Middle East Essays (Examples)

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Middle Age Crusade The Middle Ages Crusades

Words: 2131 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51555771

Middle Age Crusade:

The Middle Ages Crusades were a succession of holy wars initiated by the European Christian states against the Saracens i.e. The Moslem during this period. These holy wars were known as crusades because the term was derived from a French old word that means the cross. hile the crusades are classified into two major categories, they began in 1095 when Pope Claremont preached at the council of Claremont. The two categories of the crusades were the Principal Crusades i.e. The first four holy wars and the Minor Crusades i.e. The last four wars.

Causes and Objectives of the Crusades:

The Middle Ages Crusades were great military expeditions conducted by Christian nations within the European region to rescue Palestine's holy places from the control of Mohammedans ("The Crusades" par, 1). Therefore, the main cause of the crusades was war between Christian and Moslems that focused on the city…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Carr, Karen. "The Seventh Crusade." Kidipede - History for Kids - Homework Help for Middle School Social Studies. Dr. Karen Carr, 20 Oct. 2011. Web. 28 Dec. 2011. .

"Crusades." HowStuffWorks - Making You an Expert on Everything. HowStuffWorks, Inc. Web. 28 Dec. 2011. .

"The Crusades." Middle Ages. The Middle Ages Website. Web. 28 Dec. 2011. .

"THE CRUSADES TO THE HOLY LAND." JESUS CHRIST OUR SAVIOR. Jesuschristsavior.net. Web. 28 Dec. 2011. .
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East Asian Culture the Health

Words: 4675 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45062768

(ACS Publication June 2006 A Growing Crisis In Patient Access to Emergency Surgical Care at (http://www.facs.org/ahp/emergcarecrisis.pdf)

Statement of Problem

There is a growing problem in the ability of individuals and communities to receive care, according to the American College of Surgeons, as the changing face of emergency care and medical care in general is putting patients at risk. The ACS and the AMA have both recently conducted professional surveys that indicate that the source of the problem is a lack of specialized surgical providers to cover existing trauma centers and a lack of those same staff members to help to establish new centers of care in areas, with the lowest numbers of provider services. (ACS Publication June 2006 A Growing Crisis In Patient Access to Emergency Surgical Care at (http://www.facs.org/ahp/emergcarecrisis.pdf)

The ACS Publication A Growing Crisis In Patient Access to Emergency Surgical Care stresses that the existing system is not…… [Read More]

Resources for Health 2006, 4:12 at http://www.human-resources-health.com/content/4/1/12

Fishman P.E. MD, Shofer, F.S. PhD, Robey J.L RN, BSN, Zogby, K.E. RN, BSN, Reilly, P.M. MD, Branas, C.C. MS, PhD, Pines, J.M. MD MBA, Hollander, J.E. MD. (October 2006), "The Impact of Trauma Activations on the Care of Emergency Department Patients With Potential Acute Coronary Syndromes" Annals of Emergency Medicine, 48: 4, pp. 347-353

Hofman, Primack, Keusch, & Hrynknow (Jan. 2005), "Addressing the growing burden of trauma and injury in low- and middle-income countries" American Journal of Public Health 95: 1 at http://hestia.unm.edu.libproxy.unm.edu/search/i0090%2D0036/i00900036/1,1,1,B/l856~b1044007&FF=i00900036&1,1,1,0/startreferer//search/i0090%2D0036/i00900036/1,1,1,B/frameset&FF=i00900036&1,1,/endreferer/

Hospital Survey Sheds New Light on Diversions" (July 2004) Emergency Medical Services, at http://hestia.unm.edu/search/temergency+Medical+/temergency+medical/1,25,31,B/l856~b1044565&FF=temergency+medical+services&1,2,1,0

Mock, C.M. & Jurkovich, G.J. (1999) "Trauma System development in the United States," Trauma Quarterly 14:3 pp. 197-209.
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U S Foreign Policy -- Middle

Words: 1158 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86202465

S.; b) assess correctly the readiness of America's partners to back up the sanctions; and c) engender the support of minor trading partners ("black knights") to increase their willingness to trade with Iran as the big players leave in obedience to the U.S. led sanctions (Kozhanov, 145).

The Russian writer uses some of the space in his article to review the history of U.S. sanctions against Iran, and mentions a brief thaw in the bitterness between the two countries. That came in 1998, when a team of American wrestlers visited Tehran and were welcomed with flowers. In that moment of detente, the U.S. lifted the ban on exported medical and agricultural goods to Iran, and allowed imports (dried fruits, caviar, and carpets) from Iran into the U.S. But along came the new Iranian president, hard-liner Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, who took up the slogan "Death to Israel and the U.S.A." And made…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Economist. (2011). The Wretched Middle East. 401(8763), 1-3. Retrieved January 23, 2012,

From EbscoHost.com.

Kozhanov, Nikolay a. (2011). U.S. Economic Sanctions Against Iran: Undermined by External

Factors. Middle East Policy, XVIII (3), 144-158.
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Water Shortage in the Middle

Words: 3722 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66686844

Given water scarcity, the high costs of desalinisation and other unconventional methods of supplying water, and the pollution of surface and ground waters, Israel sought other natural supplies of water from the Litani" (Dolatyar, 2002). The Israeli then invaded Lebanon, but were met with extreme resistance.

1990 - Present - Period of return to bargaining tactic

The fall of the Soviet Union, the Gulf War (1990-1991) and the interference of the United States led to more amiable relationships between the countries of the Middle Eats, which were committed to creating the "New Middle East." Several treaties were signed which were aimed to increase the collaboration and lead to the resolution of impending problems, such as environmental concerns and water resources. "For example, the peace treaty between Israel and Jordan, signed on October 26, 1994, includes five annexes, two of which address water and environmental issues. Negotiations between Israel and Syria…… [Read More]


Amery, H.A., Water Wars in the Middle East: A Looming Threat, the Geographical Journal, Volume 168, 2002

Associate Professor at the Colorado School of Mines in Golden, Colorado, Hussein a. Amery holds a BA, an MA and a PhD in geography. Water Wars in the Middle East: A Looming Threat is based on extensive research of the previous works on water issues in the Middle East. It debates on issues such as causes for conflicts and the characteristics of the water shortage in Palestine and Israel.

Dale, W.N., Middle East Water Problems, American Diplomacy, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, http://www.unc.edu/depts/diplomat/archives_roll/2001_07-09/dale_water/dale_water.htmllastaccessed on April 7, 2008

William N. Dale was a minister-counselor in Tel-Aviv, Israel during 1946-1968, when he got the opportunity to first hand analyze the problems of the Middle East. His findings are formulated in a clear and unbiased way and his American nationality helped look at the isses with an objective eye.
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Economic Strategies in the Middle

Words: 4994 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90026075

One can therefore expect that Israel will benefit from an increase in knowledge-based industry that will continue to power employment and GDP growth.


Investment is a triple indicator: relative attractiveness of the country, the type of investment being attracted, and political stability or instability. In comparison to the U.S., all countries save Saudi Arabia are attracting more investment. One would expect that the U.S., as a relatively mature first-world economy, would be at a relatively lower level. The surprise in this analysis exists in both extremes: Saudi Arabia on the low side, and Qatar, Kuwait and Dubai on the high side. Israel's relatively low investment can be explained by the type of knowledge-intensive industrial development it is experiencing now.

Qatar and Kuwait are experiencing resource-extraction investment at record levels. The primary driver is natural gas expansion. Unlike oil, natural gas must be processed extensively by capital-intensive facilities before it…… [Read More]


CIA. (2007). World Fact Book. Retrieved August 3, 2007, from CIA:   https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/  print/is.html

Collins, G. (2007, July 1). LNG Observer. Retrieved August 1, 2007, from China making bid to lead LNG carrier building: http://www.ogj.com/articles/save_screen.cfm?ARTICLE_ID=297535

Economist. (2007, July 26). Vigorous but Vulnerable. Retrieved August 3, 2007, from Economist: www.economist.com

Ford, N. (2006). Oil Producers Spend Windfall Wisely: There Has Long Been Global Fascination with How and Where the Arab Oil Producing Nations Spend Their Cash. Neil Ford Reports That the Trends of 2006 Are Very Different to Those of 30 Years Ago. The Middle East, 36.
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U S Foreign Policy US Middle

Words: 2218 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2746112

The international community can obviously respond by seeking to marginalize the Taliban and similar movements as extremists. However, it has become clear following the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon that western governments have not been effective in infiltrating terrorist networks and pre-empting attacks. It has also become clear that there will be no shortage of people in the Islamic world who are willing to martyr themselves for as long as there are legitimate grievances against the U.S. And other countries. It is therefore in the interest of the Americans that actions are taken by its government that seek to address both the legitimate concerns of moderate elements within the Islamic world and American's own relative ignorance as to what is happening in the world beyond the U.S. (Marsden, 2002 pp. 153-155).

The Afghanistan military action of the U.S. wherein the Taliban regime was overthrown is…… [Read More]


Marsden, P. (2002) the Taliban, War and Religion in Afghanistan. London: Zed Books Ltd.

Rashid, a. (2000) Taliban: Militant Islam, Oil and Fundamentalism in Central Asia. New Haven CT: Yale University Press.

Roy, O. (1986) Islam and Resistance in Afghanistan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Rosenthal, J. (1991) Righteous Realists: Political Realism, Responsible Power and American Culture in Nuclear Age. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University.
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Creating East and West Renaissance Humanists and the Ottoman Turks

Words: 1478 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58913088

Creating East and West

Nancy isaha's book Creating East and West: Renaissance Humanists and the Ottoman Turks is at once groundbreaking and unfortunately limited. The book is groundbreaking because it pushes back the development of European views regarding the Ottoman Empire, and non-Western peoples more generally, to the age of the Renaissance, rather than the age of colonialism and imperialism. y highlighting how the Renaissance saw a shift from a medieval era concept of a religious opposition between East and West to a post-medieval dichotomy of civilization vs. barbarism, the book draws a direct line between the Renaissance humanists and the later Europeans who would adopt ideas like the "White Man's urden" to legitimize their colonial activities. However, at the same time the book feels woefully limited, because although it does an effective job of recentering the development of the East-West, barbarism-civilization dichotomy in the Renaissance, it fails to effectively…… [Read More]


Bisaha, Nancy. Creating East and West: Renaissance Humanists and the Ottoman Turks.

Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004.

Dursteler, Eric. "Creating East and West: Renaissance Humanists and the Ottoman Turks."

Renaissance Quarterly 58, no. 3 (2005): 904-906.
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European Colonialism in the Middle

Words: 1806 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45133901

Syria, Jordan, Lebanon and Iraq were all "constructed" as "imperial conveniences for France and ritain" (Gause, 444). And so, when the ritish and French were authoritative landlords, places like Kuwait (a ritish "protectorate" until 1961) were safe from outside interference. ut once ritain was long gone from Kuwait, Hussein had his chance to move in and he did, until the U.S. And its allies pushed him out in 1991.

Conclusion: After WWI, the winners divided up the Ottoman Empire, and that was the origin of the country of Iraq. The history of the Middle East -- beginning in the 19th Century and continuing today -- is shaped by outside forces, by colonialism, war, greed, and cultural conflicts. An alert reader can see why the invasion of Iraq by the U.S. In 2003 was star-crossed in the first place, and why ritain and the U.S. are hated so fiercely by the…… [Read More]


Gause, Gregory F. 1992, 'Sovereignty, Statecraft and Stability in the Middle East', Journal of International Affairs, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 441-460.

Gillen, Paul, and Ghosh, Devleena, 2007, Colonialism & Modernity, University of New South Wales (UNSW), UNSW Press: Sydney, Australia.

Nieuwenhuijze, Chritoffel Anthonie Olivier. 1971. Sociology of the Middle East: A Stocktaking and Interpretation. Brill Archive: Boston, MA.

Public Broadcast Service. 2008. 'Kuwait: Country Profile', retrieved March 15, 2011, from  http://www.pbs.org/frontlineworld/stories/kuwait605/profile.html .
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Great Schism Between the East

Words: 1666 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52313148

Nearly all of the attempts of Catholic Church to unite Orthodox Christians failed and what they achieved are religious hatred and distrust to Catholic Church.

Nowadays Catholicism has more than a billion followers all over the world. Their spiritual leader Pope John Paul II does a great work to make a dialogue between different confessions and does a lot to reconcile the representatives of different confessions. Bartholomew I, who is the Archbishop of Constantinople, is the leader of nearly 300 million Orthodox Christians (who mostly live in eastern and Southern Europe, Middle East and North Africa). More over Patriarch of Constantinople is simply "the first among equals" and does not have any supreme power over other patriarchs. John Paul II looks for the ways to keep the dialogue with Orthodox Church and looks for the ways for reconciliation, but Orthodox Church is not really enthusiastic in this process. ussian patriarch…… [Read More]


Ware, K. The Orthodox Church [2nd Edition]. London, Penguin Books, 1993.

Lameygh, E. CICM "The Laity in History" in East Asian Pastoral Review, Vol XXIII No.3 1986

Baldwin, M.W. Christianity Through the Thirteenth Century, New York: Harper & Row, 1970. p.182-183

Differences between Roman Catholic Church and Orthodox Christian Churches, Article the Associated Press Saturday, May 8, 1999
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Apple's Mid-East Marketing Mix There

Words: 976 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18813867

" (Paczkowski, p. 1) This is possible because Merril Lynch will pay a subsidy of an additional 1200 shekels per handset in order to help initiate penetration of telecom service plans. In Saudi Arabia, iPhones start at roughly SAR 3499, a staggering $933.


As the price differentials show, Apple must make considerable adaptations according to that which each market will bear. That being said, Israel has already proven itself a promising site for fast expansion. According to Paczkowski (2009), "though Apple hasn't yet brought the iPhone to Israel, it's estimated that some 80,000 of them are in use in the country today. That's a remarkable metric and one that suggests Apple's super-smart phone should do quite well when it officially arrives at market in Israel this week." (Paczkowski, p. 1)

Reports suggest that Egypt's market will not be as inherently welcoming of the product. According to Inskeep (2012), competitors…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

comScore. (2012). omScore Reports December 2011 U.S Mobile Subscriber Market Share. comScore.com.

Farivar, C. (2009). iPhone Coming to United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia. MacWorld.

Inskeep, S. (2012). And Now for the Lighter Side of Egypt's Revolution. NWPR.org.

Kee, E. (2011). Saudi Arabia bans iPhone and Samsung Galaxy Tab at security institutions. Ubergizmo.
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Shrinking Middle-Class America a Variety Reference Materials

Words: 9571 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45915451

Shrinking Middle-Class America" a variety reference materials (15-20) books, articles, journals, an internet sources long information cited proven-based gathered survey research data relation topic (The Shrinking Middle-Class America).

The shrinking middle-class in America

The societies across the globe continue to face challenges, which impact global evolution. Within the United States, a notable social concern is represented by the shrinking of the middle class, a phenomenon that has accelerated throughout the past recent years. The current project finds that the main causes of the trend are represented by changes in society and economy, and more recently exacerbated by the economic crisis. The solutions proposed to resolve the issue include economic measures for job creation, political reforms to support the labor market and improve government services or efforts to improve the access to education.

Table of contents


31.1. Introduction to the topic of the shrinking American middle class

51.2. Background to…… [Read More]


Ali, S., Dadush, U., (2012). A new measure of the global middle class. VOX.  http://www.voxeu.org/article/new-measure-global-middle-class  accessed on September 20, 2012

Camfield, D., (2001). The coming class war and how to avoid it: rebuilding the American middle class. Capital & Class.

Collado, E., (2010). The shrinking middle class: why America is becoming a two-class society. iUniverse, ISBN 1450219691

Gigliarano, C., Mosler, K. (2009). Measuring middle-class decline in one and many attributes. Universita Politecnica delle Marche. Dipartimento de Economia. accessed on September 20, 2012
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Strategic Security in the Middle

Words: 3247 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53674326

Of the six conflicts (within the fifty mentioned) that resulted in 200,000 or more deaths, three were between Muslims and non-Muslims, two were between Muslim cultures, and just one involved non-Muslims on both sides. The author references a New York Times investigative piece in which fifty-nine ethnic conflicts were reported in forty-eight locations in 1993. In "half these places Muslims were clashing with other Muslims or with non-Muslims"; in thirty-nine of the conflicts groups from different civilizations were engaged, and two-thirds of those were between "Muslims and others" (Huntington, 257).

Keeping in mind this book was published in 1996 -- and updated data employing Huntington's Muslim-violence theme is not immediately available -- it is worthy of note that of the twenty-nine wars (that involved 1,000 or more deaths in a year's time) in 1992, twelve were intercivilizational, and of those dozen, nine were between Muslims and non-Muslims (257). Huntington raised…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Arendt, Hannah. (1969). On Violence. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc.

Blitzer, Wolf. (2011). Cheney refuses to admit any mistakes as vice president. CNN.com

Retrieved September 7, 2011, from  http://situationroom.blogs.cnn.com .

Dougherty, James E, and Pfaltzgraff, Robert L. (1997). Contending Theories of International
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The History of East Asia

Words: 793 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92798895

Sykes -- Picot Agreement

As Iraq lurches deeper into turmoil, Kurdish leaders threaten to break away and declare outright independence, and the militants of the self-styled Islamic State (IS) are reshaping the border between Iraq and Syria, one must look to the history of the region to be able to put these conflicts in full perspective (Muir, 2016). The Sykes -- Picot Agreement was officially signed on May 16, 1916, however the agreement was in the workings for quite some time before it was officially signed. The deal was also known as the Asia Minor Agreement because of the geography that the agreement sought to affect. The Middle East has been a major strategic goal for policy planners and strategist for centuries. An author who published in the Smithsonian summarized the agreement as:

"Even before the final outcome of the Great ar has been determined, Great Britain, France, and Russia…… [Read More]

Works Cited

AFP. (2016, May 14). 100 years since Sykes-Picot: The deal that changed the Mideast forever. Retrieved from The Times of Israel: http://www.timesofisrael.com/100-years-since-sykes-picot-the-deal-that-changed-the-mideast-forever/

Christianson, S. (2015, November 16). The Origins of the World War I Agreement That Carved Up the Middle East. Retrieved from Smithsonian: http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/sykes-picot-agreement-180957217/?no-ist

Muir, J. (2016, May 16). Sykes-Picot: The map that spawned a century of resentment. Retrieved from BBC News: http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-36300224
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Middle Ages Signals That the

Words: 763 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69422862

Technology and education were booming, as inventions of the cannon and gunpowder changed the face of war, compasses and clocks improved tremendously, and universities taught advanced mathematics in a new setting. These advances could only mean an introduction to a new age where war became civilized, everyday life became easier and books and education changed the meaning of the phrase "upper-class." Music and the fine arts flourished with the advent of new musical instruments and polyphony, and new kinds of paint for visual artists.

Large nations had been formed out of the smaller city-states, consolidating small kingdoms in Italy and England. France and England's Hundred Years' War put land and taxes into the hands of royalty. ut the people were growing dissatisfied with the Church which had instituted "papal indulgences," leading the wealthy to become more corrupt as they could purchase forgiveness. Pope Martin V replaced a series of popes,…… [Read More]

Britannica, Ibid.

Donald Kagan, Steven Ozment, Frank M.Turner, (1993). The Western Heritage: Since 1300, eighth edition, Prentice Hall.

Barbara H. Rosenwein. 2001. A Short History of the Middle Ages. Broadview Press.
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East Chinese calligraphy and Western calligraphy

Words: 2562 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23175492

Chinese calligraphy & Western calligraphy

Weather in the East or in the West, calligraphy, the art of writing, is first and foremost an art form, by definition. This art is dedicated to practical purposes, but as any craft, it has taken its own individuality as an expression of the craftsman's abilities, his imagination, creative power and mastering of the specific techniques.

Calligraphy and literature are highly dependent on each other in sia, particularly in China. Technology has brought typewriters and keyboards on writers' desks in most places in the world, yet Chinese writers as well as painters are still paying a great deal of effort and attention to the art of calligraphy. It is only through the lens of the Chinese culture that one might properly understand the value of calligraphy. Most of the western world would consider calligraphy as an art of the past with no particular resonance in…… [Read More]

Avi-Yonah, Michael. 2004. Ancient Scrolls: Introduction to Archaeology. Books&Bagels

Beyerstein, Barry L. 1992. The Write Stuff: Evaluations of Graphology -- the Study of Handwriting Analysis. Prometheus Books

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Diminishing Middle Class in NYC

Words: 4873 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95670158

Diminishing Middle Class in NYC

If we look at the Lower Manhattan, it won't take us long to notice the change that has taken place in it in the last 10 years. The population especially the residential population has doubled up in the last 10 years as there has been an addition of 30,000 residents who are now living in Manhattan.

The main reason behind this sudden and huge growth in the population is the trend of construction that has taken place in Manhattan. This trend has led to the production of new as well as the conversion of the old buildings into new luxury housing. For this reason the living costs of the area have increased a lot and the previously affordable residential areas in the city have become some of the most expensive ones to live at. Also, the areas that used to be affordable to live in…… [Read More]


Higgins, M. (2012). Manhattan Home Prices Reported Steady. The New York Times. Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/03/nyregion/manhattan-real-estate-market-holding-steady-in-2012-report-says.html

Li, R. (2012). Europeans Flock To Buy New York Real Estate. International Business Time. Available at:  http://www.ibtimes.com/europeans-flock-buy-new-york-real-estate-701565 

Manhattan New Development Report. (MNDR). (2012). 3rd quarter. Available at:  http://www.mns.com/pdf/manhattan_new_development_report_3q12.pdf 

Manhattan Community Board. (MCB). (2011). Affordable Housing in Lower Manhattan: Report by the Manhattan Community Board 1 Affordable Housing Task Force. Available at:  http://www.nyc.gov/html/mancb1/downloads/pdf/About_District/AH_REPORT.pdf
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Living in the Middle Ages What New

Words: 2349 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76123751

living in the Middle Ages. What new things are available for you to experience?

The prelude to modernism

The history that establishes origin and evolution of the modern society has its basis from the ancient time. Initially, the world and society featured various practices that today we may perceive as being barbaric and outdated. However, it is essential to acknowledge that it is through the various ages of revolution that the world has what it enjoys today. The beginning of the revolution era was the period of modernization, which began towards the end of the tenth century. Living in that era of modernization, the following are some of the experiences and events that happened to shape the society and world at large. In this year, there was increased danger to the Roman Catholic Church, which at that moment had the overall authority and recognition over the world dynasties. Thus, living…… [Read More]

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Ratios in General East Coast Yachts Has

Words: 709 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1212964


In general East Coast Yachts has below average financial performance compared to its industry peers. With respect to solvency and liquidity, the company has a current ratio of 1.12 and a quick ratio of 0.66. Both of these lie below the median for the industry but are comfortably above the lower quartile. The debt ratio is 35.8% and the debt/equity ratio is 91.9%. These figures are also in the second quartile for the industry, with the debt ratio just above the cutoff for the lower quartile. Interest coverage is 7.95 times, again putting the company between the median and the lower quartile.

In terms of efficiency, total asset turnover is 1.51 times, inventory turnover is 19.2 times and receivables turnover is 30.6. The latter is in the upper quartile, indicating that the company has a good collections system. Total asset turnover is just above the lowest quartile while the…… [Read More]


Loth, R. (2012). Financial ratio tutorial. Investopedia. Retrieved February 12, 2012 from http://www.investopedia.com/university/ratios

Malkiel, B. (2003). The efficient market hypothesis and its critics. CEPS Working Paper No. 91. Retrieved February 12, 2012 from  http://www.vixek.com/Efficient%20Market%20Hypothesis%20and%20its%20Critics%20-%20Malkiel.pdf