It appears that the combination of bullying, treatment as an outcast and a propensity or obsession with violent images resulted in school violence.
In addition to such factors and social hierarchy and bullying, mental illness is often one of the issues that perpetrators suffer with. In the most recent and severe case of school violence, the Virginia Tech Shootings, it appears that the gunman (Seung-Hui Cho) suffered from mental illness and it has also been reported that he was bullied prior to entering college (Jenson 2007). There were many warning signs that this particular student was troubled and there were even efforts to get him help.
Since the Tech shooting it has been revealed that students and professors alike believed that the gunmen was disturbed and could commit a violent act on campus. These concerns led one professor to remove Cho from her class because he disturbed the other students and they feared that he would become violent. The shooter was even given a mental health evaluation and others at the school and in the neighboring community attempted to help this young man. However, there attempts proved to be futile when he opened fire in two buildings on the Virginia tech campus killing 32 students and staff (Jenson 2007).
Since the shooting there has been a great deal of debate concerning the type of mental illness he was dealing with and for how long. It was reported that Cho had suffered with mental illness for many years and that his parents tried desperately to get help for their son (Jenson 2007). It is apparent that their attempts and the attempts of school administrators and outside mental health professionals failed miserably. According to Jenson (2007)
Profiles of the perpetrators of school shootings in the past decade reveal that many shooters experienced mental health problems before their decisions to engage in…… [Read More]
Following a principal-components factor analysis of the six environmental-insecurity measures, the analysis revealed that approximately 68% of the total variance was due to two factors: economic insecurity and social insecurity. These two factors then became the control variables in their study.
The findings revealed that a higher percentage of high school students in culture-of-honor states than in non-culture-of-honor states reported bringing a weapon to school at least one time in the previous month. The researchers then make the following hasty generalization based thereon: Since the deadly violence is done with weapons, the association between the culture and the bringing of weapons to school then supports the hypothesis that school violence might be greater in culture-of-honor states. In order to obtain a violence indicator that does not rely on self-reported behaviors, they conducted another study: Study 2.
Study 2 sought to answer the question whether or not culture-of-honor can predict "actual levels" of school violence. To obtain data for this portion, they researched case studies, government Websites, media reports, Internet databases; and, admittedly, since their analysis was sociocultural as opposed to idiographic, they "did not require the level of detail needed for in-depth case studies." In Study 2, they were able to obtain information about the shooters' backgrounds unlike in Study 1. Approximately 97% of the shooters were male with the aaerage age being 18.3 years. Where race could be determined, 37 were Caucasian, 12 black, 5 Asian, 2 Native American, 3 Latino, and 1 Indian. Of the 108 prototypical shootings which occurred n the twenty year time span, exactly three times as many school shootings happened in culture-of-honor states. Even after multiple regression analyses which accounted for the states' populations and other variants, culture-of-honor remained a statistically significant predictor of shootings per capita. Furthermore, temperature, social composition, and economic insecurity were also predictors of violence in schools. Together, these studies confirm that there is a substantially increased risk of school violence in states classified as culture-of-honor states which may be the result of…… [Read More]
Sworn officers or specially-trained staff members can patrol the campus and keep a close eye on at-risk students or potentially threatening situations. Moreover, sworn officers can watch out for drug selling or drug use at school. This is a highly specialized job that cannot be left up to teachers or school staff to perform, as they have their own jobs to worry about. Furthermore, when the threat of violence is immanent, these trained officers can alert the local law enforcement stations and call for required assistance if required. Having the ability to communicate instantaneously with law enforcement is one of the most important ways schools can reduce violence.
Preventative measures and educational tools to increase awareness about violence go a long way. However, prevention must be supplemented by proactive measures such as zero tolerance policies. Any student who is impaired while at school would be subject to suspension and/or the penalties of law. Zero tolerance sends a strong message and encourages discipline and public welfare. The only times that more flexible measures would be required is in the case with special needs students. Often students with special needs that exhibit violent or otherwise deviant behavior should not automatically be suspended or prosecuted under the law. Special education courses should hopefully provide the care that these students need.
Law enforcement must work closely with schools to prevent crimes on campus. By taking a zero tolerance stance on violence and drug use, schools send a strong message to their students that no deviant behavior will be brushed aside. Furthermore, students need to see a visible presence of law enforcement in order to feel safe and to prevent potentially violent situations from escalating. Training teachers and staff in case of emergencies can also go a long way to preventing violence. While school violence…… [Read More]
Violence in Schools
Incidents of violence at school can be divided into nine categories: deadly weapons, threats of violence, fighting, child abuse, sexual abuse, bullying and hazing, vandalism, theft, and disruptive behavior. It is clear however, that these types of violence are not mutually exclusive and are often combined. Fighting can involve deadly weapons, bullying can include threats of violence, and sexual abuse can be part of hazing (Thomas).
Additionally, American youth are increasingly being exposed to violence through television, video games, movies, and music. This has raised concerns that children exposed to violence may become desensitized and attempt to resolve conflict in a violent manner. Crime and violence affects not only families but society as well ("Crime, Violence and Your Child").
According to the National Center for Children Exposed to Violence (NCCEV) school violence can hinder the learning process and lead to violent revenge and a range of mental health issues including depression and post-traumatic stress syndrome. Domestic violence can lead to bullying behaviors, acting out and shame. Media violence can lead children to fear going out because it makes them feel unsafe as well as the possibly desensitizing them to violent and criminal acts ("Children & Violence").
According to Moylan et al. (2010) every year an estimated 3.3 million to 10 million children are exposed to domestic violence in their home and almost 900,000 children are classified as maltreated by parents and other caretakers. Furthermore, different forms of family violence often co-occur, suggesting that many children who witness domestic violence have also directly experienced child abuse. Children exposed to domestic violence and/or child abuse are more likely to experience a wide range of adverse psychosocial and behavioral outcomes. Additionally, children exposed to both child abuse and domestic violence fare worse with respect to later outcomes than do those exposed only to one form of violence. Another form of domestic violence is incest. Figures on the frequency of cases of incest…… [Read More]
Frankly, the first interview was disturbing to conduct. The parent, a young woman who had been a teenage mother was raising a daughter who seemed almost destined to follow in her mother's footsteps. Although the interview questions, themselves, did not elicit information that would lead the interviewer to that conclusion, the mother was very open about her own life experiences. She got pregnant at 15, when she was a freshman in high school. The father of her child was an adult at the time, a high-school dropout who had been involved in gang activity. He was incarcerated for the first time during her pregnancy, and has spent the last 15 years in and out of prison. He has been involved in robberies and other gang activity, and was a suspect in a murder, though there was not enough evidence to charge him with that crime. When he is not in prison, the mother often allows him to stay with her and her daughter. The father has been violent towards her on repeated occasions, though she minimizes both the severity and frequency of the violence. The daughter has seen her father pistol-whip her grandfather, which is the crime for which he is currently incarcerated.
Unfortunately, the daughter seems to be following in her mother's footsteps. Although the interview did not discuss sexual activity, the mother volunteered that she is aware her daughter is sexually active and that she has already been treated for one sexually-transmitted diseases, leading the interviewer to the conclusion that she is not practicing safe-sex. Her first significant boyfriend beat her up pretty severely, and, though the daughter broke up with him, she refused to contact the police and has discussed the possibility of reconciling with him. Although the mother seemed confident that her daughter was bright and described her as a good student, her grades are in the A-B range, and her mother did not indicate that she did a substantial amount of homework or spent time studying. In general, the interviewer had…… [Read More]
Antidepressants and School Violence
A persuasive essay, arguing link school shootings Columbine Virginia Tech, mass shootings, Aurora Theater shootings, Gabriel Giffords shooting, gunman/perpetrators psychotropic medications SSRI Antidepressants, Stimulant medications Ritalin, Adderall Concerta a, Atypical Antipsychotics, smoking cessation drugs Zyban Champix.
Dylan Klebold and Eric Harris took an arsenal of guns and improvised on April 20, 1999 and went on a killing spree at Columbine High School near Littleton. The two students killed themselves after killing their teacher, and twelve other of their classmates. These actions are among many other separate incidents that have occurred in the recent past raising a concern over what could be the cause (Jacqueline & Barry, 2005).
According to Clash Daily (2013) among the multiple shootings and suicides that have occurred in the last two decades one thing is common. The weapon used in these atrocities does not feature as the common aspect. The evidence from studies such as those by (Jacqueline & Barry, 2005; Kelly, 2000; Mohandie K., 2000) show that perpetrators of these actions were either being treated for psychological defects, actively taking psychotropic drugs, or suffering from drug related withdrawal effects. Although it goes unreported and undisclosed, studies have found that, some psychotropic drugs such as; Selective Serotonin Re-Uptake Inhibitors (SSRI), have side effects including; uncooperative behaviors, violence and suicide among others (Tilghman & McGarry, 2010).
Like any other alcoholic drink and drug, antidepressants have the effect of altering brain functions and chemistry by introducing foreign chemicals. The foreign chemical's effect by altering normal body chemistry can have unpredictable results to adults, children and teens. The effect to children and teenagers is more hazardous since their bodies and brains have not sufficiently matured to provide checks upon the medicines impulsivity (Robert, 2002).
Studies have shown that children and teenagers tend to have a hyperactive thought process and this is spiked further by the introduction of such chemicals as those contained in Antidepressants. This combination result to…… [Read More]
Psychology Human Services
Violence in schools is becoming prevalent as one of the worrying aspects in the society. This particular paper seeks to analyze the violence in schools from an educational and psychological point-of-view. According to studies and scholarly research, bullying is the most common form violence prevalent in schools. Scholars suggest that school violence signify a variety of manners referring to physical damage, psychological harm, and property damage. Literature indicates that the most prevalent form of violence in schools comes in the form of bullying. Bullying is seen as behavior intended to harm someone, occurs recurrently, and shows a distinct difference of power between the bully and the victim. The link between parental violence, history with violence and unfortunate socio-economic state of affairs and violence amongst children is perceived in the literature. The psychological aspect of having such scenes and the experiences projected on the children is considered to instigate the violence that they display in schools. In addition, the violent games and television shows that are watched and played by the children have a psychological impact on them as they transform such aggression into the schools.
Table of Contents
Major claim to be explored 4
Literature Review 4
What I learnt From the Topic 8… [Read More]
Violence in schools is increasing at an alarming rate as more teenagers gain access to weapons. It is important to devise a plan which could reduce this violence and make schools safer for future generations.
Facts about School Violence
Although fears concerning school violence have increased in the last several years, recent studies show that "most children are safer in school than out of it. Fatal incidents of school violence remained relatively uncommon in 1999, with the odds of dying a violent death in school being one in two million. Additionally, most injuries that occurred at school were unintentional, not the result of violence (www.preventioninstitute.org/schoolviolence.html)."
Although deaths from violence are rare in schools, there are some facilities that have a serious problem with violence, creating fear for the staff, students and their parents.
This fear can prevent students from performing well academically since it increases the amount of stress they are under and in many cases increases truancy.
In the 1996-97 school year, "more than half of all U.S. public schools reported experiencing at least one crime incident, and 1 in 10 reported at least one serious violent crime. Although fewer school-associated violent deaths have occurred in recent years, the total number of multiple victim homicide events has increased, from 2 events in 1992-93 to 5 events in 1997-98 (www.preventioninstitute.org/schoolviolence.html)."
During 1999-2000 there was a decline in deadly violence and weapon use, however the "the proportion of students who were injured with a weapon at school remained as high in 2000 as it was during 1983-1993, when the epidemic of youth violence was at its peak (www.preventioninstitute.org/schoolviolence.html)."
In 1997, the top three causes of injury in school were falls, sports-related injures and assaults. In 1999, "14.2% of students nationwide had been in a physical fight on school property one or more times during the preceding 12 months (www.preventioninstitute.org/schoolviolence.html)." survey in 1998 revealed that "10.6% of students reported that they had been bullied 'sometimes' or 'weekly', thirteen percent reported bullying other students, and 6.3% reported being both a perpetrator and a target of bullying (www.preventioninstitute.org/schoolviolence.html)."
The most frequent type of bullying these students experienced was insults concerning appearance or speech.
Males reported bullying more than females, while…… [Read More]
Violence in American Schools
(a & b) Columbine High School is in Jefferson County in Littleton, Colorado. In the spring of 1999, two male senior students executed a plan to commit a brutal series of violent acts against their fellow students, teachers, and staff. In essence, they took the school by siege and they took every person within the school hostage. There were several aspects to the plan. These domestic terrorists definitely premeditated this attack, which included specific activities to block or hinder the fire department that was bound to arrive on scene. They ignited explosions in the school (such as the cafeteria and parking lot), but what people mostly remember are the shootings. They killed 12 students and 1 teacher. Dozens of other students were injured because they tried to flee the scene to save their lives. Eventually, the two attackers turned their guns upon themselves and committed suicide.
Local authorities were very concerned about the lives of everyone inside of the school. There was a full time uniformed deputy who worked at the school. He was with the students when the attacks started. Local authorities arrived on the scene within a few minutes of the initial gunshots. The school deputy called for assistance from the parking lot. The guard assigned to the school entered into a gun fight with the attackers. He was not harmed as a result and he requested more assistance, which, again, arrived very shortly after the attacks started. After the attack concluded (with the suicides of the attackers), there were many types of local authorities, civil and social service employees at the school. There were firefighters, and police.
There were also members of the SWAT team present because of the gravity and collateral damage of the situation. There were parents and emotional/psychological support staff for the students. Of course, the local sheriff's office was there, as they were the first on the scene, and technically a represented was already present, as…… [Read More]
School uniforms for students are becoming more and more popular across the country. Research suggest that schools with a mandatory school-wide uniform policy have better attendance, better behavior, fewer discipline referrals, and more school spirit. Children seem to become more focused on academics. They are also easily identified on campus, in the community, and on field trips, making general safety another benefit of wearing uniforms.
It is hypothesized that behavior in schools which require their students to wear uniforms will be better than those schools which do not with respect to discipline and behavior.
This study will use existing empirical research. The independent variable is wearing school uniforms. There are two levels of independent variables, with school uniforms and without school uniforms. The dependent variable is student behavior. Existing empirical research will provide proof that wearing school uniforms has a positive effect on student behavior.
Mandated Uniforms in School: A Benefit for Students and Educators Alike
The scenarios are endless. A young boy was left dead in the street after his Air Jordans and Raiders jacket are stolen from his body (Jones, 2000). In another city, children playing on a school playground run for cover as a stranger shoots bullets towards them. At another schoolyard, a fight breaks out between two opposing gangs who can be identified by the colors they are wearing. More and more cases of youth-related crimes are reported each year (McWhirter, McWhirter, and McWhirter, l998). In response to increasing youth crime regarding clothing, many communities choose to incorporate uniforms as part of a general safety program.
While educators and parents have long assumed the many benefits inherent in school uniforms, there is actually little empirical data supporting this ideology (DSN, 2004). However, new research shows that uniforms not only keep children looking neat and presentable, but they also carry a positive impact in numerous other areas.
Uniforms are usually part of comprehensive educational reform programs instituted across the United States, which are prompted by stricter regulations, including the 2001 No Child Left Behind Act (DSN, 2004). These new requirements demand that school districts increase average achievement levels on an annual basis. The new research shows that uniforms are a key component of these programs.
In a 2004 study, three public school districts in divergent regions were examined. These were Denver, Baltimore and Aldine, Texas, a suburb of Houston (DSN, 2004). Researchers used…… [Read More]
They predict age and gender variations relate to bullying concerns. Of the 25 cartoons implemented in the study, two depict characters with different shades of skin color where skin color appeared to be an issue. One cartoon relating to sexual orientation was not used in several countries. Smith et al. report Olweus to assert bullying to be characterized by the following three criteria:
1. It is aggressive behavior or intentional "harmdoing"
2. which carried out repeatedly and over time
3. In an interpersonal relationship characterized by an imbalance of power. (Smith et al., 2002, p. 1120)
In their study, Smith et al. (2002), participating researchers in the 14 countries to completed the following
1. Listed and selected bullying terms as well as social exclusion in the applicable language.
2. Used fundamental focus groups with participating children to confirm usage and extensive comprehensive of terms.
3. Using cartoons, sorted tasks to describe ways terms relating to bullying are used.
Figure 1 depicts four samples of the 25 cartoons Smith et al. (2002) used in their study.
Figure 1: Four Sample Study Cartoons (Smith et al., 2002, 1123).
In Figure 1, cartoons 3 and 10 depict cartoons from the boy's set. Numbers 14 and 21 reflect cartoons from the girl's set.
Findings they retrieved from their study, Smith et al. (2002) assert, depict a" historical snapshot." They conclude that no significant gender differences exist in the participants' perceptions of the types of social situations the cartoon sets depicted. This suggests that even though boys and girls may differ in the varieties of bullying they implement or acquire at a particular age, they do, albeit, allocate common perceptions as to what bullying actually means.
Even though considerable overlap exists in results, boys, according to the study by Smith et al. (2002) may directly experience more physical bullying, while girls on the other hand, may experience less direct bullying. Both boys and girls likely to observe significant bullying that involves both same-sex and opposite-sex children.
Smith et al. (2002) also report that their study results indicate that 8-year-olds possessed a less discriminating perception than the 14-year-olds. The English term "bullying," which participating school children understood, does not completely match the definitional concept many researchers ascribe to the…… [Read More]
..This perspective is from the U.S.A.; in Europe, violence in school and the concern about violence may not be at similar levels, but it is undoubtedly a topic of major concern (Smith, 2003, p. 1).
This article also makes the important point that school is intended as a developmental and educational environment and that violence in its various forms negatively effects and detracts from the goals of education.
Another general work that adds to the underlying body of knowledge on this topic is Stealing the Show? Crime and Its Impact in Post-Apartheid South Africa by Mark Shaw and Peter Gastrow (2001). Among others, this study makes a cogent assessment of the way that crime and violence is measured and reported in South Africa.
Most researchers assume that official crime statistics -- that is, those collected and released by the South African Police Service -- provide a poor indication of levels of crime in the country. This is because official statistics never seem to match the personal experiences of citizens (and their friends and neighbors), and because crime statistics are often, unsurprisingly, manipulated to serve political purposes (Shaw and Gastrow, 2001, p. 235).
The emphasis here is on "...personal experiences of citizens (and their friends and neighbors)" (Shaw & Gastrow, 2001, p. 235). This is an extremely important point that will be incorporated into the methodological strategy of this thesis. This useful study echoes the findings of many other reports and studies that stress the high level of general crime in the society. The implication in much of the literature is that this ethos of violence and crime influences children and adolescents. Shaw and Gastrow, (2001), also state that;
The country appears to have more serious levels of violent crime than states that have a comparable socioeconomic status, such as Brazil or Argentina. Thus, South Africa has, on…… [Read More]
violence in the public schools. Teen violence in general has become a major concern in America today. One of the reasons for the issue being so prevalent is the number of school shootings in the last few years, especially the shooting at Columbine High in Littleton, Colorado. While the welfare of young people is always of concern, much of the fear being generated at the present time is excessive. For one thing, teen violence is not the new phenomenon many people seem to think it is, and an analysis of our history shows that violence in the schools has always been a problem and that in fact it is diminished at the present time. In truth, though, any school violence is too much, and ways of eliminating it and protecting students in school must be found. Several "solutions" to the problem have been offered.
One such recommendation is school uniforms, seen as a way of defusing tensions created by envy over the ability of some students to wear designer clothing, such as expensive sneakers. There are cases where clothing has led to violence. Another reason given is that administrators and teachers see the primary purpose of school a learning and believe that clothing differences are only a distraction to students. They note that at the elementary and intermediate school levels, students are not mature enough to understand the reason for clothing differences and for the ability of some students to dress better than others.
LaFalce states that when we send children to school, we expect them to learn and play with friends and return home happy. We expect them to be safe at school:
We do not anticipate that they should worry about being beaten up or shot at for their sneakers or designer jacket, or bullied for their supposedly unfashionable clothes, or robbed of valuable personal effects and jewelry (LaFalce).
School uniforms are not a new idea and have long been used at Catholic and military…… [Read More]
Several areas, if poorly designed, can lead to violent and criminal behavior, including parking lots, isolated spots on campus, locker rooms, and corridors. Often, violent behavior occurs in these areas when adults are not present (Astor, Meyer, and Behre, 1999, p. 3). Designing schools with more open areas, more planned classrooms, and a more defined perimeter can create a safer, less violent campus by creating a more functional and enjoyable educational experience. Thus, older, poorly designed schools often attract more violent behavior.
Location can also be a risk factor in certain schools, although that is not always the case. Another researcher notes, "Some urban schools are located [...] in slum neighborhoods where drug sellers routinely kill one another, as well as innocent bystanders, on the streets surrounding the school" (Toby, 1994, p.169). Children growing up in violence prone neighborhoods such as these may simply accept violence as a way of life, both in and out of school, and use violence to be accepted by their peers, especially in communities where gang activity is present.
As noted, the environment of the school can also be a major factor in violent behavior at the school. The design may be antiquated, and the school may be located in a poor, violent community, and yet the school does not experience as much violence and crime as other schools. Author Welsh has a theory that the school's who are successful in controlling their violence are schools that manage discipline fairly and evenly, are clear about rules and consequences, use reward systems to motivate the students, and reduce frustration in students (Welsh, 2001, p. 920). This means that schools can master their violence problems by rethinking their management and discipline techniques, and working with the students more effectively. Thus, even schools in notoriously "bad" neighborhoods do have to follow the community lead and become havens for violence and crime. Instead, they can stand out as models of student behavior and discipline, and become elevating and motivational to the students, instead of frustrating them, causing fear and a sense of hopelessness, and becoming magnets for violence and crime.
Studies indicate that big-city and inner city schools are the most common sites of school violence and crime, and this occurs for several reasons. First, many of these schools are located in areas where crime is already established and out of control, and this process spills into the schools,…… [Read More]
Two of the schools in the current study have active GSA's which may account for the acceptance of LGBT students at these schools.
Procedures for anonymous reporting (Fear of retaliation)
As stated above, fear of retaliation was the major barrier to reporting according to the findings in this study. It is recommended that school develop safe, anonymous reporting procedures such as that described above. In addition, students must feel that retaliation will be addressed and every attempt will be made to protect the student from retaliation, both inside the school and outside the school. Perpetrators must be informed that retaliation will carry serious consequences and that administrators will follow through. Students must be told that any discussion of disciplinary actions discussed among students will cause further disciplinary actions to be instituted.
The schools involved in the current study are known as being very gay-friendly. Two of the schools have very strong GSA's. The school without a GSA receives students from the other two schools and therefore may have a similar acceptance of LGBT students. The reported acceptance of LGBT students may be site specific and therefore not generalizable to most high schools. It is recommended that the research be replicated at a number of schools with and without GSA's.
The original design of the study included an item asking students to identify as LGBT or not. At the recommendation of the dissertation committee, that item was withdrawn from the research instrument. The committee was concerned that approval from the Internal Review Board would not be forthcoming if that item were included. The lack of sexual orientation as a variable seriously impacted the findings. In addition, it was discovered that the study sites were not only willing to include that data in the research instrument, they were anxious…… [Read More]
Violence in High Schools
Violence in schools has been an issue of great concern in our culture for many years, but never so much as today. Society has demanded accountability and practical intervention to address the problem at its source. Parents, educators and students are asking for ways in which they can make changes within schools and recognize problems before they escalate to violence and extreme violence. The work will focus on the history and present records of each student studied and will look for signs and symptoms of problems in every way possible. This work is a proposal for the study of the phenomena of violence within the high school aged group. The work will be divided into three areas of study, data analysis, interview and observation and will be conducted over a four-year period following students from freshman to senior.
The work will create a base for comparison between works done on younger aged children and other works associated with high school aged students and will attempt to demonstrate differences and similarities in patterns of behavior of violent or potentially violent students. The need for a greater understanding of the motivations for violence by students is clear as the demand for intervention become stronger in every area of the culture.
The study would be beneficial for all future studies on the issue and for an overall greater understanding of the phenomena of violence in schools. Additionally, it is especially important to demonstrate an understanding of the phenomena among the high school aged group because they potentially have the greatest degree of violence because of their pre-adult psychology. This work will possibly give all parties a greater understanding of the signs, symptoms and effects of actions that could exacerbate rather than prevent violence. Parents, students and educators need clear and defined answers to tough questions about school violence and it is through research that these…… [Read More]
Violence in K-8 Schools
The issue of violence among young people has become demonstratively more controversial within our culture in the last few years. The demands of society in general for more accountability and a greater sense of awareness among both parents and school officials have created an exponential need for research associated with the phenomena. Society and officials alike have called for a greater understanding of the motivations and reasons for violence within the schools and also a greater security of awareness of the ability to recognize and intervene when potentially violent young people exhibit warning signs of future violence. This work is a proposal for the study of the phenomena of violence within the K-8 school setting, and will be divided into three parts, studying both primary aged schools and middle school aged school settings.
The proposal demonstrates the need for research associated with a tertiary standard, of analysis, interview and observation to gain greater knowledge of the signs symptoms and actions of potentially violent students.
The need for a greater understanding of the reasons and motivations for violence among K-8 students is clear in the growing recognition of the problem and the demand for accountability by all involved. It is clear that the design of such a study and the implementation of it would benefit all involved by giving students, parents and school officials a greater understanding of the warning signs potentially violent students might exhibit, in an attempt to intervene and therefore prevent violent actions in the future. This work will greatly impact the data collection process and intervention process of officials, parents and possibly the students themselves, who are often much more aware of potential dangers than parents or officials. The research will be an attempt to compile information about the intervention and prevention of violence in schools, including the possible removal of some of the…… [Read More]
Perhaps the biggest debate of public education over the past decade besides school vouchers has been the debate over whether or not it is legal to require students to wear a uniform to school. Increased crime, gang violence, poor academic performance in public schools has sparked the movement towards mandatory school uniforms. While school uniforms may seem the perfect solution to the problem, to some its as good as putting a band-aid on a three-inch deep wound. There are many arguments for and against school uniforms in public schools; the main concern has to do with the legality of making uniforms compulsory for public school students. The focus of this paper will be to discuss the issues presented by those both for and against school uniforms. Additionally, the legality of such a policy if implemented will also be presented. Finally, facts and figures on those schools that have implemented school uniform policies will be revealed.
In certain areas of California certain colors convey that the person wearing it is a member of a gang. Sadly, even those who wear these colors who are not members of the gang often become victims of the gangs mindless violence simply for wearing "their" colors. Three thousand miles away in New York City, students have been victims of crime because they wear what is considered to expensive clothing, students are not only targeted by their fellow students but outsiders as well. In the early 1990's the infamous and costly "8-Ball" jacket was highly sought after by thieves and many schools found themselves responding to situations because a student was attacked for his or her jacket. Many are also concerned about the learning environment; some argue that today's youth place more emphasis on clothes and fashion than their schoolwork. Some view the only solution to this violence is to require students to wear the same attire. Despite whether or not one thinks that school uniforms are a good idea or not, lawmakers are still debating over the legality of mandating school uniforms. Angry parents and students alike feel that such a policy is in clear violation of the right to practice freedom of speech.
The aim of mandating school uniforms is to create uniformity among students. Wearing school uniforms will help blur economic and class disparities among…… [Read More]
School Delinquency Prevention Program
Delinquency prevention is an initiative that was introduced into the United States system of justice in 1974, with the aim of protecting the rights of errant juveniles, and preventing them from continuing criminal activities into adulthood. Greenwood (2008) points out that a good crime-prevention program is one that incorporates policies that work to ensure that the participants are molded to become more responsible, law abiding adults. In his view, before any crime prevention program is designed, empirical studies should be carried out to determine the various risk elements that the youth in that particular area are likely to face. This would help in developing a risk-specific prevention program that would "reduce crime much more cost-effectively than any of the other approaches that have been tried - including tougher sentencing" (Greenwood, 2008, p.4).
Outlining the Forms of Delinquent Behaviors to be Prevented
This is the first and most fundamental step in the development of any crime-prevention program. This is so, because it forms the basis of the program, and helps in determining the strategies to be implemented in ensuring the success of the same. This, additionally, stresses the need to conduct a research study, to assist in determining the clients' risk levels, which will make it easier to "predict trajectories for particular types of youth" (Greenwood, 2008, p.7). As Siegel and Welsh (2008) point out, substance and drug abuse, violence, impulsiveness, inadequate parental care, and health problems (especially mental), are some of the most common causes of action. A good after- school program should seek to address these risk factors, right from the onset of childhood, all the way to the late periods of adolescence (Siegel & Welsh, 2008).
I will first discuss the general elements of a good crime-prevention plan, and then lay out some of the key behavior-correcting strategies that have, in the past, been found to be significantly effective in reducing delinquency levels.
The General Elements of a Good Delinquency Prevention Program
Comprehensive and Interactive in Nature
A crime prevention program that equips parents with the relevant training needed to monitor and guide their children's behavior, would, more often than not, be effective in realizing its delinquent prevention goals, as it "makes it less likely for individuals to engage in crime in the first…… [Read More]
As they repeatedly say, especially Graff, they are doing what they have to do, and although there may have been other tactics that would have worked, there was no way of knowing whether or not the human race could be saved without violent action against the buggers. The buggers themselves, though they do not really appear as character until the very end of the novel, in the dream they send to Ender on the new world, are actually stuck in the same bind as the humans. What the human experienced as violence in the First and Second invasions was not actually violence to the buggers -- they had no idea that they were killing sentient beings. They had tried to communicate with the humans, but because the two species communicate so differently, this was impossible. Violence became necessary for them to ensure their own survival, and although eventually they succeed in prolonging their species' viability by finding a way to communicate, this option is not available for most of the novel.
Other characters commit violence not because it is strictly necessary, but because of human psychology. Stilson is one of these characters; he uses violence as a way of taking and keeping power in the form of his group's admiration and obedience. Another character who is very similar to this -- and whose character arc is also very similar -- is Bonzo Madrid. Bonzo is violent because of his Spanish pride and really because of is insecurities. He is not a very good commander, and he knows it but he cannot admit. When Ender shows how much better and smarter he is than Bonzo, Bonzo can't handle it. It starts when Ender is put in his army and Bonzo loses a good soldier in the deal. Bonzo uses the incident to belittle Ender and makes his army stronger. This shows the group-strengthening dynamic that focused violence can have -- something it is also necessary to use in real warfare, outside the battleroom and even outside the ages of this novel. Ender is forced to be violent towards Bonzo because of Bonzo's violence towards him, but Bonzo's motives are simply jealousy and pride. This is typical of male violence; it usually does not come purely from anger, but from a…… [Read More]