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On the economic strategy, MEPI has sponsored commercial law programs, development of infrastructures for information technology, and debt reform in Morocco, Tunisia, and Algeria.
One of the most notable strategies of the Middle East Partnership Initiative is its ongoing shift of resources to the less offensive path of economic developments that are regime-led. This is a shift from the program's traditional strategy of democracy promotion and involvement with local voluntary organizations (Yerkes par, 11). The program also tends to fund initiatives that are conducted by U.S. NGOs, which do not interfere with the established lines of regime-funded reform and programs that don't match the political realities of Arab nations.
MEPIs Social-Entrepreneurship Programs:
The Middle East Partnership Initiative supports and funds various economic projects that work with several groups to develop a framework for sustained growth. This is because the program considers entrepreneurship as an important vehicle to enhance economic conditions…
"SAUDI ARABIA COUNTRY PROFILE." U.S.-Middle East Partnership Initiative. U.S.-Middle East Partnership Initiative, 3 Jan. 2010. Web. 14 Oct. 2011. .
Sharp, Jeremy M. "The Middle East Partnership Initiative: An Overview." American Information Web. CRS Web, 20 July 2005. Web. 14 Oct. 2011. .
Yerkes, Sarah E. "The Middle East Partnership Initiative: Progress, Problems, and Prospects - Brookings Institution." Brookings - Quality. Independence. Impact. The Brookings Institution, 29 Nov. 2004. Web. 14 Oct. 2011. .
By the middle of the nineteenth century, the balance of economic strength had shifted entirely to western Europe and especially to Britain and France, which were then passing into the second stage of the industrial revolution that Turkey had hardly begun. The European powers would use their political and economic power to force the empire to allow its economy to be incorporated into the nineteenth-century liberal capitalist system. Free trade was encouraged, which was not entirely harmful to the empire. European manufactures flooded into the empire, and this caused the traditional handicrafts and textile industries to suffer. At the same time, there was a huge growth in demand for raw materials such as Syrian silk, Egyptian cotton, and Anatolian wool, and production of cereals and fruit also increased to meet the needs of growing urban regions.
The leaders also faced certain problems. Much of the newly created wealth went to…
Gelvin, J.L. (2005). The modern Middle East. New York: Oxford Press.
Khater, a.F. (2003). Sources in the history of the modern Middle East. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Their primary operations revolve around programs of exchange and dialogues, but also the offering of support for various endeavors aimed at increasing social and economic stability for the Egyptian population (HANDS Website, 2006).
The institution was founded in 1988 and has since offered its support to more than 30 local organizations that were struggling to improve the quality of life for the native population. Aside the moral and economic help, the institution also plays a major role in building bridges between the two cultures by encouraging United States citizens to volunteer in Egypt and becoming better acquainted with the country's features. The volunteers not only gain knowledge of the world, but also help the Egyptians by providing them with specialized consultancy. "HANDS provides volunteer opportunities for American professionals and students, where they can offer time and expertise to Egyptian civil society strengthening programs" (Volunteers for Prosperity). One such program is…
Ezza, A., The Gateway to Egypt -- The Land of Opportunities, The Confederation of Egyptian European Business Association, Retrieved from http://www.imove-germany.org/images/05-09-14_Ezz_Wirtschaftliche_Rahmenbedingungen.pps on June 23, 2009
2006, Egypt: U.S.$200 Million from WB to Develop Railways, Encyclopedia.com, http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G1-145748342.html last accessed on June 23, 2009
2006, HANDS Website, http://www.handsalongthenile.org last accessed on June 23, 2009
2009, The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Since the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russia has also become a major distributor world of oil, in addition to the Middle East. Although its policies can no longer be predicted as reliably as during the Cold ar, its interests are not always commensurate with any one actor, and it is now a volatile presence in international affairs that the United States must take into consideration when making policies. The United States still has an economic interest in maintaining friendly ties with nations that produce oil, even Arab states, and as its strategic interest is less clearly defined, as it is no longer in opposition to a single power seeking to extend its sphere of influence. As the region no longer is a mere playing ground for the two major superpowers to dominate, the factionalism that was already endemic to the region has become even more pronounced. This factionalism has…
Eisenhower, Dwight. "The Eisenhower Doctrine on the Middle East, A Message to Congress, January 5, 1957. From The Department of State Bulletin, XXXV1, No. 917 (January 21, 1957), pp. 83-87. [26 Aug 2006] http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1957eisenhowerdoctrine.html
Isserof, Ami. "Support for the State of Israel." MidEastWeb for Coexistence. 2003 [26 Aug 2006]
Richman, Sheldon "Ancient History: U.S. Conduct in the Middle East Since World War II and the Folly Of Intervention." Cato Policy Analysis. No. 159. August 16, 1991. [26 Aug 2006]
Middle East Violence
Three major sources of violence in the Middle East are religion, nationalism and ideology. Each source contributes to some extent to the violence, depending on the conflict. Some conflicts are largely religious in nature, such as the Shiite uprising in the Sadaa region of Yemen (McGregor, 2005). Others are rooted in nationalism, such as the conflict between Kurds and Turks in southeastern Turkey (Haney, 1999). Most conflicts blend in an unhealthy dose of anti-Semitic racism and anti-U.S. ideology as well, including the genocidal ideologies of Hezbollah (Dershowitz, 2008) and Hamas (Bostom, 2009). Given this myriad causes, and the intransigent nature of most of the roots of conflict in the Middle East, there is little hope in the short for peace in the Middle East. The region has only known peace -- and tenuously at that -- under the thumb of strong rulers who suppress conflict. hile it…
Blanchard, C. (2005). Al Qaeda: Statements and evolving ideology. CRS Report for Congress. Retrieved May 6, 2011 from http://www.fas.org/irp/crs/RL32759.pdf
Bostom, A. (2009). Confronting Hamas' genocidal hatred. American Thinker. Retrieved May 6, 2011 from http://www.americanthinker.com/2009/01/confronting_hamas_genocidal_je.html
Bruno, G. (2007). Inside the Kurdistan Worker's Party (PKK). Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved May 6, 2011 from http://www.cfr.org/turkey/inside-kurdistan-workers-party-pkk/p14576
Dershowitz, A. (2008). Hezbollah's genocidal threat. Huffington Post. Retrieved May 6, 2011 from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/alan-dershowitz/hezbollahs-genocidal-thre_b_87261.html
In addition to the tendency towards violence in their political systems, Middle Eastern countries are known for their basic lack of stable and democratic regimes. Although many attempts have been made to bring democracy to these nations by means of negotiation or even violence, little has been accomplished by these attempts. At the basis of this phenomenon is a social and political development that spans over centuries. This includes a religious basis upon which politics and the caste system have developed, practically without anything to oppose these systems, over centuries. It is precisely this centuries-long development, specifically, of Islam, as well as the legacy of ancient systems such as the Ottoman paradigm, that creates the difficulty of establishing any sort of democracy in Middle Eastern countries.
Bukay (2007) argues against the possibility for Islam and democracy to exist in the same country. The author notes that several have…
Bukay, D. (2007, Spring.) Can there be an Islamic Democracy? Middle East Quarterly. Retrieved from: http://www.meforum.org/1680/can-there-be-an-islamic-democracy
Heper, M. (2000). The Ottoman Legacy and Turkish Politics. Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 54, No. 1. Retrieved from: http://www.allbusiness.com/government/3493220-1.html
Academics, policy makers, and other specialists, let alone the general public, have a tendency to perceive the Middle East as a monolith. The truth, however, shows that it is a region filled with contrasts, extremes, and diversities. This is depicted in the extreme differences in neighboring countries with same religion, culture, dress and language, yet lifestyles, radically different. This paper addresses one such difference between two kingdoms, both belonging to the Middle East but at polar extremes in a number of areas. The two countries under study are thus, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates and the area under study is privatization or liberalization of the economy.
Saudi Arabia is a kingdom with one of the largest oil deposits which, to date remain the focus of the Saudian economy, taking away a major percentage of the Gross Domestic Product. Saudi Arabia's economy is thus dependent on oil…
Saudi Arabia Country Analysis Brief. U.S. Department of Commerce. 2003
UAE to Open up Transport and Financial Sectors. Khaleej Times. 07/03/2003
UAE: Privatization and Economic Strengths. Gulf News
Middle East Conflict
As an Israeli citizen, I often find myself awestruck at our present situation. The needs and desires of people in my country are not unlike those of most people. e desire to live and work in safety; we want have peace with those around us; but we also want to maintain our traditions and our heritage as we see fit. Israel has again and again suffered attacks because of our mere existence. And is it so strange that we are not willing to give up our state simply because someone else considers it unjust. e have survived so many things before now, how can we betray the memory of those that survived atrocities by giving up our just claim to a nation.
At the core of Israel's problems is its geography. And this is true in more ways than you might think. Only a fifth of the…
Works Cited used simply for garnering factual information.)
The purpose of such bifurcation is the enabling of the parties to the arbitration to maintain control of the impact of the Shariah in the law that they choose for arbitration. Middle East states that have not removed religion from their rules of arbitration will continue to administer arbitrations through strictly adhering with the principles of Shariah law and it is likely that these states will place a prohibition on speculative contracts and provisions of contracts calling for strict adherence to Shariah law.
VII. Shariah Law and the asis of Arbitration
It is reported that whether the arbitration award is binding on the parties may be dictated by the Shariah and in countries where the Shariah is the basis of arbitration awards there must be four inclusive parts: (1) a description of the dispute; (2) the findings of facts under Shariah rules of evidence; (3) the reasoning of the award…
Abdullay Kh. Al-Ayoub, International Commercial Arbitration in the Middle East, American Bar Association Section on International Law, at p. 6 (Spring Meeting, 2006), available at http://www.abanet.org/intlaw/calendar/spring2006materials.html . )
Arthur J. Gemmell, (2006) Commercial Arbitration in the Islamic Middle East, 5 Santa Clara J. Int'l L. 169, 170 (2006).
Bertrand, Edouard and Leathley, Christian (2009) International Commercial Arbitration in the Deserts of Saudi Arabia. Association for International Arbitration. October 2009. Online available at: http://www.arbitration-adr.org/documents/?i=62
Bond, Michael E. (nd) the Arbitration Clause in International Project Contracts. Online available at: http://www.gardnerbond.com/files/Publications/the%20Arbitration%20Clause%20in%20International%20Project%20Contracts..pdf
The parallels are of Sheikh Mohammad are drawn with King Abdul Aziz of Saudi Arabia who used oil to build the foundation of modern Saudi Arabia. He can also be considered a CEO who is managing his emirate like a big company using the modern management principles. He is using the principles of modern participatory management as he does not confine himself to boardrooms or high power meetings and actually visits workplace and construction sites. He is also known to make tough decision on the spot by rewarding employees for good work while also firing poor performers. Another important aspect of Sheikh's policy is encouragement of women workforce. He not only hires women but also encourages them to go ahead in their career ambitions while also bringing along more women in all business fields. He is also known to be a staunch supporter of foreign educated locals. He encourages these…
Molavi, a. (January 2007). Sudden City: A feverish dream of the future springs from the sands in Dubai. National Geographic. 211(1). January.
Siddiqi, M. (2005) 2005 Banking Report: Strong Regional Economy Sees Banking Profits Soar. The Middle East. Issue: 360. Publication Date: October 2005. Page Number: 34+.
Dubai Shows Gulf There Is Life after Oil. (August, 2005). The Birmingham Post: 19.
Joyce, a. (1995). Gulf Banking in the Nineties: Challenges and Strategies. Middle East Policy. 3(4): 95.
Muslims excelled in ornate and intricate designs since they rejected drawing and sculpting the human image for fear of idolatry. Their artistic style consists of rugs, silks, leatherwork, metal work, cotton textiles, highly glazed ceramics, and fine glass, as well as wall hangings, tiles, inlaid metalwork, carved wood, and furniture. Another art polished to sheen by Muslims was calligraphy, or stylized form of penmanship that developed into a form of the lesser arts and with which they decorated their manuscripts and books. Calligraphy was also used to beautify mosques, palaces, mausoleums, and shrines (as illustrated by the Alhambra and the Dome of the Rock) where painted and highly glazed tiles decorated the interior and the exterior of their buildings, whilst gold leafing and gold ink were used to decorate the Quran, and floral designs and geometric patterns, with bold borders on each page, employed to enhance Muslim books and manuscripts.…
Although some received territory, they were embittered as a result of the perceived broken pledge. The result of this was an Arab uprising against the Turks in 1916.
The San emo Conference nevertheless began to shape the post-war world (McKinney 2010). The result was that the Europeans were making impositions into country where the various nations were having unique conflicts of their own. According to oberts (2007), for example, The Islam sects Shiite and Sunni were in conflict regarding the succession of Muhammad as the leader of Islam. Not having any understanding of the sectarian splits within the country, the British created the new nation of Iraq in ancient Mesopotamia. In so doing, the Ottoman provinces of Baghdad, Basra, and Mosul were bound together quite uneasily, as the first was mostly Sunni, the second mostly Shiite, and the third generally Kurdish.
A further factor was that the invasion of the…
Australian War Memorial. First World War 1914-18. Retrieved from http://www.awm.gov.au/atwar/ww1.asp
McKinney, Brennan. Developments in the Middle East After World War I. Associated Content. 9 June 2010. Retrieved from http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/3018710/developments_in_the_middle_east_after_pg4.html?cat=37
Richman, Sheldon L. "Ancient History": U.S. Conduct in the Middle East Since World War II and the Folly of Intervention. Policy Analysis No. 159, Cato Institute, 16 August 1991. Retrieved from http://www.cato.org/pub_display.php?pub_id=1019
Roberts, Sam. How the Middle East got that way. New York Times Upfront, 15 January 2007. Retrieved from http://www.thefreelibrary.com/How+the+Middle+East+got+that+way:+the+seeds+of+much+of+the+conflict...-a0157946237
Both documents make references to time, which give them the form of historical documents.
The Book of Documents is believed to be an advice given to King Tai Jia by the faithful Yi Yin, and the Book of Genesis is the advice given to Noah by God. But the advice of Yi Yin, according to this legend, is comparable to the authority of the Bible. It is the Mandate from Heaven. Yi Yin lectures the King as if what he says is the word coming from cosmic powers. Both the Book of Documents and the Book of Genesis suggest that peace and tranquility -- and misery on earth, likewise -- depend on the behavior of mankind. If they respect the laws, obey the authority, they are going to be rewarded with peace and happiness. If they rebel against higher powers and engage in drunkenness, orgies, and depravity, they will be…
There are a few who have been or are now involved with groups that are seeking conciliation.. The positive similarity of many of these individuals is that they would like to see a productive end to the situation, even if it means compromise.
There is no possibility of peace in the Middle East unless people from all backgrounds, who are the most affected, are part of the dialogue. The nations, themselves, have a political agenda and are not, in most cases, speaking for the citizens.
There is no positive answer in the Middle East for anyone unless they can live in peace and mutual respect. There can only be a better future for Palestine/Israel, if the citizens use their energies toward cooperation and constructive results.
If citizens are not part of the answer, then emphasis will continue to be on conquest, hate and fear, much of it unfounded and misunderstood.…
Has the presence of oil in the Middle East had a significant impact on the peoples of non-oil-producing states in the region? If so, in what ways, exactly? Develop an argument with specific reference to AT LEAT TWO non-oil-producing states.
and other Western powers, oil supplies are the only real interest in the Middle East, and most people in the region are well aware of this fact, and of numerous Western attempts to establish and support 'friendly' authoritarian regimes like that of Hosni Mubarak in Egypt and the monarchy in Jordan. Public opinion polls in Turkey, Egypt, Morocco, Jordan and Pakistan actually show majority support for Western political and economic ideas, including democracy, but opposed U.. foreign policy in general because they believed it to be motivated by control over oil supplies. None of this is new, and the West has been pursuing such policies since the collapse…
Saudi Arabia and the other Gulf States have never been democracies, of course, and political life is dominated by the king, princes and bureaucratic elites, who also control most of the economy, and at these ruling class levels women play almost no public role at all. Like all regimes in the Gulf princes and monarchs have feared a Right-wing Islamic revolution since the overthrow of the Shah of Iran in 1979, which makes them hesitant to advance any reforms that would improve the status of women. Even in the present Arab Spring revolutions, both the local elites and Western powers still fear that the fundamentalists will take power, which would make the condition of women even worse than they are at present. Time will tell if these revolutions will turn out to be democratic and lead to an improvement in the political, educational and economic opportunities available to women, or if they will be authoritarian, patriarchal and regressive like the 1979 revolution in Iran. So far, though, their effect on Saudi Arabia and the other Gulf monarchies has been limited at best, and those are the nations where the conditions of women are most in need of improvement.
The 3 separated papers combined must be AT LEAST 9 pages. Avoid referencing or quotations at all costs. Again, please answer each question separately, but presented in the same file is fine.
Customer is requesting that (tomlr_98) completes this order.
Like the Taliban in recent Afghanistan, patrols walked through the streets and markets and could flog wrong-doers on the spot.
In spite of strict veiling rules for women, women could hold a fair amount of power. Current news reports might lead an American to believe that under Moslem rule, women never have any rights, can own no property, may not work outside their homes, and in general must live extremely constricted lives. However, in 18th century Aleppo, women worked in the marketplace, owned property, could have wealth in their own name and often earned income, particularly by owning property or as moneylenders. While they were not equal to men (in legal proceedings, the testimony of two women was considered equal to that of one man), women were not equal in Europe either. The rules that allowed women these rights came out of Middle Eastern tradition, not Western influence -- Marcus…
They are also dangerous to the United States because of the United States policy of having open doors and welcoming many different cultures and traditions to its lands. For this reason the three groups believe the United States works closely with those that they wish to eradicate. In addition the groups can easily infiltrate the nation and set up terrorist plans in this country because of the freedom of travel that has been allowed until recently.
The United States should never negotiate with any terrorist group with one exception. If the terrorist group wants to work to dismantle itself and begin to reeducate its members to release their terrorist mindset the United States should be willing to work with the group to facilitate such goals. When it comes to acts of terrorism however, the United States should stand strong and refuse to ever negotiate with them for any reason at…
Middle East Crisis is a crisis that has been building for decades. The American Government has become involved in the conflict calling for peace in the area. This involvement is based on America as a protector of human rights and also because of the consequence to itself, with the conflict causing economic, human and environmental concerns. It must be considered exactly what can be done about the conflict and what the final consequences would be for America.
In an address by President Bush in April 2002, Bush called for Israel to continue withdrawing from Palestinians areas and for Palestine to stop terror attacks. Bush also called for all the Arab neighbours to support Israel and Palestine living side by side in peace with the only solution according to Bush, being for Israel and Palestine to accept their differences and commit to living alongside each other in peace. Before considering whether…
In regards to leadership, the Leaders in this region were all authoritarian and harbored conservative ideologies. The second form is in regard to the need for personal freedom. This has been displayed in the level of opposition that the citizens of the Greater Middle East have put up in order to oppose their authoritarian regimes that shared anti-American sentiments.
The Greater Middle East region shapes itself in various ways.
Oil supply and international trade routes
The Greater Middle East region has managed to shape itself as a region of great geo-economic importance as a result of its major role in the global energy supply chain (oil). The region also forms a major international trade route. These have made the countries in this region to form alliances aimed at advancing their developments and voices as a consequences of the leverage that they derive from these strategic factors. They have…
Billon, PL and El Khatib, F (2003). From Free Oil to "Freedom Oil"?Terrorism, War and U.S.
Geopolitics in the Persian Gulf
Blanchard, CM (2011)Libya: Unrest and U.S. Policy
At the beginning of the book, the young man is humiliated and tortured by the estern appearing and speaking judicial committee. Then, further demonstrating the levels of control and command over their citizens, the committee attempt to impinge upon the ways that young man thinks. He is told that he must write about the 20th century's most important achievement and the greatest Arab figure, to demonstrate his loyalty to the state. Although one would think that there could be no correct answer to the open-ended questions posed by The Committee, clearly there is, in their eyes, as when he makes a choice that could damage their reputation, they track him down to 'correct' his selection.
The young man's choice, that of a doctor who is famous for his works of global outreach and philanthropy, shows that the apparently noxious ideology of globalization has already penetrated even his consciousness. The reason…
Gelvin, James. The Modern Middle East: A History. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.
Ibrahim, The Modern Middle East: A History, Oxford University Press, 2004. The Committee. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 2001.
Significant cultural, scientific and political developments are to be observed in this period in virtually the entire Greater Middle East.
The fall of the Ottoman Empire in 1918 brought the Arab world into a great disappointment as the territories of the Empire were shared by the English (Egypt and Cyprus and strong influence in Iraq, Palestine and Saudi Arabia) and the French (Syria, Lebanon) occupants. Arab unity cracked down and separatism from the perceived oppressor became one of the key political statements of the Arab countries. The great divisions between the Greater Middle East continued in the following years as international politics and oil began to have a more important say than any discussion on Arab unity. Following the effects of the Second World War of de-colonization and the rise of the state of Israel within the Arab world, the Greater Middle Eastern region faced another type of profound change.…
Calvocoressi, P. (2009) World Politics since 1945 Essex: Pearson Education Limited
Nye, J. (2002) Understanding International Conflicts: An Introduction to Theory and History Longman Classics Series
I would not truly expect lasting peace to come from my efforts, however. Politicians, religious leaders, and world experts have been calling for peace in the Middle East for years, and nothing seems to come of it. There is so much animosity and hatred in the region on both sides that it seems peace is simply not attainable, at least in the current form that both sides argue for. Each side has to be willing to make sacrifices, such as land and territory, but neither side is willing to go beyond a certain limit, and so, little of real consequence actually occurs. Therefore, without sounding too cynical, I would not expect a viable peace accord to be reached by my efforts.
A choose my course of action because it seems like the most workable solution to a very complex problem. Clearly, violence and hatred is not working. Clearly, these people…
Duffey, Michael. "Holy War, Holy Peace: How Religion Can Bring Peace to the Middle East." Theological Studies 64.3 (2003): 643+.
The assassination of Major General Qassem Soleimani
In early 2020, January 3, the U.S. launched airstrike attacks around Baghdad International Airport and killed two of the most influential leaders in Iran, Iraq, and the surrounding regions. The strike killed Qassem Soleimani, the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps- Quds Force's Major General, and Abu Mahdi Al-Muhandis, the Deputy head of the Popular Mobilization Commission, and also the founder of the militia known as Kata' ib Hezbollah (Jahanbani, 2020). The strikes happened when there was an escalating conflict between the US, Iran and Iraq. This was after December 27, 2019, when a famous proxy from Iran by the name Kata' ib Hezbollah killed several pro-Iranian Militia members and a U.S. citizen four days down the line. The hit triggered criticisms of the Trump administration of how he was using his diplomatic, executive powers and ethical judgment in leadership. He was accused of…
Theological differences are the least important issue facing Jews and Muslims. The Palestinians rightfully believe that the British stole their homelands from them after the Second World War, and that both the United Kingdom and the Untied States unabashedly support Israel. The Israelis, on the other hand, point to the recurring incidences of terrorism that plague the country and prevent peace.
When both sides focus on the past instead of the future, the crisis will never disappear. Instead, political leaders need to focus on creating a multifaceted solution to the problem that most likely entails making Jerusalem an international zone. If a Palestinian state is created, it must be dedicated to the eradication of terrorism. Likewise, Israel must agree to cease treating Palestinians in Israel like second-class citizens and move toward a more egalitarian and free society.
This has caused a divide in Iran, where traditionalists want to save the old religious and moral values, while many people want to bring more changes to Iran, like democracy and true free elections. This has created a rift in the country, and has caused unrest and even hatred of western values. That is one of the things that has caused Muslim fundamentalists in Iran (and elsewhere in the Middle East), to declare a war on American and westernization. This shows that modernization is not always a positive change, and that some countries simply do not need or want modern conveniences if it means they come along with western values. It is a time of social change in the country, and it is certain that more changes will happen in Iran today and in the future.
Mahmoodshahi, eza. "Westernization: A New Motif for evolution in Iran." Published:12/15/2002.
Mahmoodshahi, Reza. "Westernization: A New Motif for Revolution in Iran." Published:12/15/2002.
Mirsepassi, Ali. Intellectual Discourse and the Politics of Modernization: Negotiating Modernity in Iran. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
Rinehart, James F. Revolution and the Millennium: China, Mexico, and Iran. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1997.
Salehi, M.M. Insurgency through Culture and Religion: The Islamic Revolution of Iran. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1988.
Third Party Intervention in the Middle East
The headlines everyday report more violence in the Middle East than ever before. Television broadcasts offer viewers a barrage of suicide bombers, massacres, garden-variety atrocities of all types, and a group who hails themselves as "Freedom Fighters." With so many women, children, and others who do not support their position as victims, one must wonder for whose freedom do they fight? This conflict has been going on for many generations and with no real resolution, only a temporary lull in the fighting now and then.
The two sides of the conflict have been unable to resolve their differences to this point and the fighting and violence continues to escalate and involve more and more innocent victims. Due to their inability to resolve this conflict on their own, it is now necessary for third parties to intervene with solutions to end this senseless conflict,…
ABC News. Arafat-Sharon Timeline. http://abcnews.go.com/sections/world/popoff/dailynews/arafat_sharon_timeline_020418.popoff/index.html . Accessed May 5, 2002.
Guardian Unllimited. World trade Organization. 2002. http://www.guardian.co.uk/wto/flash/0.6189.380127.00.html . Accessed May 5, 2002
Jerusalem Post Internet Edition. May 5, 2002. http://www.jpost.com/NASAApp/cs/ContentServer?pagename=Jpost/A/JPArticle/Fu;;&cid=1020337077104 Accessed May 5, 2002.
Ramzy Baroud, So, How Do You Define A Massacre? Thursday, May 02, 2002. Palestine
surge of Islamic movements, revolutions and political life in the last fifty years, as well as some of the events of the last ten or fifteen years, culminating with the attack on September 11 and the fight against terrorism, have brought about a legitimate discussion around the causes and effects of political Islam, as well as on the main factors that have influenced it in the last half a century.
The first issue that needs to be taken into consideration is the element of extreme cohesion that the Islamic world has: the Qur'an. According to the Islamic world, the Qur'an is the "literal, hence absolutely true, word of God as revealed to the Prophet Mohammed"
In my opinion, the direct and most important implication, both in terms of internal politics and international relation, is the creation and practice of Islamic law, as one of the three fundamental systems of law…
1. Kepel, Gilles. JIHAD -- the Trial of Political Islam. The Belknap Press of Harvard Univeristy Press. Cambridge, Massachusetts. 2002. Chapter 3. Page 61.
2. Beinin, Joel; Stork, Joe. On the Modernity, Historical Specificity and International Context of Political Islam. 1998. Page 3.
Beinin, Joel; Stork, Joe. On the Modernity, Historical Specificity and International Context of Political Islam. 1998. Page 3.
Ibid. Page 9
Thick and thin book review.
Some year," JK Galbraith once wrote, "like some poets, and politicians and some lovely women, are singled out for fame far beyond the common lot." For the Middle East in general, and for the people of Palestine in particular, 1948 was clearly such a year. It was the year in which the British-Mandate for Palestine terminated, a Jewish state was established, thousands of Arab Palestinians became refugees, and regular armed forces of Trans-Jordan, Egypt, Syria and other Arab countries entered Palestine - Israel and clashed with Israeli forces." (Bregman, 2000) In the same way, some land masses seem to carry a higher level of importance than others. Such is the case with a small strip of land lying along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea.
Israel, or Palestine depending on the year the map was published, has been a place of conflict since first…
Review of Thick and Thin. Phil books. 2000. Available from: http://www.phil-books.com/Thick_and_Thin_Moral_Argument_at_Home_and_Abroad_0268018979.html.
Bregman, Ahron. Israel's Wars: A History Since 1947. Routledge, 2000
Walzer, Michael. Thick and Thin: Mporal Argeument at home and Abroad. University of Notre Dame Press, 1996.
Middle East Peace Talks
Many people view the Middle East as having been a powder keg for the last half-century. These difficulties started when other countries, such as Great Britain, made decisions in the region, including setting boundaries, that historically did not work out well. This has been the cause of strife in other areas of the world as well. However, rightly or wrongly, many Arabs in the Middle East view the strife as going back much further. They point to the start of difficulties at the Crusades of the middle ages. This points to a very significant and basic problem: history is written, and viewed, differently by different groups in the world. In the case of the Middle East, the issue is history -- whether it's the history of something that happened last week or events from the 12th century.
To solve this difficult problem, it is necessary for…
Middle East comprises a diverse group of regions, countries, peoples, customs, and cultures. On the one hand, it is daunting to offer a semester-long course that treats all Middle Eastern issues with clarity and fairness. The risk of oversimplification, however, is outweighed by the risk of ignorance. This course will explore the Middle East with as much depth and breadth as possible, stimulating student thought on political, social, religious, historical, ethnographic, and economic issues related to the region. Included in the course rubric will be current events ranging from gender issues to terrorism. In between the heavier topics, lighter lessons on local customs, culture, music, and food will reveal the ordinariness of daily life in the part of the world we call the Middle East.
Islam will be covered from a multidisciplinary perspective, allowing for nuanced and rich class discussions about the unique interface between politics, religion, and social norms.…
Anderson, Lisa. "Demystifying the Arab Spring." PDF Available: http://www.ssrresourcecentre.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/Anderson-Demystifying-the-Arab-Spring.pdf
Henry, Clement Moore and Springborg, Robert. Globalization and the Politics of Development in the Middle East. Cambridge University Press, 2010.
Kuran, Timur. "The Islamic Commercial Crisis: Institutional Roots of Economic Underdevelopment in the Middle East." The Journal of Economic History (2003), 63(2).
The map of the Middle East was completely redrawn as a result of WW1, reflected especially in the case of Turkey, Iraq and Palestine. The Ottoman Turks had ruled the realm prior to WW1 and had an alliance with Germany. The English, always wary of a strong state on the continent making inroads in the Middle East, sought to undermine both German and Ottoman power, and thus allied with the House of Saud, which it supported against the Ottoman Empire. When war broke out, the destruction of the Ottoman Empire was a main objective for England and it achieved that goal. At the same time, the English were indebted to the Zionist Jews who sought a restoration of Israel (Palestine) as a state of their own. Thus, the Balfour Declaration, issued during WW1, promised Israel to the Jews—and as the English now controlled the territory in the wake of the…
Anderson, L. (2018). The state and its competitors. International Journal of Middle East Studies, 50(2), 317-322.
Clark, J. (n.d.). Actors, public opinion, and participation.
Gaiser, A. R. (2017). A narrative identity approach to Islamic Sectarianism.
Johnson, N., & Koyama, M. (2019). The State, Toleration, and Religious Freedom. In Advances in the Economics of Religion (pp. 377-403). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.
Lust, E. (2018). Layered Authority and Social Institutions: Reconsidering State-Centric Theory and Development Policy. International Journal of Middle East Studies, 50(2), 333.
Middle East/Gulf region has a complex history and has experienced a series of important events both during and in the years following Muhammad's influence in the territory. hile Muhammad's ruling played an important role in shaping thinking in the region, his legacy was actually more important, taking into account that it practically influenced people in taking on certain attitudes and in expressing great interest in wanting to promote Islamic thought.
The Arab Caliphate greatly expanded the Islamic Empire and turned it into one of the greatest in all of history. It lasted from 632 until 1513 and it involved a series of leaderships: the Rashidun period, the Umayyad period, and the Abbassid period. These three dynasties kept Arabs together and provided them with a sense of unity and cultural identity. Introducing Arab as an official language further contributed to making individuals in the Middle East feel as if they were…
Barakat, Halim, "The Arab World," (UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PRESS, 1993).
Hourani, Albert Habib, "A History of the Arab Peoples," (Harvard University Press, 2002)
While on one hand, the Nile gets the highest discharge from rainfall on the highlands of Ethiopia and upland plateau of East Africa, located well outside the Middle East region; on the other hand, discharge points of the other two rivers, Euphrates and Tigris, are positioned well within the Middle East region, prevailing mostly in Turkey, Syria along with Iraq. In other areas, recurrent river systems are restricted to the more northern upland areas of Iran and Turkey, in common with the coastline of Levant (Peter eaumont, Gerald H. lake, J. And Malcolm Wagstaff, 1988).
The conflict in the Future
It is widely believed by many experts that those who control the waters in the Middle East; control the Middle East; and those who control the Middle East; control the oil supply of the world (David M. Hummel, 1995). From the above mentioned facts it is clear that the water…
Anthony H. Cordesman. Peace is Not Enough: The Arab-Israeli Economic and Demographic Crises. Part Two. Population Growth, Fertility and Population Doubling Rates, Regional Trends, National Trends, and the "Youth Explosion" Center for Strategic and International Studies, 1998.
Adel Darwish. Troubled waters in rivers of blood. Water Issues. 3 December 1992. http://www.mideastnews.com/water004.html
Adel Darwish. Inadequacy of international law. Taken at http://www.mideastnews.com/WaterWars.htm
Ashok Swain. A new challenge: water scarcity in the Arab world. Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ). January, 1998.
Based on the assessment of the sample features in terms of capital size and value of the property portfolio, an observation is made in the fact that a proportion is kept between the two. In other words, the property companies in Jordan, Egypt and Syria seem to be prudential and correlate their capital sizes with the values of their portfolios.
3. esults and analysis of the Jordanian property companies
The results of the implemented questionnaire are revealed throughout the table below:
c d e f g
x x x
x x x
x x x
Shortage of commercial properties
Availability and choice
2011, the world factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook / last accessed on February 21, 2011
The Egyptian King Faud (1922-36) repeatedly disbanded popularly elected afd governments, despite huge majorities, due to their distinctly nationalist platform. The fickleness of the British position is exemplified by their later coercion of King Farouk (1936-52) to appoint an enfeebled afd government due to their need for a neutral Egypt during the Second orld ar. This intense irony does not detract from the fact that the monarchs in Egypt and Iraq were very powerful political actors but were 'so closely associated with the structures of colonialization that they did not outlast them' (Owen 1992, 19). The British imperialists exploited the constitutional power of the King to dismiss any elected government of nationalists 'that threatened to tear up or amend the arrangements…defining Britain's rights' (Owen 1992, 19). Hence, once again, diminishing the authority of the regime they installed and creating a lack of respect for lawfully elected governments.
Pan-Arabism Causes Conflict…
Anderson, L. "The State in the Middle East and North Africa." Comparative Politics 20, no. 1 (1987): 1-18.
Ayubi, N. Over-stating the Arab State. London: Tauris, 1995.
Batutu, H. "Of the Diversity of Iraqis, the Incohesiveness of their Society, and their Progress in the Monarchic Period toward a Consolidated Political Structure." In The Modern Middle East: A Reader, by A. Hourani. London: Tauris, 1993.
Beinin, J, and Z. Lockman. Workers on the Nile. London: Tauris, 1988.
(Jabal Omar Development Corporation 2010)
Since 2008, the real estate market in Kuwait has been continually declining. The reason why is because the economy was largely depending upon oil revenues. However, in 2010 the sector began witnessing an increase in prices. This is because of the Kuwaiti government was aggressively promoting the tourism industry. As developers are expecting a strong increase in foreign direct investment, due to the governments push to expand the sector. As a result, holiday and residential areas in Kuwait are continuing to boom. (Finkelstein)
In the housing industry, there are large numbers of shortages that are affecting prices. What has been happening is the residential sector has been facing restrictions over the last several years, surrounding building permits. As the government was slow to endorse them, which created a rush on new areas that were approved for development. At the same time, the government has…
Alexandria Real Estate, 2010.
Egypt Property, 2010, Select Property. Available from: [19 Mar. 2011].
Egypt Real Estate Attracts Interest From Foreign Investors, 2010, New Investors. Available from: [19 Mar. 2011]
Jabal Omar Development Corporation, 2010
There will always be terrorist organizations such as Hamas, it seems, but with the Palestinians and Israelis getting along diplomatically, it could lead to better relationships with other countries, as well, and it could lead to a much stronger unity between the countries in the Middle East. This should be a long-term goal of the peace process, to bring an end to tension throughout the entire region, so they can concentrate on other elements of society and government.
In conclusion, the oad Map for Peace in the Middle East still seems to be a long way from conclusion. Israel has stopped all construction in East Jerusalem, another are under contention in the peace process, and talks are still going on bi-weekly between the two parties (as of the end of February, at least). A lasting peace would bring a new decade of hope to the region, and a new peace…
Bush, George W. "Joint Understanding Read by President Bush at Annapolis Conference." WhiteHouse.gov. 2007. 9 June 2008. http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2007/11/print/20071127.html
Editors. "A Performance-Based Road Map to a Permanent Two-State Solution to the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict." 2002. UN.org. 9 June 2008. http://www.un.org/media/main/RoadMap122002.html
Migdalovitz, Carol. "Israeli-Palestinian Peace Process: The Annapolis Conference." 2007. U.S. Department of State. 2008. 9 June 2008. http://fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/98093.pdf
Rice, Condoleezza. "Press Conference." U.S. Department of State. 2008. 9 June 2008. http://www.state.gov/secretary/rm/2007/12/97945.htm
Highly Patriarchal Social Framework.
In many parts of the Middle East, women are little more than chattel today based on longstanding customs: "From 3000 B.C.-A.D. 1100, man's view of himself as superior in all ways to women soon became enshrined in the law and custom of the world's earliest civilizations, those of the Middle East. Women became a chattel first of her father, then of her husband, then of her son" (Sechzer, 2004, p. 51). While the laws and practices vary, the majority of Islamic countries in the Middle East have specific beliefs about women and have restrictions concerning them (Sechzer, 2004). Religious tenets in the more restrictive regions are used to "keep women in their place" and violence against women sometimes even takes the form of killing. In her book, Sites of Violence: Gender and Conflict Zones, Giles (2004) notes that, "In the Middle East, for instance, 'honor killing'…
Every year more than million local population migrate towards the urban areas.
Gender Discrimination: The regional religious clerics and their influence over the governments have created broad problems for women, and thereby restricting their integration and involvement into society and profession. Although the females have secured permission to vote, and fight elections, but they are subjected to difficult terms and conditions. The employment of females in MENA has improved, however it is still 15% lower than East Asian countries.
Growing pressures on young men and women in the Middle East and North Africa to immigrate to Europe and the U.S. To find jobs and economic opportunities -- a process that inevitably creates new tensions and adjustment problems' (Strategic Insights: Globalization has eluded the Middle East).
egional trade of lower magnitude:. All the countries of the region have so far failed to progress over economic and trade agreements. The countries have…
S. Mujahid, WTO, Globalization and Pakistan: Dreaming for Global Living Standards Pakistan and Gulf Economist, May 20, 2002.
Cf. Jeffrey Sachs, Globalization and Patterns of Economic Development
A. Sen, If It's Fair It's Good: 10 Truths About Globalization," International Herald Tribune, July 14, 2001
A.T. Kearney Corp, Measuring Globalization, Foreign Policy
Motivating Middle East
Motivating Diversity in the Middle East Workforce
Motivation is a complex force, and there are a multitude of theories as to how it is best achieved. One useful and highly practical framework developed by David McLellan identifies three needs as factors in motivation that are present in varying degrees for different individuals: the need for affiliation which is a need for interpersonal connectivity and warmth; the need for achievement, which can be seen as a need for recognition or to develop more efficient or effective processes; and the need for power, which is a need to control and influence others (Source Year). Effective motivational strategies and methods will appeal to all three of these needs to some degree, such that all individuals are motivated to take on the desired changes regardless of their personal proclivities and needs in these areas.
It is not only individual differences that…
Kuran, T. (2004). Why the Middle East is Economically Underdeveloped: Historical Mechanisms of Institutional Stagnation. The Journal of Economic Perspectives 18(3): 71-90.
Pollit, D. (2006). Barclays bank on Africa. Human Resource Management 14(3): 16-9.
Soltani, E., Scullion, H. & Collings, D. (2010). Workforce diversity in Iran. In Managing cultural diversity in Asia, Ozbilgin & Seyd, eds. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar.
The ole of eligion in the Middle East Conflict
The Middle East is the cradle of the main religions of the world (Molloy, 1942). Despite this fact, the region has experience hatred and violence for many years. The two main religions involved in the conflict are Jewish and Islam. Many Arab nations portray the ongoing conflict between them and Israel as a war against their religion. In this regard, they wage war as a basis of incitement of other Arab and non-Arab nations against Israel. According to Hama (1994), the endless conflict between Arabs and Israel may not be exactly a land issue or a war between nations but a mindless pursuit to defend Arab nationalism from the israeli threat. The founder of Islam, Mohhamad cultivated the idea of jihad as a way of influencing the spread of Islam by using forceful strategies. Arab Muslim countries have perfected this…
Hama, K. (1994, July 26). A Window-opening view of the dark, mindet so prevalent in the Arab world. Syrian Daily .
Israel Science and Technology Directory. (2012). Is improving economic conditions for Palestinian Arabs conducive to peace? Retrieved March 1, 2012, from www.science.co.il: http://www.science.co.il/
Molloy, M. (1942). Experiencing the world's religions: tradition, challenge, and change. New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
Prager, D., & Telushkin, J. (2003). Why the Jews?: The Reason for Antisemitism. New York:
Women in Middle East
Western Influence on the Lives of Islamic Women
September 11th and the war on Iraq have managed to demonize and stereotype Islam in the popular Western mind even more than its foreign nature had independently achieved. In addition to the furor over Islam spawning terrorism, renewed attention has been pointed at the supposed oppression and abuse of women in Islamic cultures, to the degree that these human rights abuses have been cited as one of the justifications for Bush's war on Iraq. However, there remains among thinking people, particularly those with cultural, religious, or ethnic ties to both Islamic and Western cultures, as to whether or not Islam has a negative impact on women's rights in the modern and historical Middle East. Because the false dichotomy between "good" Western ideals and "bad" Islamic ideals has been propagated for so long, it might surprise a Western reader…
The Taliban also destroyed ancient religious monuments that they deemed violative of Muslim teachings even those these monuments were part of the world's heritage. It was in this environment that charismatic Muslim leaders such as Osama bin Laden were able to step in and exploit the situation to their own advantage by inspiring yet more freedom fighters from all over the Arab world to join the battle to free the Holy Land from the Western invaders.
In reality, these same "freedom fighters" received massive amounts of American economic and military assistance during this period, acting essentially as U.S. proxies in the Cold War against the Soviet Union. If American military planners could have foreseen the dire outcome of this assistance at the time they were provided, it is reasonable to suggest that they would have reconsidered the intervention. Indeed, bin Laden and his like-minded extremists exploited this largesse and were…
U.S. Policies in the Middle East
Let us understand some of the U.S. Policies in the Middle East that the general public must know. Primarily, one must remember that the United States of America has in fact been playing a major role in the militarization of the entire region of the Middle East, this region being the main destination for the purpose of arms exports, thus happening to create a good amount of profit for arms manufacturers, the figures showing substantial amounts of $60 billion since the Gulf War. Arms sales have now become one of the ways in which the U.S.A. would be able to maintain stable relationships with the Middle East. The strategic benefit therein for the U.S.A. is in having systems that have been manufactured by the U.S. On the ground in case of a direct military intervention, which can be used as necessary. (10 things to…
"An Option of Difficulties, Countering Asymmetric Threats" (November, 2002) McNair Paper 62, The Revenge of the Melians: Asymmetric Threats and the next QDR. Retrieved From http://www.ndu.edu/inss/McNair/mcnair62/CH05.html Accessed on 10 March, 2005
"Countering the changing threat of international terrorism" Report of the National Commission on Terrorism. Retrieved From http://www.fas.org/irp/threat/commission.html Accessed on 10 March, 2005
Shalom, Stephen. R. "Middle East Time Line" Retrieved From
http://www.zmag.org/middletimeline.htm Accessed on 10 March, 2005
achieving peace in the Middle East. The writer explores the problems between Israel and Palestine and looks at possible solutions. There were five sources used to complete this paper.
The dispute between Palestine and Israel is long standing and difficult. Each side believes that it is in the right and both sides accuse various nations including the United States of taking sides against them. "Palestinians want an independent state with its capital in East Jerusalem - but hardliner Sharon will accept only small Palestinian territories and no Israeli withdrawal from East Jerusalem."
The conflict began in 1917 at the time Britain conquered Palestine. It was during World War II. It was called the Jewish homeland. During the United Nations talks of 1947 a plan was designed that divided the land between the Jews and the Arabs. That plan called for the founding of the State of Israel about a year…
Special Report: After the war is over - Israel and Palestine; Israel and Palestine
Date: 04/13/2002; Publication: The Economist; Author:
Profile: Propaganda from Israel and Palestine
Date: 10/17/2000; Publication: All Things Considered (NPR); Author: NOAH ADAMS
PTSD in the Middle East
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is one of the most common mental health or psychological disorders facing people in the Middle East region. This condition emerges from episodes of social upheaval, combat, and violence that have become common in the Middle East over the past few years. Some of the major areas in the Middle East that have been characterized by increased conflicts in recent years include Palestine, Iraq, and Lebanon. Given increased conflicts and combat in the Middle East, PTSD and other trauma-related mental health conditions are expected to become public health crisis in the Arab world (Suto, 2016). Therefore, public health professionals in the Middle East face the need to develop appropriate measures for diagnosis and treatment of PTSD and other trauma-related disorders. However, the treatment of this condition and other traumatic mental health disorders is significantly affected by culture. This paper examines how…
Islam / Arab Success
hy did Islam and the Arabs succeed in spreading throughout the Greater Middle-East / Gulf against the Byzantines and Persians?
Religion has been a major influence on the course of human history. In the Middle East, religion has been the impetus for discord since before recorded times. This area of the world has had central religious attention because of the location of the Holy Land in both Jewish and Christian theologies. At one point, the Byzantines and Persians controlled the landscape of this part of the world, but lost leadership in the face of Islam and Arab cultures. In the present moment, one of the primary religions in the Middle-East and Gulf regions is Islam. People who are a part of the Islam religion or people who are Arab have been able to spread their culture throughout the area until this has become the majority way…
Carson, Keith (2003). "Islamic History and Literature." Heritage of the Western World. Atlantic Goldschmidt, Arthur and Lawrence Davidson (2006). A Concise History of the Middle East.
Cambridge, MA: Westview Press.
Marin-Guzman, Roberto (2010). "Arab Tribes, the Umayyad Dynasty, and the Abbasid
Revolution." The American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences. 21:4.
Role of Democracy in the Middle East
There has recently been a wave of democratic uprisings sweeping across the Middle East. Starting in Tunisia, the call for democratic reforms spread through Egypt, Bahrain, Yemen, Jordan, Syria, Iran and many other nations. Many have likened these uprisings to the social unrest of 1848, which gave rise to the Communist Revolution of 1917, but they do so wrongly. hile the popular uprisings that continue to inflame the Middle East may have some of the same causes as in 1848, rising food prices and high unemployment, the current unrest lacks the ideological component. The protestors do not want to destroy their government, they want to reform it. In this way the uprisings of 2011 are more akin toward the establishment of a Rousseau-inspired representative republic in that the people were demanding, not a complete social restructuring, but a representative form of government that…
Cullen, Daniel. "On Rousseau's democratic realism.(French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau)." Perspectives on Political Science 36.4 (2007): 207+. Academic OneFile. Web. 23 Apr. 2011.
"Egypt News - Revolution and Aftermath" New York Times. 18 Apr. 2011. Web 23 Apr. 2011. http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/international/countriesandterritories / egypt/index.html
Goldstone, Jack. "Understanding the Revolutions of 2011 | Foreign Affairs." Home | foreign Affairs. Web. 23 Apr. 2011.
The paper also focuses on discussing the links between women's education and matters like reproduction and employment, backed up by a series of data supporting the affirmations made in this paper. All in all, the paper presents a series of facts, data, implications that this matter has and connections with other issues, which are useful for anyone trying to find new and accurate information and comments on women education.
4. The paper provides a very clear image on how things stand with education in MENA countries. The article teaches the reader that education has more implications and more significant effects than one may consider before reading the article. For example, improved education leads to eliminating gender gaps. Gender gaps are probably the main reason responsible for discriminating women's role in the society and for denying them rights to education and other rights empowered by education. The lack of education has…
1. Roudi-Fahimi, Farzaneh & Moghadam, Valentine M. (2003). Empowering Women, Developing Society: Female Education in the Middle East and North Africa.
Lawrence in Arabia: War, Deceit, Imperial Folly and the Making of the Modern Middle East
Lawrence never received formal military training, but he achieved the rank of Colonel in the British Army. Discuss how he achieved the rank and compare his training to yours.
Lawrence initially studied archeology and architecture at Oxford; these pursuits first drew him to the Middle East. The knowledge he gained was instrumental in his securing a military position in the Middle East. Thanks to his knowledge of the Arab world and the Ottoman Empire, "he was sent to nurture the Arab revolt against Turkish rule, started by Sherif Hussein of Mecca with the aim of creating a single Arab state stretching from Syria to Yemen"(MacIntyre 2010). In contrast to my own training, the knowledge Lawrence obtained was largely experiential -- he did not study military theory in-depth or go through basic training and was iconoclastic…
Anderson, S. (2013). Lawrence in Arabia: War, deceit, imperial folly, and the making of the modern Middle East. New York: Doubleday.
MacIntyre, B. (2010). Arabian knight. The New York Times. Retrieved from:
Muhammad appointed no successors and had no sons, only his son-in-law Ali. In fact, under Islam there could never be another prophet after Muhammad since his revelation was considered to be the true and final word of God. Instead, the Arab tribal leaders elected Abu-Bakr as kalifa (caliph) on the grounds that he was one of the first converts to Islam outside of the Prophet's family. His policy was to unite the Arabs in a jihad against the Byzantine omans and Persian Sasanids, and in a very short time, "the mightiest empires in the Middle East…were humbled by the Arab warriors for Islam" (Glouldschmidt and Davidson, 2009, p. 53).
Within 100 years, the Arab-Islamic Empire had conquered a truly vast territory, from Spain to the borders of China, and come close to taking over all of Europe. For the Arabs, this was the Golden Age of science,…
Catherwood, C. (2011). A Brief History of the Middle East. Constable and Robinson, Ltd.
Goldschmidt, A. And L. Davidson (2009). A Concise History of the Middle East, 9th Edition. Westeview Press.
Great ar for Civilisation
Fisk begins chapter 14 Anything to ipe Out a Devil… with an account of the French invasion of Algeria in 1830 and it's subsequent ramifications. The author went to great lengths to parallel the French invasion of Algeria to the British and American invasions of Iraq. Both the British invasion of Iraq during I and the American invasion in 2003 was done under the guise of liberation, the same as the French; but all three encountered the problem of not being welcomed as liberators. Fisk then began to describe a man named Mohammed Bouyali, who fought against the French and then fought against the Algerian government that replaced the French. His story was a microcosm of the story of Algeria: Bouyali helped expel the French only to be disillusioned by the native Algerian secular government which replaced the French. He went on to form a group…
Fisk, Robert. The Great War For Civilisation. New York: Knopf. 2005. Print.
In the Middle East, comprehensive and regional planning are not as developed as needed within the 21st century paradigm. Gloalism has rought change to the world, and this will require a new way of thinking aout precious resources and use of materials that will contriute oth to environmental sustainaility and the increasing cooperation etween regions. I have certainly realized that the moral action in the contemporary world is to pursue a career that allows the capacity to influence others in managing the impact that the environment has on all of us. To that end, I would like to present my application and credentials for a Master's in City and Regional Planning at the Pratt Institute. I am particularly interested in your programs ecause of the extensive research and reputation of the department, and the focus not only on a holistic framework, ut the aility to collaorate with colleagues and…
bibliography to include a number of works on sustainability and modern business design, most recently: Horibe's Creating the Innovation Culture, Farr's Sustainable Urbanism, and a book a colleague recommended that is proving interesting, but difficult, Zetter's Designing Sustainable Cities in the Developing World. I am living in the United States now, concentrating on the improvement of my English language skills. Besides my undergraduate degree in interior design, I have worked in groups of several sizes as both a contributing team member and manager, and I am doing my best to network with consulting and business colleagues to form intellectual partnerships that may help alter the regional mindset and allow for more of an innovation culture in the region.
Thank you in advance. I appreciate your consideration and look forward to attending the Pratt Institute.
Water Crisis in the Middle East
What is the Six Day War, and what are the various events that led to the War? What is the background of the War, and what were its consequences? The Six Day War took place in the month of June 1967. The crisis had actually begun in the early months of 1965, when the PLO, through Fatah, led a campaign of attacks on the borders along Jordan and Lebanon. This campaign was severely criticized and opposed by not only the people of the country but also by the Arab Government, and this led to the Fatah attempting to adopt a totally new strategy that came to be known as the 'entanglement theory'. According to this strategy, Israel would be forced to adopt an 'offensive' position with the technique of 'sabotage', and this meant that the Arabs would become more wary and would in turn…
Anita Roddick, Dame. Troubled Water - Saints, Sinners, truth & Lies about the Global Water Crisis. 1 October, 2004. Retrieved From
http://www.ecademy.com/node.php?id=31940 Accessed on 21 February, 2005
Grunfeld, Lilac. Jordan River Dispute. ICE Case Studies, Case number 6. Spring 1997. Retrieved From http://www.american.edu/TED/ice/jordan.htm Accessed on 21 February, 2005
Israel 1948 to 1967, the Six-Day War Background. Retrieved From
drives a person to terrorism?
As Hamid (2008) notes, the drive to become a terrorist can be part of a personal journey that has roots in personal beliefs. For Hamid, those beliefs were religious and rooted in his Islamic conviction. He believed in the words of Mohammed and though he liked Christians as a boy, he was warned against befriending them: "By restricting my contact with Christians, I felt that I was doing a great deed to satisfy Allah" (p. 3). Thus, by not mixing with Christian society, the terrorist-to-be was steeling himself to later inflict harm on a people that he did not really know. So part of what drives a person to be a terrorist might be ignorance. eal-life education on what others are like and why they are not bad could help to prevent people from moving towards terrorism -- but in the case of Hamid, it…
Engdahl, W. (2015). Interview 1112 with James Corbett. Corbett Report. Retrieved from https://www.corbettreport.com/interview-1012-william-engdahl-explains-the-context-of-the-paris-attacks/
Escobar, P. (2015). Say Hello to My Cruise Missiles. Asia Times. Retrieved from http://atimes.com/2015/10/say-hello-to-my-cruise-missiles-escobar/
Foreword. (2015). Dabiq, 12: 2-3.
Froese, P., Mencken, F. (2009). A U.S. Holy War? The effects of religion on Iraq War policy attitudes. Social Science Quarterly, 90(1): 103-116.
People think of the Middle East and mistakenly think that the area is all the same. Most people think about the dry sand and the hot sun. People who do not know much about the area assume that all of the countries have the same land types and the same climates. These people make their assumptions because of what they see on television and in movies about these places in the world. They think of deserts and maybe the Nile River but they assume that the whole place looks the same and has many of the same things. The areas of Egypt, Mesopotamia, the Yellow River area, and the Indus River region are very different but they also have some things in common.
Ancient Egypt is known for being a desert region but it also has water ways which allow for plants to grow there. However, the area is…
"Diaspora" is a Greek term meaning "to disperse," or "to scatter," and is often applied to the Jews and their dispersion out of the land of Israel. Many scholars point to the year 588 B.C., when the kingdom of Judea was conquered by the Babylonians as the beginning of the Jewish Diaspora. ("Diaspora") The Jews were forced to relocate to Babylon where, even after the Persians conquered the Babylonians and allowed the Jews to return to Judea, many remained. It was also when the Babylonians conquered Judea that many Jews fled to Egypt, where they created a Jewish community in exile that continued for centuries. After the return of the Jews to Judea in 538 B.C., the entire area became embroiled in a series of conflicts that resulted in the creation of a Hellenic culture throughout the middle east. As a result, Jews spread out from their traditional homeland…
"Balfour Declaration." Avalon Project. Web. 8 Dec. 2012.
"Diaspora." Jewish Encyclopedia. Web. 8 Dec. 2012.
Taoism and Later World Religions
Laozi -- the legendary author of the Dao Dejing -- may not have been a real person, since his name is simply the Chinese for "Old Master." Yet the Dao itself would not want this fact to get in our way inquiring what Laozi himself would have thought of something -- after all, the Dao teaches that "the name that can be named is not the enduring and unchanging name." Indeed, the Dao's insights are particularly interesting in considering developments in world religion after the time in which the Dao Dejing was composed (somewhere between about 500 and 300 B.C.E.). I hope to apply the principles of Laozi to take a Daoist view of the two major religions to rise out of Judaism -- Christianity and Islam.
A Daoist view of Islam would be somewhat contradictory. Islam itself means submission unto the will of Allah.…
(ACS Publication June 2006 A Growing Crisis In Patient Access to Emergency Surgical Care at (http://www.facs.org/ahp/emergcarecrisis.pdf)
Statement of Problem
There is a growing problem in the ability of individuals and communities to receive care, according to the American College of Surgeons, as the changing face of emergency care and medical care in general is putting patients at risk. The ACS and the AMA have both recently conducted professional surveys that indicate that the source of the problem is a lack of specialized surgical providers to cover existing trauma centers and a lack of those same staff members to help to establish new centers of care in areas, with the lowest numbers of provider services. (ACS Publication June 2006 A Growing Crisis In Patient Access to Emergency Surgical Care at (http://www.facs.org/ahp/emergcarecrisis.pdf)
The ACS Publication A Growing Crisis In Patient Access to Emergency Surgical Care stresses that the existing system is not…
Resources for Health 2006, 4:12 at http://www.human-resources-health.com/content/4/1/12
Fishman P.E. MD, Shofer, F.S. PhD, Robey J.L RN, BSN, Zogby, K.E. RN, BSN, Reilly, P.M. MD, Branas, C.C. MS, PhD, Pines, J.M. MD MBA, Hollander, J.E. MD. (October 2006), "The Impact of Trauma Activations on the Care of Emergency Department Patients With Potential Acute Coronary Syndromes" Annals of Emergency Medicine, 48: 4, pp. 347-353
Hofman, Primack, Keusch, & Hrynknow (Jan. 2005), "Addressing the growing burden of trauma and injury in low- and middle-income countries" American Journal of Public Health 95: 1 at http://hestia.unm.edu.libproxy.unm.edu/search/i0090%2D0036/i00900036/1,1,1,B/l856~b1044007&FF=i00900036&1,1,1,0/startreferer//search/i0090%2D0036/i00900036/1,1,1,B/frameset&FF=i00900036&1,1,/endreferer/
Hospital Survey Sheds New Light on Diversions" (July 2004) Emergency Medical Services, at http://hestia.unm.edu/search/temergency+Medical+/temergency+medical/1,25,31,B/l856~b1044565&FF=temergency+medical+services&1,2,1,0
Mock, C.M. & Jurkovich, G.J. (1999) "Trauma System development in the United States," Trauma Quarterly 14:3 pp. 197-209.
S.; b) assess correctly the readiness of America's partners to back up the sanctions; and c) engender the support of minor trading partners ("black knights") to increase their willingness to trade with Iran as the big players leave in obedience to the U.S. led sanctions (Kozhanov, 145).
The Russian writer uses some of the space in his article to review the history of U.S. sanctions against Iran, and mentions a brief thaw in the bitterness between the two countries. That came in 1998, when a team of American wrestlers visited Tehran and were welcomed with flowers. In that moment of detente, the U.S. lifted the ban on exported medical and agricultural goods to Iran, and allowed imports (dried fruits, caviar, and carpets) from Iran into the U.S. But along came the new Iranian president, hard-liner Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, who took up the slogan "Death to Israel and the U.S.A." And made…
Economist. (2011). The Wretched Middle East. 401(8763), 1-3. Retrieved January 23, 2012,
Kozhanov, Nikolay a. (2011). U.S. Economic Sanctions Against Iran: Undermined by External
Factors. Middle East Policy, XVIII (3), 144-158.