They interacted with a blonde-haired woman who did not want to give up her phone. She was a typical "ditzy" blonde who had no idea what she would do for three hours without her phone. The scene was meant to add some comic relief, but it was still played with the same kind of unemotional intensity that the other detectives had. These people are supposed to be serious about their work, and there is little banter or personal talk at all. Because of this, their body language is stilted as well. It is almost as if they were "half" people who only act one way on the show, and keep the rest of their lives (and their reactions) to themselves. This woman was not shy, and it was clear by the way she tossed the phone into the evidence envelope she was annoyed. After she turns in the phone, she turns her back on the two investigators, and clear message about how little she thinks of them. The scene is short, but it is helpful in assessing non-verbal communication because it conveys a range of emotions and thoughts in a quick, simple scene. She has no interest in the case, in these men and their jobs, or anything but herself, and it shows clearly in her manner and her mannerisms. This was even more pronounced when watching this scene with no sound, because her actions were quite clear and so were her facial expression and body language. She was a "princess" and she wanted her phone, period.
Most problems are resolved in this show by questioning suspects, so there is much opportunity to view body language. However, the main actors are so deadpan it is almost funny. The only person to smile for much of the show was the black female coroner, which was weird in a grotesque kind of way. The characters, without many body and facial expressions seemed boring and matter-of-fact, and while the viewer has to root for them to solve complex crimes, as people, they seem to…… [Read More]
A pessimistic, invasive or antagonistic nonverbal communication can entirely spoil even a radiantly prepared presentation delivered in an attractive voice. The idea of personal space refers to the area around an individual into which other people should not endeavor unsolicited. Audiences too are very aware of this space and when presenting one should not stand within 10 feet of the audience. This distance is called as the public zone and if a speaker infringes it he is expected to provoke those affected. This distance also establishes an efficient stage area in which the presenter can carry out his presentation. Once the presenter is located in the acceptable zone, which will be further away if the audience is, then there are four major features of nonverbal communication that the presenter should consider: they are how to use his eyes, what are the signals of the facial expressions, how to position and move the body and the limbs and how to use hand gestures. (Nonverbal Communication - Free Online Tutorial)
In Meetings: In meetings, the use of body language can strengthen the attitudes one wish to express and evading negative or invasive nonverbal communication will make sure that one do not destabilize one's message. From the start of making contributions in the meeting, one needs to be conscious of his nonverbal communication. Others will analyze the body language of the person in the meeting although they are not alert to this at the conscious level.
In Interviews: A candidate for an interview should be alert to his nonverbal communication from the beginning to the end of the interview. The acceptable use of posture, limb positioning and positive eye contact can help the candidate to make an encouraging impact on the interviewer. Body language is a very significant aspect of any communication. The interviewer will analyze the nonverbal communication of the candidate even if they are ignorant of this at the conscious level. A luminously prepared interview supplemented by negative, intrusive or hostile nonverbal…… [Read More]
Verbal Sketch of Professor XXX's Office
Most students will, at some point before the completion of their program, find themselves having to visit their professors in an out-of-class setting to seek academic information, counseling or clarification. These encounters will most often occur in the professor's office. However, judging from my own experience, and the experiences of a number of colleagues close to me, it would be safe to say that most students dread such interactions. This week's lesson has opened my mind to the possibility that this kind of fear for student-faculty out-of-class interactions could be caused by the interior environment of a professor's office. The interior space of an office is a form of nonverbal communication. It sends instant images to visiting students, leading them to develop certain perceptions and impressions about the occupant. If these perceptions are negative, the possibility of the student making future visits to the professor is severely hampered. I visited the office of one of my professors to assess how true this argument is. The subsequent sections present a verbal sketch of the office and the perceptions that I developed about her thereof.
Architecture: the office contains an integration of soft and hard architectural characteristics, creating an utterly inviting and open atmosphere. The architectural situation was characterized by:
i) Sufficient natural lighting from the single large window that stretches just above the surface of the professor's desk
ii) Adequate indirect lighting from table and floor lamps to supplement the natural light
iii) Fully carpeted floor (beige color) and decorated, beige-colored ceiling. The beige color was the first things I noticed, and I felt like it evoked some form of cheerfulness, security and comfort in visitors, unlike the dull, grey walls we were used to in the class environment
iv) A rectangular table, with a swivel, high-back chair with wheels and armrests for the professor, and a low-backed chair with no armrests and fixed legs for the visitor
v) Solid walls save for the single window, with the professor's…… [Read More]
Non-verbal communication involves more than just body language and nodding of the head. In fact there are a number of pertinent facets to non-verbal communication; this paper delves into those issues and provides context.
While giving a presentation to associates at work, or classmates, the following non-verbal behaviors are observed among those in the audience.
Provide interpretations when one person is writing the entire time the presentation is going on -- how would this influence the speaker's evaluation of audience feedback or change: According to Stuart, et al., non-verbal language is "more difficult to interpret" but "more powerful than speech." However it isn't difficult at all to interpret the non-verbal cue from the student who is writing the entire time of the presentation. Interpretation #1: It could be that the student is taking notes, however that seems unlikely. The speaker needs to take this indifference to heart and do something about it. Interpretation #2: It could also be that he is cramming for a mid-term test later that day. A pause can also serve to interrupt the male who is busy writing something while the presentation is going on. "Pausing gives listeners the time to absorb what the speaker is saying" (Stuart, et al., 2007); and in the case of the busy writer, whose non-verbal message is that either I don't care what you're saying or I'm way too busy to pay attention, a pause and a focus with eyes directing at the writer could have a positive impact. Interpretation #3: It is possible that what is being said lacks relevance, or is being presented in a dry, flat style of speaking. Whatever the reason, the speaker needs to deal with this rudeness and lack of attention. Each of these three possible interpretations lead to the reality that the presentation isn't being receive by all…… [Read More]
Body (and hand) movements provide as many nonverbal communication signals as body position or relative limb and hand position. Wringing the hands together is a universal signal of expectation, just as hands open to the sky are an indication of pleading or acceptance. The flattened palm pressed against the cheek like a pillow squashing the face denotes boredom, as does absent minding repetitive movements such as tapping fingers or swinging feet. Conversely, prolonged eye contact and dilated pupils indicate focused attention and interest, and is probably never as obvious as in courtship behavior.
Rubbing the brow with the fingers is an indication of irritation, as is wringing one's collar with a fingertip in the manner giving rise to the term "hot under the collar." (Nierenberg & Calero, 1971).
In both one-on-one and group conversation, one of the most reliable indications of relative dominance and leadership is simply who moves first and who "mirrors" whose postures and movements. Generally, the dominant person acts first, whether that entails conscious movement like reaching for a menu or a water glass at a business lunch meeting, or unconscious movements like crossing one's legs or shifting weight from one leg to the other. In all cases, the dominant person moves first and subordinates follow.
Nonverbal Interpersonal Communication in Deception:
Even if the eyes are not actually the "window to the soul," it is understandable how that saying evolved. Particularly in instances of attempted deception, the movement of the eyes in conjunction with other facial mannerisms provide some of the clearest universal nonverbal interpersonal communications cues.
Truthful verbal communication is normally matched by much steadier and direct eye contact than deceptive verbal communication. Similarly, verbal lies often trigger downward glances as well as hand gestures to cover the mouth, such as scratching the nose or upper lip while talking.
The mouth itself provides more subtle cues of dishonesty and of discrepancy between thought and expression. Smiles, for example, can be genuine reflections of happiness or patronizing attempts at deception, in which case they employ completely different sets of muscles. Genuine smiles involve the muscles of the cheeks, whereas false smiles are limited to just the muscles…… [Read More]
Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication among Cultures
Influence of Culture on Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication
Language is often an immediate barrier to communicating with others of different cultures (Cox 2012). Even those who speak the same language may find problems with communication because of differences in culture. The differences very often lie in communication styles, either verbal or non-verbal or both. These styles may be in the form of facial expression, context, eye contact, formality and touch (Cox).
Every culture uses certain types of facial expression to convey a message in addition to formal language (Cox 2012). Americans smile to express or recognize friendliness towards or in others of a different culture. However, the Japanese do not smile at strangers. They view smiling as inappropriate for those who are not known to them. Women are especially expected to refrain from smiling at strangers. A communication style may hinge on context. In a high context culture, people assume that others of different cultures do not understand what is being said to them and need to have everything explained. In contrast, those in a low context culture assume that others of another culture already understand what is being said and omit the explanation. Eye contact is another style. Looking straight at the foreigner's eye conveys interest and attentiveness to what he has to say. Eye contact reflects honesty and avoiding eye contact means dishonesty or suspiciousness. In other culture, looking in the eye is insulting or an aggressive act. People of this culture only glance at the speaker occasionally to show interest and attention. Formality is also shown in communication. In a culture that is fundamentally informal, everyone is viewed as equal to everyone else. They speak alike to everyone. In a formal culture, people speak a certain way to others according to protocol. And touch or contact is another style. Those in contact cultures expect to be touched when they speak or stand close to another person. In non-contact cultures, touching is considered forward, improper and aggressive. They seldom stand close to others and seldom…… [Read More]
Further, uncertainty and stress can stifle the flow of conversation (Countrywatch).
Understanding the challenges to verbal and nonverbal communication in Austria can provide an important step to enhancing communication with this country.
An understanding of the non-verbal cue of forms of respect, coupled with an understanding of language, can greatly enhance communication in Austrian culture. Titles are very important in Austrian culture, indicating the non-verbal importance of proper forms of respect in Austria. Language is important also, as the wives of men with titles often hold their husbands' title. For example, the wife of an Austrian professor named Schmidt may be known as Frau Professor Schmidt (Munter).
The importance of non-verbal cues in communication in Austria can hardly be overstated. For example, North Americans and Israelis may interpret stroking a beard as being deep in thought. However, Austrians see the same gesture as meaning "How boring" (Barth, Calcote, and Ragsdale). Similarly, temporal non-verbal communication is important. Austrians place high value on punctuality, and failing to be punctual is considered disrespectful (University of Leoben MUL).
In summary, it is important to pay particular attention to non-verbal and verbal cues when attempting to communicate in Austria. Failing to do so may result problems in communication and unintentionally causing offense to Austrians.… [Read More]
Findings from the study showed that levels of perceived affiliation of the individual determines the perceived expressiveness of smiles, whether this smile is given out by a man or a woman. In the study, individuals who were rated and perceived as "highly-affiliative" are perceived to be more expressive, and both highly-affiliative male and female participants of the study were identified as more expressive than participants with low affiliation ratings (532).
These findings support the claim earlier that the smile has complexly evolved as a form of non-verbal communication. Smiling is no longer treated or analyzed at "face value," since other factors, such as perceived personality traits of the individual, are attached in one's assessment of the individual's propensity to express his/her happiness through smiling. As in the words of the author, "...smiling...is mediated by differences in perceived dominance and affiliativeness of men and women rather than by gender per se..." (533).
Smiling in context / Situational smiling
Adding to the increasingly complex nature of smiling as a non-verbal act of communication is its variability when applied in specific situations or contexts of communication interaction. Zaalberg (2004) demonstrated the variability of human smiling when applied in two contexts: the expression of a funny joke by a stranger and an unfunny joke by a friend. These common and particularly specific contexts wherein smiling is the expected response behavior yielded important findings and insights into the study of smiling as a communication act.
It was found out that for both situations, "polite smiling" was the response given by the subjects, wherein the author discovered that an "increase in the duration of "polite" smiling" means there is an increase, on the individual's part, to become more 'prosocially motivated' (202). This finding is explicated by the insight that in contexts wherein a funny joke is given by a stranger, there is an effort to become prosocial, in the sense that one recognizes the funiness…… [Read More]
Nonverbal Communication Skills
In in-person or face-to-face communication approximately 60% of the meaning is an outcome of non-verbal behaviour." We have actually all heard-- and stated -- "physical actions speak louder than words." Actions have been so essential to our communication that analysts have estimated that within face-to-face communication as much as 60% of the social meaning is a result of nonverbal behaviour. In other words, the meaning we appoint to any communication is founded upon not only the content within the verbal message but also our analysis of the nonverbal behaviour that accompanies as well as overlaps the verbal message. And translating these nonverbal actions has not always been the most convenient thing to do (Vantgage learning, 2009).
Attributes of Nonverbal Communication
Nonverbal communication stands out from spoken communication in that it is continuous as well as multi-channelled. It might be unintentional and uncertain. The non-verbal aspect of the message has been the primary conveyer of feelings and emotions (Vantgage learning, 2009).
First, nonverbal communication is fluid. You can choose to form as well as send out a verbal message, you do not have power over whether your nonverbal behaviour is translated as a communication message. As long as you have been in the company of another person, that individual may view your non-verbal behaviour as communication. When Austin yawns and looks off into the distance during a morning meal, his family members will notice this behaviour and designate a particular meaning to it. One family member might translate it as an indicator of boredom, an additional might see it as an indication of tiredness, and yet an additional could see it as a message of disrespect. Concurrently, Austin is unconcerned to all of these messages that his behaviour is giving out (Vantgage learning, 2009).
Second, nonverbal communication is multichannelled. We distinguish conclusions from a variety of nonverbal behaviours consisting of posture, gestures, body motions, body appearance, non-language tone traits, and so on. When we translate nonverbal behaviour, we normally base our understanding on a mix of these habits. So,…… [Read More]
Another example of NVC differences across culture refers to the expression of affection. While some cultures will allow heterosexual and homosexual couples to hold hands, embrace or even kiss in public, others will discourage or even prohibit such public manifestations of affection. The interaction between customer and employee is also subjected to differences and an example in this sense is given by the snapping of fingers to call on the waiter. While some cultures will find the gesture appropriate, others will catalogue it as rude (Levine and Adelman, 1993).
In a nutshell, nonverbal communication is present in all cultures and knowledge of it is crucial for a most efficient interaction. A more thorough understanding of the differences requires an elaborate analysis of NVC across diverse cultures.… [Read More]
If the pitcher does not agree, he shakes his head, jiggles his glove or makes some other sign. Then the catcher will make an additional sign and the procedure goes on until they both have the same opinion on the pitch to be thrown.
In the interim, the batter glances at the third base coach who goes through a sequence of signs from touching the nose to rasping his hand crossways on the letters of the uniform: Gestures intended to convey -- nonverbally -- what he desires the batter to do. All of these signals start off from the manager sitting in the dugout who gives signs to the third base coach who on the other hand sends them to the batter.
Body Language and Nonverbal Communication in Sporting Contests
Of the numerous types of nonverbal communication, body language is conceivably the most understandable means through which humans express judgments and emotions and so make depictions of their knowledge evident to others. It entails gestures, facial expressions, eye movement, breathing movements, skin color variations, muscle tone, interpersonal distance, and stance. Iain Greenlees and his contemporaries looked at all these together with clothing and reviewed their impact among table-tennis players.
Some players might trudge unenergetically across the arena, shoulders limp, head disposed downwards. The body language signals a reception of crushing. Different table-tennis players may stride out anxiously to the table ahead of their opponents, frequently tapping their racket heads against their legs and gazing attentively ahead. They are watchful, enthusiastic and impatient to compete; their excitement level is elevated. Other players move around their eyes darting, as they hang around for their opponent to straighten out. Their actions deceive lack of self-control. Those players who showed "positive body language" were spoken of as 'more self-confident, forceful, competitive, skilled, confident, optimistic, focused, comfortable, and fit than the models who showed negative body…… [Read More]
Communication is defined as both, the imparting or exchanging of information or news, and it is the successful conveying or sharing of ideas and feelings. The methods of communication can be verbal or non-verbal. In particular, the latter is known as demonstrative communication, which includes, the use of facial expression, body language, appearance, and various gestures to convey how he or she feels.
Non-verbal communication is might be used to reinforce verbal communication or as a form of communication on its own. For example, when introducing oneself to other, it might not be enough to just say hello but he or she may add to it a facial expression like a smile or a certain positive and friendly demeanor. As a sender of such demonstrative manner, the receiver will then be able to gauge how to react, which in such situation is positive. In addition, the way a person looks and presents him or herself is another method of non-verbal communication. For example, the way an individual puts his or her hair, or whether they are wearing a power suit or stiletto heels vs. someone who is in relaxed jeans and sneakers. The former individual is sending out a message of dominance and authority while the latter is communicating to the receiver or onlookers a sense of ease.
Aside from facial expressions, body language is important, too, especially when the sender is interested in someone and wants the receiver to acknowledge such romantic notion. For example, the sender may want to be close to the receiver and the latter, if interested, may respond in the same positive way. The way the sender tilts his or her head means she or he is interested, especially when smiling so the receiver may take notice. Eye contact is significant since if the receiver is interested in the sender, he or she will stare back but if he or she is shy, the individual may look away. However, should the receiver look elsewhere and seem unfocused, the sender will also know he…… [Read More]
TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS MODEL
Communication plays an extremely important role in the success of any organizational culture. How employees and management communicate with and respond to each other is what determines the level and type of communication that exists in the organization. In this connection, Transactional Analysis Model can help in identification of problems/conflicts that exist in communication method and offer useful suggestions. In short TA model can be effectively used to understand and analyze behavior of different organizational members. Transactional analysis Model was developed by Dr. Eric Berne MD in 1960s and it ruled the world of communication theories during the next two decades. It is still used widely to remove communication blocks. Transactional Analysis Model works on two important concepts: a) every person has three sides to his personality and b) when two people communication, one of these sides is evoked leading to a transaction.
It is important to understand what these three sides are and how they interact with each other in order to assess the effectiveness of this model in organizational communication. These sides are: Parent, Adult and Child. Parent is that part of us which is rather controlling, nurturing or dominating in nature. Adult is the side of us, which is rational and assesses situation reasonably to develop accurate response to it. Child is the fun-loving immature side of us that can be impulsive, aggressive, stubborn or even manipulating depending on the situation. Apart from these three sides, there are certain other key concepts of communication that must be borne in mind to understand TA model. These concepts include strokes, games and conflict. Stroke refers to a gesture one makes to acknowledge the other person. "A pat on the shoulder, a caress on cheek or hair, a hug, a kiss, a back rub, a massage are samples" (Muriel, 43) Games are pre-recorded scripts that we act our during communicational transaction. These include pre-conceived notions about religion, sex, love, race etc. In our daily interaction, we use these scripts often but Berne believed they must be scarped if they appear to be negative in nature. Conflict is the situation that arises when wires get 'crossed' resulting in break down of communication.
This model can play an effective…… [Read More]
For example, the way a person tells a child about the weather is different than the way that same person would tell a stranger or a mother or a friend about it. Clarity entails clear words, diction, and a non-sarcastic tone of voice. Avoiding hyperbole (exaggeration), bias, and other blocks to clarity will help any health care professional work better with their coworkers and with the patient population.
I will do everything I can to keep my communications clear, open, and honest. Keeping in mind that clear communications are the hallmark of any healthy relationship will remind me to cultivate clarity in all my interactions with patients as well as coworkers. In fact, communications among coworkers can be as important as those between doctors and patients. Types of medications and treatments being used, allergies, and other information needs to be relayed accurately because human lives are at stake. Because patients' lives and well-being are at stake communications are of the utmost importance in our workplace.… [Read More]
Communication theory is described as any systematic explanations of the nature of the communication process. It's important for businesses and organizations to understand communication theory because they can't accomplish their objectives and goals without effective communication between workers. Since it focuses on analyzing the processes with which information is transmitted from the sender to the receiver, communication theory also focuses on the various ways with which information is transferred from one medium to another.
Generally, communication is regarded as the magical factor that can guarantee a happy long-term relationship and organization success (Dainton, 2004). It's an important factor within the Navy, particularly in the Casualty Assistance Calls section since this section deals with helping sailors who have suffered a casualty. Therefore, it's important for the Casualty Assistance Calls Officer to possess effective communication skills because his/her main duty is to provide information, resources, and assistance in the event of a casualty.
Team and Group Communication Processes in the Casualty Section:
Communication processes play an integral role in the development of strategic and effective communication that enhances the possibility of an organization to achieve its strategic goals and objectives. The other significant role of the communication process is that it facilitates the sharing of a common meaning between senders and receivers. While the communication process begins with sender and concludes with the receiver, it consists of several important components. These important components of the communication process include encoding of the message, transmission channel, decoding, and response or feedback.
Within the casualty section, team and group communication processes basically involve the opening of a file, retrieving information within the record of emergency data, and identifying members to be notified once a casualty call has been received. The encoding process in the organization involves the development of a personnel casualty report, which is submitted to the Casualty Assistance Calls Officer. This is followed by coordination between the CACO and the headquarters of the casualty section to choose the appropriate medium of transmission. The CACO also identifies the Primary Next of Kin (PNOK) and Secondary Next of Kin (SNOK) during the process.
As the sender of the message, the Casualty Assistance Calls Officer decides the message to be transmitted based on the personnel casualty report. This officer selects an appropriate transmission medium or…… [Read More]
Racism in the United States is often seen as the methodical oppression of African-Americans and other people of color and the related ideology of white supremacy and black inferiority. These two aspects of racism have influenced the U.S. society from the early 1600's until the present (Bohmer 1998). It all comes down to everyone being different and people being unable to accept these differences.
I have often found myself when choosing people to date letting the fact of whether these people had any college education or not influence my decision on who to go out with and who not to. After evaluating that way of thinking, I have come to the realization that this is just silly and that this factor should not be something that I take into the equation when deciding who to go out with.
Effective communication occurs mainly at an unconscious level and this is why the most effective communicators of all time often paid as much attention to how they were delivering their message as they did to the exact words that they were using. There are a number of strategies that a person can do in order to ensure that their communication is effective. These include:
1. Taking responsibility for the success of their communication. If the audience is not getting it, it is because you're not giving it in a way they can understand.
2. it's not about you. In order to communicate effectively, a person must learn to see the world for the other person's perspective.
3. If what a person is doing isn't working then they need to do something different.
4. Every action must have a positive intention.
5. it's better to be successful than right. It is felt that the world demands results, not excuses (Effective Communication Skills 2009).
Communication is defined as a process by which a person assigns and conveys meaning in an attempt to create a shared understanding. This process requires a vast range of skills in intrapersonal and interpersonal processing, listening, observing, speaking, questioning, analyzing, and evaluating. It is through communication that collaboration and cooperation can occur (Overview n.d.). We communicate in order to inform, persuade…… [Read More]
Employees become frustrated and develop negative views concerning management. Any animosity that the employee may exhibit could result in workplace violence. If employees are terminated or laid off under such conditions, resentment could lead to violence (Chenier 1998)." stressful work environment can also lead to poor service and customer dissatisfaction (Waner 1995). In severe cases, problems communicating in the workplace can lead to the demise of a business or enterprise. Therefore, it is vitally important that workplace communications problems are addressed in a timely and appropriate manner. Over the next few paragraphs, we will discuss how communication problems in the workplace can be resolves.
Resolving Communications Problems in the Workplace
Stoppler (2005) explains that problems communication in the workplace will always exist to some extent. Therefore, managers and employees alike must find ways to resolve these conflicts. The author argues there are ten ways that communication problems in the workplace can be resolved. For the purposes of this discussion we will focus on five of these solutions.
The first concept that can be utilized is to be specific. Often misunderstandings and poor communication arise when there is a lack of specificity. Therefore, the author suggests that specificity must exist even when an employee is attempting to voice a complaint or preset negative feedback. In addition, another way to resolve conflict involves listening. The author asserts that when coworkers are having a disagreement they should vocalize (confirm) what the other person is saying; in doing this the situation can be diffused.
The third tactic that can be used involves depersonalizing the situation. This involves taking the attention or blame off of the other person and placing the emphasis on the problem. In doing this those involved in the conflict have a better chance of communicating effectively and resolving the problem. The…… [Read More]
This is exacerbated by the problem that Carmen is close friends with the owner Kenneth. Kenneth has a similar conflict management style to Carmen. He can be extremely nice when dealing with people casually, but whenever a problem arises like Carmen he makes excuses, avoids the problem, tries to pass it on to someone else, or resorts to texting or faxing messages rather than confronting complaints. Their favorite 'nonverbal' communication strategy is simply not being there.
A failure to listen is one of the most common workplace communication problems. "When people or groups are in conflict, communication between them tends to get worse and worse. As a conflict escalates, people limit their direct contact with people on the other side, because such conflict is uncomfortable or threatening….Eventually all direct communication between parties may be cut off. Sometimes, communication is cut off in protest" (Lack of communication channels/avoided communication, 2005, OTPIC). The sense that there is no one to appeal to, given Kenneth's alliance with Carmen, has caused many employees to despair of ever improving things at the restaurant.
On several occasions, people have tried to force problems out into the open by talking to Kenneth privately, specifically framing the problem in a manner which they hope is persuasive to him (stressing that for the profitability of the restaurant and the greater good of everyone, he must ensure that there is more effective scheduling and a better way to deal with customer complaints). Kenneth's main response is to say "I'll take care of it," but 'it' never gets taken care of, of course. Kenneth needs to set up a formal schedule for all employees, with strict rules about giving the restaurant notice about calling out sick. He also needs to sit down regularly with his staff and listen to what people say about how to improve service.
There is little secret that tensions run high in restaurant kitchens. Even at the…… [Read More]
B: No you didn't.
A: You just weren't listening.
A. The trash still has not been taken out. Would you like to do that?
B. Oh, uh, no but I will if you want me to.
A: Thank you
Prompt (2) Stereotypes:
Stereotyping comes from a deeply rooted survival mechanism for self-protection that helps us to identify friends from foe. It is based in the synthesis of sensory awareness. There are three sub-process of perception that help us to understand what our senses are telling us.
The three sub-processes of perception include subliminal perception, external attention factors, and interpretation.
Impressions lead to an implicit personality theory. Describe.
We develop an implicit personality theory by generalizing about certain traits, or assuming that the presence of one trait necessitates the presence of another trait.
Stereotyping leads to totalizing. Describe Stereotyping leads to totalizing, or the act of blurring out any individual or specific traits. Instead of perceiving the other person as a complex set of traits, the stereotyper projects a total set of traits. The totalizing generally occurs as a process of labeling.
Stereotypes create several communication barriers with diverse peers. What are they?
Communication barriers that result from stereotyping are numerous. For one, stereotypes prevent us from viewing the other person as an individual. Second, stereotyping leads to totalizing and therefore prevents us from seeing that person's strengths and weaknesses honestly. Third, stereotyping reflects prejudicial attitudes and creates antagonism as well as bias and mistrust.
How is double consciousness affected by stereotyping?
A double consciousness is fostered by stereotyping, as the individual develops an identity that is a reaction to prejudice. In some situations, the individual lives up to the stereotypes in a self-fulfilling prophesy. The person might develop low self-esteem too. In other cases, the individual becomes antagonistic and this prevents clear communications.
What is the best way to talk in freedom from racial bias?
It is difficult to be totally free from racial bias in a country that seems to perpetuate stereotypes. However, the best way to talk in freedom from racial bias is to pay attention, observe, and listen. Treat the other person as an individual and have no preconceived notions of who they are based on their ethnicity.
How do ethnocentric and cosmopolitan dispositions affect…… [Read More]
There is only so far Google Translate can take a person hoping to achieve social harmony across cultures. Language barriers are enhanced, and exacerbated, by the differences in non-verbal communication across cultures. Whether for business or personal interactions, non-verbal communications characterize a culture's values and social norms. This is why places like Sweden feel completely different from places like Saudi Arabia; and places are dramatically different in terms of how the society is structured, who is in power, and what norms govern behavior. Understanding the complex facets of cross-cultural communication can greatly enhance a travel experience, or a business interaction.
Of the innumerable sociological and anthropological frameworks used to understand and explain cross-cultural differences in communication, Geert Hofstede's cultural dimensions are among the most useful and well used. Power distance, individualism vs. collectivism, masculinity vs. femininity, uncertainty avoidance, long-term vs. short-term orientation, and indulgence vs. restraint are important and salient axes for analyzing culture. Additionally, issues like attitudes towards conflict, decision-making styles, and approaches to knowing become important when addressing cross-cultural differences in communication (DuPraw & Axner, 1997). Common sense issues such as having respect, withholding judgment, and being patient remain of the utmost importance.
In a travel article about Stockholm, Alford (2012) relates tales that reveal the unique communication styles of Sweden. These styles can be conceptualized in terms of Hoftstede's cultural dimensions. For example, Swedish society has quite a low power distance; its culture is not hierarchical and is self-defined as being "socialist" in spirit (Alford, 2012, p. 2). Moreover, as Alford (2012) points out, most people in Stockholm also have a cabin in the woods or on an island -- highlighting the relatively flat social structure that has a low distance between haves and have-nots (p.…… [Read More]