On the economic strategy, MEPI has sponsored commercial law programs, development of infrastructures for information technology, and debt reform in Morocco, Tunisia, and Algeria.
One of the most notable strategies of the Middle East Partnership Initiative is its ongoing shift of resources to the less offensive path of economic developments that are regime-led. This is a shift from the program's traditional strategy of democracy promotion and involvement with local voluntary organizations (Yerkes par, 11). The program also tends to fund initiatives that are conducted by U.S. NGOs, which do not interfere with the established lines of regime-funded reform and programs that don't match the political realities of Arab nations.
MEPIs Social-Entrepreneurship Programs:
The Middle East Partnership Initiative supports and funds various economic projects that work with several groups to develop a framework for sustained growth. This is because the program considers entrepreneurship as an important vehicle to enhance economic conditions and increase job creation and social change within the Middle East region. The program is also committed to improving social and economic entrepreneurship to uncover innovation, promote the development of the private sector, and develop new opportunities for young people.
In Saudi Arabia, the Middle East Partnership Initiative works with both governmental and local organizations to promote the country's reform programs in education, economic development, and women's empowerment. One of the major social-entrepreneurship programs is the U.S.-Saudi Women's Forum on Social Entrepreneurship that focuses on promoting exchange programs involving female students between the two countries ("Saudi Arabia," p. 1). This program was launched in 2008 to bring together female students from Saudi colleges and teach them about social entrepreneurship. Through exchange programs with other females in America, the team implemented six social enterprises comprising of a broad range of topics like rights for the disabled. The program has not only contributed to the sharing, evaluation, and judging of students in a forum for social enterprises but it has also received overwhelming…… [Read More]
By the middle of the nineteenth century, the balance of economic strength had shifted entirely to western Europe and especially to Britain and France, which were then passing into the second stage of the industrial revolution that Turkey had hardly begun. The European powers would use their political and economic power to force the empire to allow its economy to be incorporated into the nineteenth-century liberal capitalist system. Free trade was encouraged, which was not entirely harmful to the empire. European manufactures flooded into the empire, and this caused the traditional handicrafts and textile industries to suffer. At the same time, there was a huge growth in demand for raw materials such as Syrian silk, Egyptian cotton, and Anatolian wool, and production of cereals and fruit also increased to meet the needs of growing urban regions.
The leaders also faced certain problems. Much of the newly created wealth went to foreigners rather than Ottoman subjects. Also, the ending of the traditional system of government monopolies eliminated the principal source of state revenues. In the economic sphere, guilds conducted much of the administrative effort, but as there was a gradual decline in Ottoman trade and industry, their ability to do so decreased. Political and economic disintegration came at a time of increasing isolation in terms of markets, leaving the Ottoman Empire vulnerable on a variety of fronts.
The Sultan was the ruler and demanded loyalty from members of the ruling class, who were always vulnerable and unprotected with reference to the Sultan whereas the people were relatively secure in their positions. In time, there was a shift in the thinking of the Sultans away from military and political activity and toward the promotion of peace in the palace.
The size of the empire as another problem, for it was so widespread that "it was difficult for the power of the central government to radiate out through the provinces, even with the use of nineteenth-century technologies such as telegraphs and railroads"…… [Read More]
Their primary operations revolve around programs of exchange and dialogues, but also the offering of support for various endeavors aimed at increasing social and economic stability for the Egyptian population (HANDS Website, 2006).
The institution was founded in 1988 and has since offered its support to more than 30 local organizations that were struggling to improve the quality of life for the native population. Aside the moral and economic help, the institution also plays a major role in building bridges between the two cultures by encouraging United States citizens to volunteer in Egypt and becoming better acquainted with the country's features. The volunteers not only gain knowledge of the world, but also help the Egyptians by providing them with specialized consultancy. "HANDS provides volunteer opportunities for American professionals and students, where they can offer time and expertise to Egyptian civil society strengthening programs" (Volunteers for Prosperity). One such program is the Medical Mission Trip, which occurs on yearly basis and strives to increase the knowledge of the local employees in the medical sector and other volunteers as well as focuses on "community health campaigns" (Volunteers for Prosperity).
The success of the Hands Along the Nile Development Services is definite, with major improvements having been made in health care, problem and conflict resolution, spiritual finding, partnerships between Egyptian villages and social services (HANDS Website).
Through its features, the Orient has captured the attention of numerous players in the international context, which strive to see that development is brought to the area. The interest of the United States in the development of the Middle East region is twofold, on the one hand sitting the altruist desire to resolve the problems in the area, ensure peace and stability and reduce chronic hunger. Yet, on the other hand, there is the direct economic interest, revolving basically around the fact that the Middle East represents a rich source of cost effective labor force, valuable business opportunities, as well as an important trade partner. Additionally, it offers access to valuable…… [Read More]
Since the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russia has also become a major distributor world of oil, in addition to the Middle East. Although its policies can no longer be predicted as reliably as during the Cold War, its interests are not always commensurate with any one actor, and it is now a volatile presence in international affairs that the United States must take into consideration when making policies. The United States still has an economic interest in maintaining friendly ties with nations that produce oil, even Arab states, and as its strategic interest is less clearly defined, as it is no longer in opposition to a single power seeking to extend its sphere of influence. As the region no longer is a mere playing ground for the two major superpowers to dominate, the factionalism that was already endemic to the region has become even more pronounced. This factionalism has been the cause of civil wars, the rise of terrorism, and a more complicated relationship for the United States and even friendly Arab nations.
The end of the Cold War reduced Israel's strategic importance for the United States, as a buffer to the Soviet sphere of influence. Temporarily, it could be argued, the United States' attempt to curry favor with Saudi Arabia, in the region had increased, although the United States had long attempted to establish improved ties with the Middle East in the form of nations such as the Shah's Iran. The United States has supported Israel for humanitarian reasons as well as strategic reasons, as noted by President Harry Truman in the aftermath of World War II. The presence of the Jewish community within the United States has been a primary reason for the nation's support for Israel, in combination with Israel's democratic, participatory form of government, as opposed to a royal state or dictatorship. Also, although originally, the State Department feared that the Zionists were communists and would therefore side with the Soviet Union, but when the possibility was raised that…… [Read More]
Middle East Violence
Three major sources of violence in the Middle East are religion, nationalism and ideology. Each source contributes to some extent to the violence, depending on the conflict. Some conflicts are largely religious in nature, such as the Shiite uprising in the Sadaa region of Yemen (McGregor, 2005). Others are rooted in nationalism, such as the conflict between Kurds and Turks in southeastern Turkey (Haney, 1999). Most conflicts blend in an unhealthy dose of anti-Semitic racism and anti-U.S. ideology as well, including the genocidal ideologies of Hezbollah (Dershowitz, 2008) and Hamas (Bostom, 2009). Given this myriad causes, and the intransigent nature of most of the roots of conflict in the Middle East, there is little hope in the short for peace in the Middle East. The region has only known peace -- and tenuously at that -- under the thumb of strong rulers who suppress conflict. While it may be fanciful to propose a patchwork of newly independent states and a steady diet of multilateral dialogue, it is likely that any lasting peace founded on neoliberal solutions would take generations to take hold, as the hatred must first be filtered from mindset of the people.
Hamas is the ruling military junta of Gaza with a stated goal of wiping Israel from the map (Bostom, 2009). Hezbollah serves a similar dual political-military function in Lebanon, again including a long-term objection of obliterating Israel. Islamic Jihad is an umbrella name for a number of organizations in the Middle East, including Palestine and Lebanon. As with the others, it places primacy on the destruction of Israel. These groups are a threat to the United States. They have sympathizers in the U.S. And view the U.S. As supporting Israel and of lending power to Jews. These groups also have the capability of attacking U.S. interests in the Middle East. There a no circumstances under which negotiation with such groups should be tolerated. These groups are driven by ideology that does not allow for compromise, so no offer of concession from these groups can be taken seriously. They are not trustworthy, and negotiation would legitimize their odious goals.
The PKK (Kurdish Worker's Party) emerged as a galvanizing force among the Kurdish ethnic group, which exists in Turkey, Syria, Iraq and Iran (Haney, 1999) but…… [Read More]
In addition to the tendency towards violence in their political systems, Middle Eastern countries are known for their basic lack of stable and democratic regimes. Although many attempts have been made to bring democracy to these nations by means of negotiation or even violence, little has been accomplished by these attempts. At the basis of this phenomenon is a social and political development that spans over centuries. This includes a religious basis upon which politics and the caste system have developed, practically without anything to oppose these systems, over centuries. It is precisely this centuries-long development, specifically, of Islam, as well as the legacy of ancient systems such as the Ottoman paradigm, that creates the difficulty of establishing any sort of democracy in Middle Eastern countries.
Bukay (2007) argues against the possibility for Islam and democracy to exist in the same country. The author notes that several have claimed the opposite to be true; that there is indeed such a possibility. He claims that such authors twist the definitions or bend realities in order to fit their theories, rather than basing their theories upon existing realities and truths. One such example is the claim that democracy is a relative term, while another focuses on bending the realities of life in Muslim countries.
As a specific example, Bukay mentions John L. Esposito, who, with his co-authors, bases his assumptions on claims such as that democracy has many different meanings and can be constructed according to a specific country's beliefs and requirements. Another assumption here is the possibility of a religious democracy.
In response, Bukay (2007) points out that, despite these arguments, no democracy has been evident in any form within the Middle East. This in itself disproves any theories to the contrary. Instead, Bukay provides a critical consideration of the democracy issue and how…… [Read More]
Academics, policy makers, and other specialists, let alone the general public, have a tendency to perceive the Middle East as a monolith. The truth, however, shows that it is a region filled with contrasts, extremes, and diversities. This is depicted in the extreme differences in neighboring countries with same religion, culture, dress and language, yet lifestyles, radically different. This paper addresses one such difference between two kingdoms, both belonging to the Middle East but at polar extremes in a number of areas. The two countries under study are thus, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates and the area under study is privatization or liberalization of the economy.
Saudi Arabia is a kingdom with one of the largest oil deposits which, to date remain the focus of the Saudian economy, taking away a major percentage of the Gross Domestic Product. Saudi Arabia's economy is thus dependent on oil and oil derivatives, which account for 90-95% of Saudi export earnings, 75% of the budget, and about 35-40% of GDP. To reduce this dependency, the Saudi Arabian government is studying non-oil revenue generating sources.
Saudi per capita GDP which was highest in 1981, when both the U.S. And Saudi Arabia had a per capita GDP, in current dollars, of about U.S. $28,600, is approximately $7,000.
Public sector debt (almost all central government domestic debt) has been hovering between 90 to 100% of the GDP for the past few years. The accumulating interest payments due on this debt form a major portion of the capital expenditures in the budget. Though, it is interesting to note that overseas Saudi private capital amounts to $600-700 billion, or four to five times the Saudi GDP. Moreover, foreign worker remittances, about U.S. $16 billion annually, continue to be a burden on the current account. Thus the Saudi economy,…… [Read More]
Middle East Conflict
As an Israeli citizen, I often find myself awestruck at our present situation. The needs and desires of people in my country are not unlike those of most people. We desire to live and work in safety; we want have peace with those around us; but we also want to maintain our traditions and our heritage as we see fit. Israel has again and again suffered attacks because of our mere existence. And is it so strange that we are not willing to give up our state simply because someone else considers it unjust. We have survived so many things before now, how can we betray the memory of those that survived atrocities by giving up our just claim to a nation.
At the core of Israel's problems is its geography. And this is true in more ways than you might think. Only a fifth of the land in Israel can be used for farming, so we must maintain relations with other nations. Because of the climate and nature of the land we live in, it is very important that we are able operate on an international level and share imports and exports with other countries.
Also, Israel is a very urban country. Most of my country's population lives in cities, and this unfortunately can be a serious problem. These urban environments make it very easy for enemies of Israel to commit acts of terrorism. These large urban environments make it far too easy for people to find crowds and walk among them unnoticed.
And when terrorist attacks take place outdoors in crowded areas it keeps people away. Countless store and restaurant owners have told stories of how their business will be cut in half in the wake of a suicide bombing. Some of them have been forced to hire guards; some of them cannot afford guards and are simply forced to close. Not to mention the constant fear present when out in public. Particularly in the wake of an attack, the fear is palpable and can have definite effects on local communities…… [Read More]
The purpose of such bifurcation is the enabling of the parties to the arbitration to maintain control of the impact of the Shariah in the law that they choose for arbitration. Middle East states that have not removed religion from their rules of arbitration will continue to administer arbitrations through strictly adhering with the principles of Shariah law and it is likely that these states will place a prohibition on speculative contracts and provisions of contracts calling for strict adherence to Shariah law.
VII. Shariah Law and the Basis of Arbitration
It is reported that whether the arbitration award is binding on the parties may be dictated by the Shariah and in countries where the Shariah is the basis of arbitration awards there must be four inclusive parts: (1) a description of the dispute; (2) the findings of facts under Shariah rules of evidence; (3) the reasoning of the award with reference to the Shariah source; (4) and the decision itself." (Gemmell, 2006 cited in: Weinberg, Wheeler, Hudgins, Gunn and Dial, 2009) it is reported as well that countries in the Middle East have consistently mandated that for an award of arbitration to have a res judicata effect, that the award must be court-approved and this is despite what form of law or methods of enforcement are chosen (Weinberg, Wheeler, Hudgins, Gunn and Dial, 2009, paraphrased) the outcome of this mandate is that the rendering of an award in the arbitration process does not make the dispute to be finally resolved since there is procedural room left for "…expeditious judicial management or judicial meddling, procrastination, and delay." (Al-Ayoub, 2006 cited in Weinberg, Wheeler, Hudgins, Gunn and Dial, 2009)
The Middle Eastern Countries that adopted the New York Convention include those of Bahrain, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Qatar and the UAE and these countries should make provision of "… straightforward enforcement of foreign arbitral awards in those states." (Weinberg, Wheeler, Hudgins, Gunn and Dial, 2009) the New York Convention however, is also inclusive of "an exception allowing courts to repudiate…… [Read More]
The parallels are of Sheikh Mohammad are drawn with King Abdul Aziz of Saudi Arabia who used oil to build the foundation of modern Saudi Arabia. He can also be considered a CEO who is managing his emirate like a big company using the modern management principles. He is using the principles of modern participatory management as he does not confine himself to boardrooms or high power meetings and actually visits workplace and construction sites. He is also known to make tough decision on the spot by rewarding employees for good work while also firing poor performers. Another important aspect of Sheikh's policy is encouragement of women workforce. He not only hires women but also encourages them to go ahead in their career ambitions while also bringing along more women in all business fields. He is also known to be a staunch supporter of foreign educated locals. He encourages these modern and educated individuals to curb the forces of red tapism. He has a vision for his emirate and he also knows how to make others feel the same vision.
Dubai has created its advantage by creating the most dynamic business environments in the world. This has not happened only because of buildings, islands and hotels; they in fact facilitated all necessary requirements of a good business environment. The requirements provided by UAE and Dubai include laws & regulations, no corporate & income taxes, property & ownership rules and last but not the least the liberal social environment. Now Dubai Stock Exchange is going to make waves in the world's stock market."The new Dubai International Financial Exchange (DIFX), expects to open its door to issuers and investors of any nationality. The new bourse will offer settlement / clearing facilities and corporate governance standards on par with prime exchanges, notably New York, London and Tokyo. It will target potential issuers in the UAE, other GCC states,…… [Read More]
Muslims excelled in ornate and intricate designs since they rejected drawing and sculpting the human image for fear of idolatry. Their artistic style consists of rugs, silks, leatherwork, metal work, cotton textiles, highly glazed ceramics, and fine glass, as well as wall hangings, tiles, inlaid metalwork, carved wood, and furniture. Another art polished to sheen by Muslims was calligraphy, or stylized form of penmanship that developed into a form of the lesser arts and with which they decorated their manuscripts and books. Calligraphy was also used to beautify mosques, palaces, mausoleums, and shrines (as illustrated by the Alhambra and the Dome of the Rock) where painted and highly glazed tiles decorated the interior and the exterior of their buildings, whilst gold leafing and gold ink were used to decorate the Quran, and floral designs and geometric patterns, with bold borders on each page, employed to enhance Muslim books and manuscripts.
The two most accessible types of recreation for all classes of society in the Muslim World were music and poetry. Religious poetry was a favorite played to the accompaniment of musical instruments. Some of the instruments that were used consisted of short-necked lutes, flutes, drums, and fiddles. Another popular Islamic recreation included board games, of which two of the more popular were backgammon and chess. Chess, in fact, was introduced to the Islamic World through India.
Muslims also enjoyed bathing. Public baths were arenas which upper-class men and women frequented separately in order to relax. They were open to the separate sexes on alternate days, and would double as private clubs where people could fraternize, gossip, and catch up onto the latest news. Their soak, steam, and massage would often be accompanied by music. In fact, music was a favorite occupation.
Muslims of the Classical Period also engaged in outdoor sports such as archery, javelin throwing, fencing, polo, hunting, horse racing (the sport of royalty…… [Read More]
Although some received territory, they were embittered as a result of the perceived broken pledge. The result of this was an Arab uprising against the Turks in 1916.
The San Remo Conference nevertheless began to shape the post-war world (McKinney 2010). The result was that the Europeans were making impositions into country where the various nations were having unique conflicts of their own. According to Roberts (2007), for example, The Islam sects Shiite and Sunni were in conflict regarding the succession of Muhammad as the leader of Islam. Not having any understanding of the sectarian splits within the country, the British created the new nation of Iraq in ancient Mesopotamia. In so doing, the Ottoman provinces of Baghdad, Basra, and Mosul were bound together quite uneasily, as the first was mostly Sunni, the second mostly Shiite, and the third generally Kurdish.
A further factor was that the invasion of the British meant a new type of rulership. Up until the time, Iraq was held together by autocratic kings and dictators. After the war, however, the British installed Feisal as king. He was the son of the ruler of Mecca in Saudi Arabia, one of the British allies during the war (Roberts, 2007). The monarchy started at the time was overthrown in 1958. Saddam Hussein took power from 1968 until 2003, when he was overthrown by a U.S.-led coalition. Since this time, little was done to contain the rising sectarian tension in the region, which has escalated violence and threatened civil war in the country. Things fared little better with Western involvement in the land east of the Jordan River. Here, Feisa's brother Abdullah was installed on the throne (Roberts 2007). Like his brother, Abdullah's rule also came to a violent end, with the king being assassinated in 1951. His great-grandson, Abdullah H. is currently on the throne.
To the west of the Jordan River, the issue of the promised homeland to the Jews was the cause of conflict and violence for the next two decades. The reason for this was the absolute disregard for the current rulership of the area when the promise was made. With Palestine…… [Read More]
Both documents make references to time, which give them the form of historical documents.
The Book of Documents is believed to be an advice given to King Tai Jia by the faithful Yi Yin, and the Book of Genesis is the advice given to Noah by God. But the advice of Yi Yin, according to this legend, is comparable to the authority of the Bible. It is the Mandate from Heaven. Yi Yin lectures the King as if what he says is the word coming from cosmic powers. Both the Book of Documents and the Book of Genesis suggest that peace and tranquility -- and misery on earth, likewise -- depend on the behavior of mankind. If they respect the laws, obey the authority, they are going to be rewarded with peace and happiness. If they rebel against higher powers and engage in drunkenness, orgies, and depravity, they will be punished severely. In both books, the world has seen happiness and calamities that befell them due to the Grace or Wrath of the cosmic powers.
In both of the books, much depends from the leaders. Yi Yin warns the King that the peace and order in the society will depend on how he reigns. The King is instructed to respect the elders, love the relations, and adhere to the virtues deserving of kings. Yi Yin also explains to King that he needs to value the blessings and benefits bestowed upon him. Likewise, God instructs Noah of the importance of following God's law. Noah is told what can be eaten and what not. He is reminded by God that all the greenery on earth is given to him and his people. He is also warned that if someone kills another person, the punishment for the crime will be death. The Book of Documents says: "on the good-doer it sends down all blessings, and on the evil-doer it sends down all miseries." The Book of Genesis ends with the story of Ham who sees Noah in the nakedness but is not ashamed of it. For that, he and his descendants are cursed.… [Read More]
There are a few who have been or are now involved with groups that are seeking conciliation.. The positive similarity of many of these individuals is that they would like to see a productive end to the situation, even if it means compromise.
There is no possibility of peace in the Middle East unless people from all backgrounds, who are the most affected, are part of the dialogue. The nations, themselves, have a political agenda and are not, in most cases, speaking for the citizens.
There is no positive answer in the Middle East for anyone unless they can live in peace and mutual respect. There can only be a better future for Palestine/Israel, if the citizens use their energies toward cooperation and constructive results.
If citizens are not part of the answer, then emphasis will continue to be on conquest, hate and fear, much of it unfounded and misunderstood. Part of the solution has to be continued discussions between the citizens and neighbors to show each other that they want peace and to reach a common ground. This is the only way that the citizens can see their similarities and discuss their differences and emotional concerns. Peaceful solutions come from people sharing, not violence and destruction and repression. Dialogue and discussions are not simple and quick answers, but they can be a force for change, especially if there are enough people who can impact the political arena.
These simulations can be very helpful to anyone who is learning about the problems in the Middle East, because they shed light on the many different viewpoints involved and the difficulty of finding an answer that will respond to all these varying needs. Also, the simulations show the emotional aspects that are very difficult, if not impossible, to address.
Lastly, they demonstrate that stereotypes and lumping all people together is erroneous. Not all Palestinians have similar views; not all Israelis…… [Read More]
Has the presence of oil in the Middle East had a significant impact on the peoples of non-oil-producing states in the region? If so, in what ways, exactly? Develop an argument with specific reference to AT LEAST TWO non-oil-producing states.
and other Western powers, oil supplies are the only real interest in the Middle East, and most people in the region are well aware of this fact, and of numerous Western attempts to establish and support 'friendly' authoritarian regimes like that of Hosni Mubarak in Egypt and the monarchy in Jordan. Public opinion polls in Turkey, Egypt, Morocco, Jordan and Pakistan actually show majority support for Western political and economic ideas, including democracy, but opposed U.S. foreign policy in general because they believed it to be motivated by control over oil supplies. None of this is new, and the West has been pursuing such policies since the collapse of the Ottoman Empire after World War I, when Britain and France divided up the region between them. After World War II, the U.S. stepped in the void as these older empires declined, although it faced considerable resistance from nationalist movements in both oil and non-oil Arab countries. Most of the Islamic movements in the non-oil exporting nations of the Middle East, including those using terrorist tactics, are inspired by nationalism and opposition to these imperial policies rather than hatred of Western civilization or desire to start a literal jihad.
Even though Egypt is not an oil exporting country, its strategic location and the Suez Canal has always made it a vital concern for the Western powers, at least as much as the Gulf States since so much of the global oil supply moves through Suez. In 1956, for example, when the Nasser government nationalized the canal, France, Britain and Israel occupied Suez and attempted to overthrow him, although in that case the…… [Read More]
Middle East Crisis is a crisis that has been building for decades. The American Government has become involved in the conflict calling for peace in the area. This involvement is based on America as a protector of human rights and also because of the consequence to itself, with the conflict causing economic, human and environmental concerns. It must be considered exactly what can be done about the conflict and what the final consequences would be for America.
In an address by President Bush in April 2002, Bush called for Israel to continue withdrawing from Palestinians areas and for Palestine to stop terror attacks. Bush also called for all the Arab neighbours to support Israel and Palestine living side by side in peace with the only solution according to Bush, being for Israel and Palestine to accept their differences and commit to living alongside each other in peace. Before considering whether this is a feasible and practical solution, it is necessary to try to understand the source of the conflict.
The conflict between Israel and Palestine is a complicated conflict with a great deal of history behind it that intensifies the hatred between the two nations. After World War II, the Palestinians were housed in camps ran by Israeli's. These camps that were considered to be short-term remained until the present. The basic conflict now is over land with these displaced Palestinians wanting their land and Israel not wanting to give it to them. This is intensified by racial and religious hatred with the history of the conflict adding extra hatred. The Palestinian suicide bombings are a sign of the lengths the Palestinians will go to. While the Israeli's have been known to shoot unarmed people in the street, this action showing their hatred.
The action that must be taken to force peace between these nations is far from simple. Firstly, it is logical to recognize that the Israeli's and the Palestinians cannot live together. While Bush calls for the two nations to live…… [Read More]
In regards to leadership, the Leaders in this region were all authoritarian and harbored conservative ideologies. The second form is in regard to the need for personal freedom. This has been displayed in the level of opposition that the citizens of the Greater Middle East have put up in order to oppose their authoritarian regimes that shared anti-American sentiments.
The Greater Middle East region shapes itself in various ways.
Oil supply and international trade routes
The Greater Middle East region has managed to shape itself as a region of great geo-economic importance as a result of its major role in the global energy supply chain (oil). The region also forms a major international trade route. These have made the countries in this region to form alliances aimed at advancing their developments and voices as a consequences of the leverage that they derive from these strategic factors. They have members of OPEC. Since the bulk of the OPEC oil comes from this region (OPEC,2010).
It is quite clear that the Greater Middle East region has continued to shape itself over time as consequence of the changing geo-political and geo-economic factors. It is therefore necessary that the global community involves itself in assisting this region in realizing stability in order for global security to be ascertained,… [Read More]
At the beginning of the book, the young man is humiliated and tortured by the Western appearing and speaking judicial committee. Then, further demonstrating the levels of control and command over their citizens, the committee attempt to impinge upon the ways that young man thinks. He is told that he must write about the 20th century's most important achievement and the greatest Arab figure, to demonstrate his loyalty to the state. Although one would think that there could be no correct answer to the open-ended questions posed by The Committee, clearly there is, in their eyes, as when he makes a choice that could damage their reputation, they track him down to 'correct' his selection.
The young man's choice, that of a doctor who is famous for his works of global outreach and philanthropy, shows that the apparently noxious ideology of globalization has already penetrated even his consciousness. The reason the doctor is seen as evil in the book is because he is an international figure, and globalization is deemed to be harmful. The committee is afraid that if the young man selects this doctor, the regime's true ideology will be revealed, and the Westernized control of the Middle East will make itself known to the general population. The ideology of the supposed diversification of interests of modern economic life masks the real, controlling presence of the West that is manifest even on the Carter buses that run through the streets. This demonstrates that the nation is in the grips of a consumption ideology that only results the people consuming things against their own true nation's interests. Rather than Coca-Cola, Ibrahim suggests, better to drink in the ideology of true anti-capitalist nationalism.
The tone of the work suggests that the author sees all Western ideological incursions into the Middle East as capitalist excesses, and that there is little potential for cultural sharing between two cultures of the West and Middle East. The Middle East is seen as…… [Read More]
Significant cultural, scientific and political developments are to be observed in this period in virtually the entire Greater Middle East.
The fall of the Ottoman Empire in 1918 brought the Arab world into a great disappointment as the territories of the Empire were shared by the English (Egypt and Cyprus and strong influence in Iraq, Palestine and Saudi Arabia) and the French (Syria, Lebanon) occupants. Arab unity cracked down and separatism from the perceived oppressor became one of the key political statements of the Arab countries. The great divisions between the Greater Middle East continued in the following years as international politics and oil began to have a more important say than any discussion on Arab unity. Following the effects of the Second World War of de-colonization and the rise of the state of Israel within the Arab world, the Greater Middle Eastern region faced another type of profound change. Faced with a perceived common enemy, many newly formed of older Arab states began to unite again and join forces for the elimination of Israel in the numerous following conflicts of the last 50 years.
Israel started to be, a very important method for the West to negotiate with the East, as Truman created a movement on the international chessboard that forced the U.S.S.R. To do the same in recognizing Israel. Authors like Calvocoressi or Nye argue that the survival of the Israeli state from elimination between the 1945-1985 wars was its alliance with the U.S.
The Greater Middle East region has had an enormous amount of political and social change in the last 1700 years. With a single item uniting them, the Muslim religion, these countries have passed in the last 50 years through an identity search that has taken them from the 1967 Six Days War or the 1973 war against the common enemy, to the recent revolutions towards another common enemy: authoritarianism. As if connected through an invisible thread, these countries that were for hundreds of years under one or another empire, seem to react the same towards common external…… [Read More]
I would not truly expect lasting peace to come from my efforts, however. Politicians, religious leaders, and world experts have been calling for peace in the Middle East for years, and nothing seems to come of it. There is so much animosity and hatred in the region on both sides that it seems peace is simply not attainable, at least in the current form that both sides argue for. Each side has to be willing to make sacrifices, such as land and territory, but neither side is willing to go beyond a certain limit, and so, little of real consequence actually occurs. Therefore, without sounding too cynical, I would not expect a viable peace accord to be reached by my efforts.
A choose my course of action because it seems like the most workable solution to a very complex problem. Clearly, violence and hatred is not working. Clearly, these people settled in this region, and have many commonalities - should they be willing to explore them. However, the creation of Israel after World War II has never been accepted by the Arab community, and the loss of their lands has never been accepted either. I would expect each country to respond as they have in the past - with trepidation. Israel has made peaceful advances and so have other Arab nations. However, in the end, these advances are never enough to appease both sides and create a lasting peace. If both sides could just give up a little they would gain a lot. However, it does not seem as if either side is really willing to do that, and so, the Middle East is still fraught with turmoil, hatred, and violence. I wish it was not the case, but I do not see anything changing any time soon.… [Read More]