Nonverbal Communication Skills
In in-person or face-to-face communication approximately 60% of the meaning is an outcome of non-verbal behaviour." We have actually all heard-- and stated -- "physical actions speak louder than words." Actions have been so essential to our communication that analysts have estimated that within face-to-face communication as much as 60% of the social meaning is a result of nonverbal behaviour. In other words, the meaning we appoint to any communication is founded upon not only the content within the verbal message but also our analysis of the nonverbal behaviour that accompanies as well as overlaps the verbal message. And translating these nonverbal actions has not always been the most convenient thing to do (Vantgage learning, 2009).
Attributes of Nonverbal Communication
Nonverbal communication stands out from spoken communication in that it is continuous as well as multi-channelled. It might be unintentional and uncertain. The non-verbal aspect of the message has been the primary conveyer of feelings and emotions (Vantgage learning, 2009).
First, nonverbal communication is fluid. You can choose to form as well as send out a verbal message, you do not have power over whether your nonverbal behaviour is translated as a communication message. As long as you have been in the company of another person, that individual may view your non-verbal behaviour as communication. When Austin yawns and looks off into the distance during a morning meal, his family members will notice this behaviour and designate a particular meaning to it. One family member might translate it as an indicator of boredom, an additional might see it as an indication of tiredness, and yet an additional could see it as a message of disrespect. Concurrently, Austin is unconcerned to all of these messages that his behaviour is giving out (Vantgage learning, 2009).
Second, nonverbal communication is multichannelled. We distinguish conclusions from a variety of nonverbal behaviours consisting of posture, gestures, body motions, body appearance, non-language tone traits, and so on. When we translate nonverbal behaviour, we normally base our understanding on a mix of these habits. So, Anna notes Mimi's lack of eye contact, her bowed…… [Read More]
This expose the fact that non-verbal communication is imperative and effective because the eye, voice, or even touch sense is being used in a general conversation that are a part of non-verbal communication (Calero 2005).
Sending and receiving silent gestures on a constant basis is the regular and unconscious practice during general interactions. This demonstrates that all the non-verbal behaviors of an individual during the general conversations such as the appearance, way of talking, sitting, eye contact, hand contact and various others prove to send powerful and effective messages. Besides, the non-verbal message communication still continues even if the group stops talking or is silent (Calero 2005).
Non-verbal communication has not only proved to be effective in general conversations but specific conversations also rely on Non-verbal communication most of the time. It has been analyzed that nonverbal communication acts as a primary and essential source in creating the first impression, as clothing, gesture, and the way a person greets play a vital role in common situations that not only lead to initiation to specific conversation but also helps strengthening and intensifying it (Wood 2009).
In specific conversations for instance like a teacher-student interaction during the class lecture, postures become pivotal because it communicates a variety of messages. It normally helps the teacher determine degree of attention, concentration, interest or involvement from the student and the level of likeness of the students towards the teacher (Wood 2009).
Nonverbal communication has also been considered as a more effective method for specific interaction in comparison to verbal communication because this natural process facilitates the individual to express and broadcasts their true sentiments and intentions with respect to the particular incident or situation at the same time, the person gets to know the feelings of others as well through their response and reactions (Wood 2009).
Considering the example of a personal relationship of husband and wife, if a husband gets late in coming, the wife on many instances does not say anything but her actions communicate what she has to say. This can be elucidated from the example that upon being late…… [Read More]
Nonverbal Communication Skill
Although there is no consensus about the exact definition of "nonverbal communication" among experts, it is generally regarded as any communication conveyed through body movements (the "body language") and the intonations and emphasis that are given to words (also called the "paralinguistics"). The term
"nonverbal Communication" may itself be relatively new but its importance has long been realized. Martin Luther, the 16th century protestant reformer, often advised his followers, "not to watch a person's mouth but his fists." (Quoted by Bull, 2001) Charles Darwin discovered commonalities in facial expressions among humans and animals in his 1872 study, The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, which is still read with interest among researchers. In the present day, nonverbal communication evokes the interest of a broad spectrum of academic disciplines including psychology, sociology, anthropology, communications, and linguistics, and has a similarly wide scope. Most research in the field of nonverbal communication, however, has focused more on the process rather than the skills aspect of the subject. In this paper about nonverbal communication skills, I shall discuss the following questions:
Why learn about nonverbal communication?
What are the challenges of interpreting nonverbal messages?
Why is it important to understand nonverbal communication code?
How does nonverbal communication help us improve our interpersonal communication skills?
Why Learn About Nonverbal Communication?
Although nonverbal communication is the first thing that a human being learns and practices, before he has learnt to use oral or written communication, its importance is often not fully recognized in human communication. This is despite the findings of a famous study carried out by Professor Albert Mehrabian of UCLA in the 1960s which indicated that people's attitudes and meanings are communicated more through body language and facial expression (55%) and through the way words are spoken -- also called paralinguistics (38%) than by the spoken word (only 7%). Even if the study exaggerates the importance of nonverbal communication somewhat, most experts now agree that it carries great importance in our everyday lives. Who can belittle the importance of a glance, a meaningful stare,…… [Read More]
Nonverbal / Demonstrative Communication
The functions of nonverbal communication, according to Professor Mark Frank, include: a) nonverbal communication actually defines communication by "providing the backdrop for communication" (for example, a dimly lit room means communication should be subdued but a brightly lit room with cheerful colors offers a chance for loud talking, laughter and even frivolity); b) nonverbal communication can "regulate" how verbal communication takes place (when the listener nods that he has understood what the speaker has said, it is a cue for the speaker to continue talking); c) nonverbal communication "can be the message itself" because a simple smile indicates acceptance or happiness; a wave means goodbye; raising an index finger suggests "we're number one" and raising a finger to lips means please be quiet (Frank, 2012, pp. 6-7).
Professor Frank (Director of the Communication Science Center at the University of Buffalo) points out that there are social rules governing the nonverbal communication of touching. Teachers don't hug students but if a student has just been granted an important scholarship that rule can be violated and a congratulatory hug is appropriate. A male instructor would not ethically touch a female student on her back, but he might touch her on her "forearm" when making a point on an essay she turned in that needed additional editing (Frank, 2012, 8).
Facial expressions give a person away who is trying to be calm "and mature" about the recent death of a pet; the voice tone and facial expression "…often unintentionally communicate sadness," Frank explains (8). Nonverbal communication is "…less controllable" than verbal communication because, for example, the beginning of a smile can appear on a person's face (in a situation that definitely does not call for overt laughter) giving that person away to those who caught the smile (Frank, 9).
Effective and ineffective nonverbal communication
Effective nonverbal communication entails the proper use of facial expressions, body language, hands and…… [Read More]
Gestures whether voluntary or involuntary can be used to support a message or call attention to specific points in a delivery. Generally those gestures that appear natural and relaxed are more likely to send a message of self-confidence and less likely to detract from the speaker's message than those that are extreme. The authors suggests that rubbing or clenching hands may signify tension or anxiety and should be avoided during a presentation.
Visual aids are another form of nonverbal communication that can be used to enhance a message, express an additional sentiment or clarify a confusing message. Visual aids when designed tastefully and meaningfully can greatly enhance a presentation. It is also important to note however that visual aids can also detract from a presentation if they are utilized too often or are not used in a manner that adds to the presentation or amplifies the message the speaker is attempting to deliver. The use of a couple of well developed and thought out aids can greatly enhance a presentation if they are utilized effectively however.
This article brings about several critical elements of nonverbal communication. The authors are correct in assuming that eye contact is the most important element of nonverbal communication. Without eye contact that is directed, most audience members tend to drift off at one point or another during the course of a presentation. Visual aides can also be a critical enhancement, and may serve to break up a presentation and re focus or direct an audience. The authors make a good point of expressing the importance of using natural vs. forced or extreme gestures that might actually detract from rather than add to the overall quality of a presentation.
One thing that many presenters often overlook is personal grooming and attire. Though the authors of the article make an important point to highlight the importance of eye contact as the most important aspect of non-verbal communication, I feel it is most important to remember how one's grooming may impact the audience. The authors suggest that there are certain ways a presenter can dress to send a particular message. For example, a serious message is more likely to be construed as serious if the presenter dresses in dark and non-vibrant colors.
Likewise subtle aspects of one's…… [Read More]
Interpersonal communication, which plays a large role in business and personal relationships, refers to the ability to relate to people by using verbal and nonverbal communication. Good communicators are perceived as those who are able to deal with different people in different situations, and make people feel more comfortable with them.
When we think about communication, we usually think about words and the way that people use language. However, most people do not realize the significant role that nonverbal communication plays in delivering and receiving messages. When people talk, they have a tendency to use their bodies, use various poses and postures, make eye contact, and use body language, in addition to speaking. This is nonverbal communication.
One of the most important aspects of nonverbal communication is physical appearance. Physical appearance has a subconscious effect on practically everybody. Most people are judged on their physical appearance, which includes features, race, height, weight, hairstyles and image. In many situations, including dates and job interviews, a good physical appearance is of great importance (Cowley, 1996).
This paper aims to address the effects of nonverbal and verbal communication, including appearance, mannerisms, and body language, on obese and overweight people in their career, employment and social lives.
Nonverbal Communication and Appearances
Nonverbal communication can have both a positive and negative effect on how effectively a person gets their message across. Those who understand the strong influence of nonverbal communication and use it to their advantage are often able to use it to enhance their verbal communications skills.
However, many people who neglect to pay attention to nonverbal communication contradict their verbal and nonverbal messages, sending double meanings and rendering their messages less effective. Also, many people are initially judged by their appearances, which can be damaging to communication.
Nonverbal communication has many functions in the communication process. It regulates relationships and may support or replace verbal communication. Among the many factors contributing to nonverbal communication are sending and receiving ability and accuracy, perception of appropriate social roles, and cognitive desire for interpersonal involvement or assessment (Dunn, 2002)."
Recent studies reveal that body…… [Read More]
They interacted with a blonde-haired woman who did not want to give up her phone. She was a typical "ditzy" blonde who had no idea what she would do for three hours without her phone. The scene was meant to add some comic relief, but it was still played with the same kind of unemotional intensity that the other detectives had. These people are supposed to be serious about their work, and there is little banter or personal talk at all. Because of this, their body language is stilted as well. It is almost as if they were "half" people who only act one way on the show, and keep the rest of their lives (and their reactions) to themselves. This woman was not shy, and it was clear by the way she tossed the phone into the evidence envelope she was annoyed. After she turns in the phone, she turns her back on the two investigators, and clear message about how little she thinks of them. The scene is short, but it is helpful in assessing non-verbal communication because it conveys a range of emotions and thoughts in a quick, simple scene. She has no interest in the case, in these men and their jobs, or anything but herself, and it shows clearly in her manner and her mannerisms. This was even more pronounced when watching this scene with no sound, because her actions were quite clear and so were her facial expression and body language. She was a "princess" and she wanted her phone, period.
Most problems are resolved in this show by questioning suspects, so there is much opportunity to view body language. However, the main actors are so deadpan it is almost funny. The only person to smile for much of the show was the black female coroner, which was weird in a grotesque kind of way. The characters, without many body and facial expressions seemed boring and matter-of-fact, and while the viewer has to root for them to solve complex crimes, as people, they seem to leave a lot to be desired. They would be more sympathetic it seems if their non-verbal communication was more sympathetic.… [Read More]
When we communicate, we tend to focus on what people are saying and their emotions, while paying very little attention to their body language. We're all aware of some non-verbal cues but "body language is about more than how we move and stand and the signals we give off in any interaction have more influence than the words we say" (Gray, 53). In fact "only 5 per cent of communication involves the words we use and 38 per cent involves speech as a whole. A staggering 55 per cent is attributed to body language" (53).
This would entail that during the majority of the conversations and communications we have with people often take place without us realizing the non-verbal signals that we are giving off in our body language. "Up to 93% of all face-to-face communication is sent through nonverbal means. This implies the room for miscommunication is awfully wide" (Fazzi, 89).
It's important for people to have a basic understanding of these non-verbal cues so that it can aid them in knowing how to respond to people as well as how well they are responding to others. With this in mind, we must also understand that there are cultural differences in body language and some of the basics that we all seem to know (i.e: 'hands on hips' means 'defiant' (Pierce-Rusunen, D.1)) may not cross over into other cultures. "Problems arise when generalizations are made about body language" (D.1) and it is therefore significant to gain "literacy in foreign body languages" because "body language is often culture-specific" (D.1).
Body language essentially includes a variety of facial expressions, posture, eye contact, and other parts of the body. This is coupled with aspects of speech that include "intonation, stress, rate of speech, loudness and accent" (Gray, 53). When we look at visual cues to how some is feeling, or their opinion on the conversation, we should take into consideration hand gestures, facial gestures and eye contact. "Prolonged eye contact does not usually occur unless feelings of hostility, defensiveness or sexual interest are present" (Gray, 53).
People usually traveling on a bus or subway may appear to have a 'blank expression' or…… [Read More]
Besides employing some of the facial expressions that he shares with Jay Leno and Dennis
Miller, Mr. Letterman is extremely skilled at the use of the so-called "pregnant pause." In some respect, he may have cultivated from Johnny Carson the use of silent looks in response to his guests' innocent statements to maximize the potential for comedic interpretation or double entendre.
A more dramatic example of this comedic use of non-verbal cues would be Mr.
Letterman's use of gestures such as slapping his palms down on his desk while pushing himself back from his desk, or mimicking wiping his brow with his hand, or even with a cue card. Mr. Letterman also uses props to maximize the comedic effect of spoken words, such as when he tosses a card behind him to the coordinated sound effect of breaking glass.
Mr. Letterman also employs exaggerated facial expressions denoting either surprise or shock by widening his eyes in combination with a wide-mouth gape. Other times, he whistles to underscore his response to surprising or shocking revelations, or he mimics an extreme grimace to emphasize his discomfort with a topic, whether genuine or feigned for its comedic effect. In the most dramatic examples, Mr. Letterman has even proceeded to walk off the stage entirely, and without a single word after particularly surprising, controversial, or embarrassing statements.
Comedic satirist and talk show host Bill Marr employs more subtle non-verbal cues to convey his personal response to comments and positions expressed by his guests. In particular, Mr. Marr relies on facial expressions suggesting sarcasm, including pursed-mouth frowns in conjunction with looking around as though soliciting support from like-minded audience members.
Mr. Marr also uses his eyes to convey his disagreement, by rolling them in the classic manner meant to suggest the idiocy of his opponent's position. Other times, he simply looks away from them and makes direct eye contact with the camera or with panelists known to mirror his own position more closely than the speaker with whom he disagrees.
Finally, Mr. Marr also uses the pregnant pause, specifically delaying his own verbal response and…… [Read More]
Nonverbal Communication: Journal Entry
From an early age, I was urged to always make eye contact when I spoke to others. I feel that making eye contact is natural, given that it seems people are more willing to listen to what you have to say, if you gaze directly into their face and eyes. I have since learned that eye contact is not commonly practiced in all cultures as a way of indicating sympathy and rapport with a speaker, but it feels natural to me because that it how I was raised. Kinesthetically, I have also noted that a relaxed and informal style is preferred in our culture. But I have been accused by some people (such as my parents) of putting my hands in my pockets, slouching, and not seeming sufficiently attentive in my posture. Although this may be acceptable in everyday conversation, I know that it is not always a good thing to take such a demeanor in formal settings, such as a job interview. However, I do try to have a firm handshake when I interact with people during a job interview!
In terms of my clothing and physical appearance, I would say that is the most important aspect of dressing is suiting one's appearance to the needed occasion. Dressing casually without 'dressing down' (wearing jeans but not ripped jeans) when going to class, knowing when to put on semiformal attire to go out to eat, and having at least one nice business suit are all aspects of using personal comportment to convey an effective message, either of not being overly vain yet being respectful.
I am not a tactile-phobic person. I do not mind if someone touches me while I am speaking to them, although I tend not to be extremely demonstrative and hug and kiss people frequently, unless I am very intimate with them. Some of my friends from Southern European cultures, for example, think nothing of kissing someone on the cheeks in greeting. This type of behavior, while acceptable in their culture, would not be acceptable in my household. Rating the effectiveness of nonverbal culture is thus highly context-dependent. Another distinction I often see which seems rooted in cultural differences is that of…… [Read More]
If the pitcher does not agree, he shakes his head, jiggles his glove or makes some other sign. Then the catcher will make an additional sign and the procedure goes on until they both have the same opinion on the pitch to be thrown.
In the interim, the batter glances at the third base coach who goes through a sequence of signs from touching the nose to rasping his hand crossways on the letters of the uniform: Gestures intended to convey -- nonverbally -- what he desires the batter to do. All of these signals start off from the manager sitting in the dugout who gives signs to the third base coach who on the other hand sends them to the batter.
Body Language and Nonverbal Communication in Sporting Contests
Of the numerous types of nonverbal communication, body language is conceivably the most understandable means through which humans express judgments and emotions and so make depictions of their knowledge evident to others. It entails gestures, facial expressions, eye movement, breathing movements, skin color variations, muscle tone, interpersonal distance, and stance. Iain Greenlees and his contemporaries looked at all these together with clothing and reviewed their impact among table-tennis players.
Some players might trudge unenergetically across the arena, shoulders limp, head disposed downwards. The body language signals a reception of crushing. Different table-tennis players may stride out anxiously to the table ahead of their opponents, frequently tapping their racket heads against their legs and gazing attentively ahead. They are watchful, enthusiastic and impatient to compete; their excitement level is elevated. Other players move around their eyes darting, as they hang around for their opponent to straighten out. Their actions deceive lack of self-control. Those players who showed "positive body language" were spoken of as 'more self-confident, forceful, competitive, skilled, confident, optimistic, focused, comfortable, and fit than the models who showed negative body language (Sullivan & Short, 2001). Clothing did not make…… [Read More]
Although verbal communication is the basic, most common, and easiest form of communication, there is also the non-verbal communication that can be as effective as the verbal form.
People communicate a lot. Communication is very important because it is from communication that we are able to do what we do now. Think of how you learned to walk when you were still a child if there is no process of communication that occurred between you and your parents who taught you to walk. You may not know how to speak back then but through the non-verbal form of communication, you were able to learn to walk.
There are so many instances where we can see the use and effectiveness of non-verbal form of communication. For instance, the newspaper that people buy everyday is a non-verbal form of communication. Through the text written in it, the news is brought to the people. Another example is the street signs and the signal lights that we see. Through them, we are able to know the right thing to do, such as when we can cross the street, or where is the place that we are looking for.
Another non-verbal form of communication, which may be an old way of communication, is through written letters. People still use writing letters to convey information. However, with the emergence of new technologies, especially the computer and the Internet, people these days started to communicate in an "electronic" way. That is, via the different capabilities of the computer and the Internet to provide means of communication to people. Some examples of which are emails, online chats, and…… [Read More]
In 1969, Ekman and Friesen delineated communicative nonverbal behavior as those actions that are evidently and knowingly planned by the sender to send out a stipulated message to the receiver. Their delineation does not take up the sharing aspect even though it takes up the aspect of purpose. They elucidate that there is no compulsion that communicative actions should have a common decoded definition; there could be communicative actions without information where the sender planned to send out a message but no one recognizes him. (Function and Impact of Nonverbal Communication in a Computer Mediated Communication Context: An Investigation of Defining Issues)
Non-verbal behavior associated with movement, which might be of any portion of the body, or the complete body is known as Kinesics. (Kinesics: http://stephan.dahl.at/nonverbal/kinesics.html) Kinesics points to posture, bodily movements, viz. gesticulations, and the manner in which the body is used in a particular circumstance. Posture is manifestation of concentration, association, mutual standing among the persons, and the extent to which the person is preferred. The depth of emotional conditions can also be manifested through posture. The realm of posture is more or less studied usually in combination with other types of nonverbal communication behaviors. Gesticulations can be classified into types that are linked with speech and those which are not. Gesticulations associated with speech are employed to enhance vocal communication by exemplifying the spoken expressions. Showing something, making sketches, showing a pulsating movement or stressing on a point and some others like "discussing with your hands" actions are gesticulations connected with verbal communications. Gesticulations devoid of speech are simply like that -- free from spoken signs. Instances of these gesticulations are "flipping the bird," "peace" or "V signifying victory," "hook them horns:" and so forth. These gesticulations have a vocal appeal and a connotation that is broadly approved. (Channels of Nonverbal Communication)
In a nutshell every bodily action is commonly assorted as kinesics. Kinesics interaction is perhaps one of the most discussed, and the most evident non-vocal type of communication. Unluckily, it is even one of the most baffling realms of…… [Read More]
When she said something I was not looking at her half of the time and the same was true for her. If one of us said something sensitive or important then we would make a point to change our posture, body language, and facial expressions, using more eye contact and even stopping to stand still. I used less affirmative vocalizations like "Uh-Huh" than I did with Bob for similar reasons. In public and in a place with so many distractions it was hard to act as attentively as I would have liked to.
Based on these two conversations I concluded that my number one non-verbal listening strength is my use of eye contact. Eye contact helps me remain focused on the conversation and less prone to getting distracted. I also try to read the other person with my eyes to understand the emotional content of what they are saying on top of the actual topic of conversation. One non-verbal listening skill that I think is strong but needs improvement is my overall posture and body language. I do lean in to listen and to encourage the other person but I think it would be helpful to pay more attention to how I hold my hands, how much I touch the other person and whether I am fidgeting. Finally, there are few glaring weaknesses in my listening style but I do wonder if I give too many verbal affirmations like "uh-huh." I don't think they are all that necessary and might be distracting for the other person if they think I am trying to rush them.
A enjoyed these activities because they forced me to pay attention to what I am normally unaware of: the way I listen. At the same time I was paying attention to my listening behaviors I was also becoming more aware of how other people listen to me to observe the differences between us. Most importantly, I learned how I can become a better listener, by paying more attention to my gestures and body language and being more conscious of the verbalizations I use when listening to another person.… [Read More]
Non-Verbal Communication in Military
Military leadership is active, purposeful and authoritative, and captures the lessons of experience and uses the wisdom and methods of history's great captains to show the way for current and future leaders (Jantzen pp). However, writing doctrine and understanding the human dimension of leadership in the twenty-first century will be more complex than ever due to the advancements in technology (Jantzen pp). Information technology is unique from other technologies because of its role in radically reinventing organizational structures, doctrine and procedures, yet it is also very flexible and can be altered to fit the culture and unique needs of the organization (Jantzen pp).
The information age has been called the information revolution, and a closely related concept is revolution in military affairs (Jantzen pp).
The term "revolution" connotes what George Gilder calls a paradigm shift, or the "collapse of formerly pivotal scarcities" coupled with "the rise of new forms of abundance" (Jantzen pp). Within the competitive environment of economic and military power, technology is the abundant resource, while time and attention are scarce, thus to react faster than the competition, leaders make decisions in progress (Jantzen pp). This often requires finding entirely new ways of doing things, not merely more efficient ways of doing things the same way, in other words, the demands of information-age technology may require leaders to be technological experts who must master the organizational leaders' social and political skills (Jantzen pp).
Most leaders are aware of the potential pitfalls of digitization, including its inability to overcome the fog and friction of war, and promotes:
Overreliance on electronic sensors, communications and information processing.
Vulnerability to electronic and asymmetric attack.
More centralized control.
Information overload and other pathologies.
Technology allows increased control of large bureaucracies or empowers large networks, and can be a powerful servant to an industrial or information-focused strategy or a powerful example of a knowledge-focused strategy (Jantzen pp).
Modern information technology permits many leadership approaches, and enables parallel and collaborative…… [Read More]
Nonverbal communication norms can vary significantly from one culture to the next. The first concept to understand is the meaning of culture. Culture "describes activities or behaviors, refer to the heritage or tradition of a group, describe rules and norms" and otherwise describes "general characteristics" of a group (Matsumoto, chapter 1). Cultures arise from such things as environmental conditions, needs and motives. Culture with respect to communication governs the norms of communication within a given society. Every society has a need for social coordination, and culture is the intermediary by which the norms of in-group communication occur (Matsumoto, chapter 1). Thus, culture typically governs the norms within a group with respect to all forms of communication, including the non-verbal.
When one is raised in a culture, one learns how to communicate within that culture. The forms that communication takes are passed along within that culture so that while one is growing up, the norms regarding that culture are learned. Culture is differentiated in a number of ways. A culture arises out of geography and other factors, and can also be influenced strongly by thins like language and religion. When a cultural group is differentiated in some way, that group develops its own culture, with its own communication norms. As a result, the different elements of nonverbal communication such as gestures, personal space, touch, and facial expressions are going to be different for each group.
Ethnocentrism arises when people have the worldview that their culture is the base culture, and that all other cultures are essentially compared to one's own culture, rather than understood on their own merits. Thus, other cultures become conceived through the differences to one's own culture. It is difficult not to have a little bit of ethnocentrism in the sense that we all grew up learning a culture and others naturally do not occupy the same position in our worldview. The key is to understand one's ethnocentrism, and to account for it when thinking about other cultures.
This is where understanding…… [Read More]
Verbal Sketch of Professor XXX's Office
Most students will, at some point before the completion of their program, find themselves having to visit their professors in an out-of-class setting to seek academic information, counseling or clarification. These encounters will most often occur in the professor's office. However, judging from my own experience, and the experiences of a number of colleagues close to me, it would be safe to say that most students dread such interactions. This week's lesson has opened my mind to the possibility that this kind of fear for student-faculty out-of-class interactions could be caused by the interior environment of a professor's office. The interior space of an office is a form of nonverbal communication. It sends instant images to visiting students, leading them to develop certain perceptions and impressions about the occupant. If these perceptions are negative, the possibility of the student making future visits to the professor is severely hampered. I visited the office of one of my professors to assess how true this argument is. The subsequent sections present a verbal sketch of the office and the perceptions that I developed about her thereof.
Architecture: the office contains an integration of soft and hard architectural characteristics, creating an utterly inviting and open atmosphere. The architectural situation was characterized by:
i) Sufficient natural lighting from the single large window that stretches just above the surface of the professor's desk
ii) Adequate indirect lighting from table and floor lamps to supplement the natural light
iii) Fully carpeted floor (beige color) and decorated, beige-colored ceiling. The beige color was the first things I noticed, and I felt like it evoked some form of cheerfulness, security and comfort in visitors, unlike the dull, grey walls we were used to in the class environment
iv) A rectangular table, with a swivel, high-back chair with wheels and armrests for the professor, and a low-backed chair with no armrests and fixed legs for the visitor
v) Solid walls save for the single window, with the professor's desk placed instinctively in a corner (back against the wall). I felt like this particular placement sent an instant message of reduced accessibility, and created some form of distance between the professor and her visitor
vi) The professor's desk has a solid front, which hides her lower body and makes it impossible for a visitor to take note of her lower gestures, and…… [Read More]
Racism in the United States is often seen as the methodical oppression of African-Americans and other people of color and the related ideology of white supremacy and black inferiority. These two aspects of racism have influenced the U.S. society from the early 1600's until the present (Bohmer 1998). It all comes down to everyone being different and people being unable to accept these differences.
I have often found myself when choosing people to date letting the fact of whether these people had any college education or not influence my decision on who to go out with and who not to. After evaluating that way of thinking, I have come to the realization that this is just silly and that this factor should not be something that I take into the equation when deciding who to go out with.
Effective communication occurs mainly at an unconscious level and this is why the most effective communicators of all time often paid as much attention to how they were delivering their message as they did to the exact words that they were using. There are a number of strategies that a person can do in order to ensure that their communication is effective. These include:
1. Taking responsibility for the success of their communication. If the audience is not getting it, it is because you're not giving it in a way they can understand.
2. it's not about you. In order to communicate effectively, a person must learn to see the world for the other person's perspective.
3. If what a person is doing isn't working then they need to do something different.
4. Every action must have a positive intention.
5. it's better to be successful than right. It is felt that the world demands results, not excuses (Effective Communication Skills 2009).
Communication is defined as a process by which a person assigns and conveys meaning in an attempt to create a shared understanding. This process requires a vast range of skills…… [Read More]
This is exacerbated by the problem that Carmen is close friends with the owner Kenneth. Kenneth has a similar conflict management style to Carmen. He can be extremely nice when dealing with people casually, but whenever a problem arises like Carmen he makes excuses, avoids the problem, tries to pass it on to someone else, or resorts to texting or faxing messages rather than confronting complaints. Their favorite 'nonverbal' communication strategy is simply not being there.
A failure to listen is one of the most common workplace communication problems. "When people or groups are in conflict, communication between them tends to get worse and worse. As a conflict escalates, people limit their direct contact with people on the other side, because such conflict is uncomfortable or threatening….Eventually all direct communication between parties may be cut off. Sometimes, communication is cut off in protest" (Lack of communication channels/avoided communication, 2005, OTPIC). The sense that there is no one to appeal to, given Kenneth's alliance with Carmen, has caused many employees to despair of ever improving things at the restaurant.
On several occasions, people have tried to force problems out into the open by talking to Kenneth privately, specifically framing the problem in a manner which they hope is persuasive to him (stressing that for the profitability of the restaurant and the greater good of everyone, he must ensure that there is more effective scheduling and a better way to deal with customer complaints). Kenneth's main response is to say "I'll take care of it," but 'it' never gets taken care of, of course. Kenneth needs to set up a formal schedule for all employees, with strict rules about giving the restaurant notice about calling out sick. He also needs to sit down regularly with his staff and listen to what people say about how to improve service.
There is little secret that tensions run high in restaurant kitchens. Even at the cafeteria at the Olympic Training Center (OTC) in Colorado Springs, according to the publication the Restaurant Door, there was recently a knife fight in the kitchen. "The OTC was an on-going operation whose dining program was in need of major surgery. In fact, the foodservice had consistently been the leading source of complaints from the athletes about their training experience" (Marvin…… [Read More]
B: No you didn't.
A: You just weren't listening.
A. The trash still has not been taken out. Would you like to do that?
B. Oh, uh, no but I will if you want me to.
A: Thank you
Prompt (2) Stereotypes:
Stereotyping comes from a deeply rooted survival mechanism for self-protection that helps us to identify friends from foe. It is based in the synthesis of sensory awareness. There are three sub-process of perception that help us to understand what our senses are telling us.
The three sub-processes of perception include subliminal perception, external attention factors, and interpretation.
Impressions lead to an implicit personality theory. Describe.
We develop an implicit personality theory by generalizing about certain traits, or assuming that the presence of one trait necessitates the presence of another trait.
Stereotyping leads to totalizing. Describe Stereotyping leads to totalizing, or the act of blurring out any individual or specific traits. Instead of perceiving the other person as a complex set of traits, the stereotyper projects a total set of traits. The totalizing generally occurs as a process of labeling.
Stereotypes create several communication barriers with diverse peers. What are they?
Communication barriers that result from stereotyping are numerous. For one, stereotypes prevent us from viewing the other person as an individual. Second, stereotyping leads to totalizing and therefore prevents us from seeing that person's strengths and weaknesses honestly. Third, stereotyping reflects prejudicial attitudes and creates antagonism as well as bias and mistrust.
How is double consciousness affected by stereotyping?
A double consciousness is fostered by stereotyping, as the individual develops an identity that is a reaction to prejudice. In some situations, the individual lives up to the stereotypes in a self-fulfilling prophesy. The person might develop low self-esteem too. In other cases, the individual becomes antagonistic and this prevents clear communications.
What is the best way to talk in freedom from racial bias?
It is difficult to be totally free from racial bias in a country that seems to perpetuate stereotypes. However, the best way to talk in freedom from racial bias is to pay attention, observe, and listen. Treat the other person as an individual and have no preconceived notions of who they are based on their ethnicity.
How do ethnocentric and cosmopolitan…… [Read More]