. What researchers began to realize was experience-based education linked to community participation resulted in greater achievement, motivation and success following a student's academic career (Bucknam & Brand, 1983).
When did they become an educational trend?
Learning communities are now becoming part of educational reform, a new trend taking over higher education specifically (Shapiro, 2006). The National and Community Service Act, initiated in 1990 and later amended in 1993, began the trend of service or community-based learning programs. It did so as a method of "teaching and learning" that enabled youths to develop through service experiences in the community and through an integrated approach to the academic curriculum that enabled students to extend classroom learning to real-life learning, or experience-based learning (Alliance for Service-Learning in Education, 1993: 971; Owens & Wang, 1996). Learning communities are being adopted as educators begin realizing they can provide solutions to many problems existing in education, including the changing demographics of educational institutions reflecting a more diverse population base inclusive of individuals of differing ethnicities, cultures, economical status' and more (Laufgraben & Shapiro, 2004).
As the global market continues to become increasingly complex and diverse, learning communities will undoubtedly continue to grow in popularity and stature regionally, nationally and globally.
How do they affect the technology trend?
The technology trend is encouraging more and more schools to create new types of learning communities, ones…… [Read More]
Almost everyone has experienced a child who struggles with school, children who dread reading out loud, unable to properly writing essays or tackling math problems. Every child might have trouble with their homework one time or another but if there is a certain area of learning that appears to e consistently problematic then it might be an indication of a learning disorder. Once one understands all they can about learning disorders they can ensure that their child gets the right help so that they can overcome some of the challenges in class and succeed in life. The paper will look at some of the learning disorders that are known, some of the signs and symptoms of learning disorders that parents and teachers should look out for the process of diagnosis and testing for learning disorders and finally getting help for children that have learning disorders.
Types of learning disorders
Learning disorders is a term used to describe a wide range of learning problems .learning disorders are not a problem with intelligence or motivation children who have learning disorders are not lazy and neither are they dumb. As a matter of fact most of them are equally smart like everyone else. The only difference which they have is that their brain is wired in a different way. It is this difference that affects how they receive and process information. Learning disorders affect how people understand, remember and respond to new information. Simply put we can say that adults or children, who have learning disorders see, hear, understand things in a different way. This leads to trouble when it comes to learning new information and skills and putting them into meaningful use. Those with learning disorders might have problems with listening and paying attention, reasoning, speaking, reading or writing or doing math ( Gina, Melinda, & Jeanne, 2013)
The learning disorders are often grouped by school-area skill set. If a child is going to school the types of learning disorders are most noted revolve around reading, writing and math.
This is a learning disorder when it comes to reading. There are two main learning…… [Read More]
The reinforcement is positive if it results in strengthening the response, or negative when its removal strengthens the response. The reinforcer must immediately and directly follow the response and be appropriate. Varying the schedule of reinforcement makes it more effective; either changing the time interval between reinforcements or the number of correct responses needed for reinforcement to be offered. Punishment on the other hand is an undesirable or painful consequence of a response and will usually lead to suppression of the behavior. According to Bouton and Moody (2004) conditioning is not necessarily such a simple process of learning and that the quality and length of duration of the conditioned stimulus can influence the type of behavioral response that results. They also emphasize the importance of distinguishing between "learning the hypothetical psychological and physical changes in the brain, from performance, the manifestation of that change in behavior" (p. 663).
Two of the main supporters of the cognitive learning theories were Jerome Brunner and Jean Piaget. The cognitive learning also known as constructivist theory basically says that learning is not a result of changing behavior; but that it involves thinking. People use previous information or knowledge to build new concepts with the present information. According to MarkWindschitl (1999, cited in Gordon, 2009) "constructivism is based on the assertion that learners actively create, interpret, and reorganize knowledge in individual ways" (p.39. When the learner is exposed to the environment, he selects and transforms the incoming information, uses it to construct hypotheses and make decisions using cognitive structures from previous experiences. Piaget believed that each child is born with a few natural reflexes such as sucking, looking and grasping. He called these abilities to act in a certain ways a schema (an element in a person's cognitive structure). As the child interacts with the environment he matches his existing schema with the stimuli in the environment and builds knowledge or learns. He further attested that a child's cognitive structure increases in sophistication with development, moving from a few innate responses such as crying and sucking to highly complex mental activities.
Cognitive theories, unlike behaviorist theories believe that reinforcement is not necessary for learning to occur. Learners think about a problem until they gain an insight into its solution, whereas behaviorists will emphasize behavioral trial and error. Also, behaviorists believe that the mind is a…… [Read More]
Learning and Psychology
Learning is acquiring a new concept, information or knowledge that adds to the individual's mental map of realities and perceptions. This new concept, information, or knowledge is almost always translated into action or manifested through new or developed behavior. Learning and psychology are linked together because both fields study the individual mind, and how the mind incites behavior or action within the individual. In the study of learning, psychology is critical in understanding how human minds acquire information and translate them into actions or behavior. Through psychology, processes involved when the human mind is "learning" can be analyzed and interpreted through different perspectives: neuro-biological, socio-cultural, behavioral, or constructivist.
The above-mentioned perspectives are known as the broad approaches to understanding learning in the context of psychology. These approaches or perspectives provide researchers and practitioners of psychology to understand a specific psychological phenomenon, such as learning. Learning in the psychological context can be looked at through the behavioral perspective lens, which posits that learning can be conditioned given the appropriate stimuli that will encourage humans to learn. Another "lens" through which learning is studied is using the constructivist approach. Under this approach, learning occurs among individuals through their interactions with their social environment, composed of the physical environment and people and things in it. Social constructivism is another approach that puts importance to the individual's social environment as the main catalyst to his/her learning. The socio-cultural approach takes the social constructivist approach further, to include culture as the central focus…… [Read More]
Learning Styles and Academic Achievement: Are Parent's Expectations Too High?
High school education perhaps is the turning point of adolescence academic life. Within few years, students usually work hard and get involved in emotional conflicts and endeavors to prepare themselves for higher study. High school students and their parents often understand that students have limited time to find out what they want to do later in their life, how they figure out their capabilities and constraints, to choose the best educational institution and career path where they will be able to express their talents without restraint and gain the best for their future. As parents want to give the best for their children, they will contribute large amount of ideas on what their children should achieve. Considerate parents may also provide assistance and monitor the study. It is assumed that parent involvement has great effect on children academic achievement.
The research is determined to investigate whether high school students' learning styles match with their parents' academic expectation. Besides addressing the relationship between parent expectation and student learning styles, the research also measures how high parent expectation to their children achievement, parent's attitude (support for children) to fulfill the expectation, children's attitude towards their parent's expectation, and children's attitude/motivation towards their achievement in class.
Upon completion of the research, it is expected that the study give information on students' types of learning style and academic achievement, types of parental involvement in children learning attitudes, the positive and negative effects of parent involvement, how much cultural values affect parent expectation, how students invent strategies to accommodate their learning styles based on parent involvement. There should be enough space to advance the research goals on another study to identify the optimum amount of parent involvement, as well as types of beneficial involvement, which accommodate the students in determining their academic need.
II. Literature Review
Many preliminary researches from educational angle showed that there is a vivid link between parent expectation and children's academic outcome. Boocock (1972) as cited in Chen and Lan (1998) underlined parental capability to give strong support from family with high expectation would result in children with student with…… [Read More]
Learning and Cognitive Critique
In modern day learning, it is important to integrate creative approaches in order to minimize mental redundancy among learners. At any given time, the human brain utilizes less than ten percent of its total capacity. This explains the powerful ability of the human brain to carry out complex information processes in short periods. This study presents the necessity of having a hybrid approach in responding to intellectual learning requirements as identified in the previous modified behavior approach. The study also provides a parallel theory -- Piaget cognitive development -- in order to support the practicability of the behaviorism theory. It is evident that the cognitive development theory overrides the rapid behavior theory in various instances. The application of the Intel-Hybridism theory is useful in very demanding learning conditions that require the appropriate application of cognition.
Modified behaviorist approach
The previous research focused on the strengths and issues of Skinner's radical behaviorism. In particular, the research established that learning is a sequential product of change. In any case, better the learning experiences the more an individual learns something, the individual generated. The research also assessed the interrelationship between Skinner's radical behaviorism theory and to empiricism and positivism. These learning cultures can be based on objectivity and optimism. The learner understands the features of a phenomenon if he or she repeatedly performs the activity. Essentially, the learning outcomes advocated on Skinner's radical behavior approach are grounded on repetition. From Skinner's perspective, the learner does not have to process a comprehensive syntax when approaching a conventional task (Skinner, 2011). The modified behaviorist approach also focused on the measurable and observable aspects of human behavior. For instance, the learning outcome expected from teaching in class is that students will duplicate the information from the instructor.
Skinner Rapid Behaviorism vs. Piaget Cognitive development
Apart from Skinner, other theorists have provided diverse approaches in relation to the existing learning methodologies.…… [Read More]
It is said in the theories of teaching that the process of teaching has to focus on the perceptive processes of the mind and this is called the Gestalt theory. The word gestalt can be roughly translated into English as placed, put together or formed or shaped. The theories of Gestalt say that the whole is always greater than the parts, and this means that the total item like a picture or a car has a totally different meaning than the parts that went into making it and those may have been paint, canvas, brush for one and tire paint or metal for the other. Thus when the entire group is put together, the mind also jumps from thinking of the separate parts to the total item. The groupings of different items take place due to their proximity to each other, in similarity when the products bear some resemblance to each other, closure if the items together convey a meaning and simplicity when the group can be seen as simple figures due to symmetry or regularity or smoothness. These are the processes involved in teaching and the different factors that have been talked about are called the laws of organization. (Gestalt and Instructional Design)
These factors lead the expert human teachers to use these principles to form teaching actions and use them in the course of their teaching. In certain cases this method of recognition enable the teachers to get students to do all the work with questions like "explain this to me," "solve this problem," or write an essay comparing," etc. In other cases of teaching the teacher has to take a more direct role and say things like "this is how it is done" or think of it in this manner," etc. In between the teacher also can a take a route with an educational group…… [Read More]