School violence has become an increasingly important focus of study in recent years, precisely because of its apparently increasing prevalence in the United States today. Violence perpetrated by young children against other young children has never taken the epidemic levels it does today. Many scholars have made the central quest of their research to determine why this is the case and secondarily, how to prevent this phenomenon. And indeed, the statistics are upsetting. According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC, 2012), there have been 116 student deaths in 109 separate incidents of school violence during the past seven years. This translates to an average 16.5 student homicides per year. In order to deal with this terrible phenomenon, the CDC suggests that the first step is to define the problem. As such, the CDC (2012) defines school violence as "youth violence that occurs on school property, on the way to or from school or school-sponsored events, or during a school-sponsored event." There are also several factors that can place some students at greater risk of violence than others. Some students have a prior history of violence, for example, which increases the risk that they might become perpetrators of violence in their schools. Other factors include substance abuse, association with delinquent peers, poverty, and poor family functioning. Schechter takes this a step further by referring to a study of babies and the factors that play a role in their development of violent tendencies when they become adolescents. One of these include childhood exposure to abuse and violence in the home, as well as parental substance abuse. Furthermore, many authors have focused not only on studying the problem of school violence, but also the strategies that can be applied towards preventing this state of affairs. Among these are Astor, Benbenishty, and Estrada, who present their findings in the article "School Violence and Theoretically Atypical Schools: The Principal's Centrality in Orchestrating Safe Schools." The article presents a thorough analysis of the problem along with suggestions for strategies to prevent the phenomenon.
The introduction to the article provides a thorough overview of the authors' purpose with the article, which is to investigate additional dimensions besides the assumption that violence in schools tend to be a reflection of the communities and demographic within which they function. The authors' central claim is that school violence does not necessarily…… [Read More]
Violence in schools is increasing at an alarming rate as more teenagers gain access to weapons. It is important to devise a plan which could reduce this violence and make schools safer for future generations.
Facts about School Violence
Although fears concerning school violence have increased in the last several years, recent studies show that "most children are safer in school than out of it. Fatal incidents of school violence remained relatively uncommon in 1999, with the odds of dying a violent death in school being one in two million. Additionally, most injuries that occurred at school were unintentional, not the result of violence (www.preventioninstitute.org/schoolviolence.html)."
Although deaths from violence are rare in schools, there are some facilities that have a serious problem with violence, creating fear for the staff, students and their parents.
This fear can prevent students from performing well academically since it increases the amount of stress they are under and in many cases increases truancy.
In the 1996-97 school year, "more than half of all U.S. public schools reported experiencing at least one crime incident, and 1 in 10 reported at least one serious violent crime. Although fewer school-associated violent deaths have occurred in recent years, the total number of multiple victim homicide events has increased, from 2 events in 1992-93 to 5 events in 1997-98 (www.preventioninstitute.org/schoolviolence.html)."
During 1999-2000 there was a decline in deadly violence and weapon use, however the "the proportion of students who were injured with a weapon at school remained as high in 2000 as it was during 1983-1993, when the epidemic of youth violence was at its peak (www.preventioninstitute.org/schoolviolence.html)."
In 1997, the top three causes of injury in school were falls, sports-related injures and assaults. In 1999, "14.2% of students nationwide had been in a physical fight on school property one or more times during the preceding 12 months (www.preventioninstitute.org/schoolviolence.html)." survey in…… [Read More]
We are using four different schools for our data, but as the data are being obtained from one community (therefore one unit of measurement for both the study and comparison group). We are unable to randomly assign the children to either the experimental or control group, therefore all of our participants do not have the same chance of being in the control or experimental group. Our data will also not be blinded, although identifying information on standardized testing scores, absenteeism, suspension and expulsion will not be available to the research designer.
The design for this type of group would be diagrammed as follows:
The central idea behind this design is that the null case would not expect the treatment group (in this case our community) to differ at greater than chance levels. This allows consideration of a treatment effect when the post-test data of the treatment group varies from the control group regression line. The limitation is that one must always be aware that elements outside of the treatment may be the cause of treatment shift from the regression line, and careful attention to internal validity interference is important.
Threats to Internal Validity
By its nature, quasi-experimental design is weak in its ability to control threats to internal validity, but usually effective in controlling threats to external validity. Since our research is being done in a commonly encountered situation, it is likely to have wide applicability to similar settings if the threats to internal validity to be controlled. Possible threats to internal validity include:
Historical elements - are there elements within the community or within the individual which will effect the change in the variable? In this case, it is not possible to be sure that each population experienced the same events and come to the study with a similar background and experience.
Statistical regression - Do the subjects come from same or similar backgrounds? Both groups have been evaluated for socioeconomic status similarity, but are there other elements in the population that can confound the data?
Maturation - if changes are noted over the year subsequent to the presentation of the program, is this a typical change of behavior noted in this age group simply related to maturity? By using the control school where no program is provided, we hope to evaluate…… [Read More]
It appears that the combination of bullying, treatment as an outcast and a propensity or obsession with violent images resulted in school violence.
In addition to such factors and social hierarchy and bullying, mental illness is often one of the issues that perpetrators suffer with. In the most recent and severe case of school violence, the Virginia Tech Shootings, it appears that the gunman (Seung-Hui Cho) suffered from mental illness and it has also been reported that he was bullied prior to entering college (Jenson 2007). There were many warning signs that this particular student was troubled and there were even efforts to get him help.
Since the Tech shooting it has been revealed that students and professors alike believed that the gunmen was disturbed and could commit a violent act on campus. These concerns led one professor to remove Cho from her class because he disturbed the other students and they feared that he would become violent. The shooter was even given a mental health evaluation and others at the school and in the neighboring community attempted to help this young man. However, there attempts proved to be futile when he opened fire in two buildings on the Virginia tech campus killing 32 students and staff (Jenson 2007).
Since the shooting there has been a great deal of debate concerning the type of mental illness he was dealing with and for how long. It was reported that Cho had suffered with mental illness for many years and that his parents tried desperately to get help for their son (Jenson 2007). It is apparent that their attempts and the attempts of school administrators and outside mental health professionals failed miserably. According to Jenson (2007)
Profiles of the perpetrators of school shootings in the past decade reveal that many shooters experienced mental health problems before their decisions to engage in violence (Vossekuil, Fein, Reddy, Borum, & Modzeleski, 2002). In many cases...the perpetrators had been isolated socially from their peers and had been the recipients of bullying and teasing from other students. Other shooters had been diagnosed with mental health problems such as depression and anxiety that went untreated. Mr. Cho was referred for counseling several times at Virginia Tech following his submission of violence-laced poetry and short stories in English classes. Images in his writings included frequent references to hate and death. Unfortunately, his participation in…… [Read More]
Violence in American Schools
(a & b) Columbine High School is in Jefferson County in Littleton, Colorado. In the spring of 1999, two male senior students executed a plan to commit a brutal series of violent acts against their fellow students, teachers, and staff. In essence, they took the school by siege and they took every person within the school hostage. There were several aspects to the plan. These domestic terrorists definitely premeditated this attack, which included specific activities to block or hinder the fire department that was bound to arrive on scene. They ignited explosions in the school (such as the cafeteria and parking lot), but what people mostly remember are the shootings. They killed 12 students and 1 teacher. Dozens of other students were injured because they tried to flee the scene to save their lives. Eventually, the two attackers turned their guns upon themselves and committed suicide.
Local authorities were very concerned about the lives of everyone inside of the school. There was a full time uniformed deputy who worked at the school. He was with the students when the attacks started. Local authorities arrived on the scene within a few minutes of the initial gunshots. The school deputy called for assistance from the parking lot. The guard assigned to the school entered into a gun fight with the attackers. He was not harmed as a result and he requested more assistance, which, again, arrived very shortly after the attacks started. After the attack concluded (with the suicides of the attackers), there were many types of local authorities, civil and social service employees at the school. There were firefighters, and police.
There were also members of the SWAT team present because of the gravity and collateral damage of the situation. There were parents and emotional/psychological support staff for the students. Of course, the local sheriff's office was there, as they were the first on the scene, and technically a represented was already present, as aforementioned (the uniformed full time guard). The country District Attorney was also at the school where a press conference was held, even while the aftermath was in progress, including the…… [Read More]
Following a principal-components factor analysis of the six environmental-insecurity measures, the analysis revealed that approximately 68% of the total variance was due to two factors: economic insecurity and social insecurity. These two factors then became the control variables in their study.
The findings revealed that a higher percentage of high school students in culture-of-honor states than in non-culture-of-honor states reported bringing a weapon to school at least one time in the previous month. The researchers then make the following hasty generalization based thereon: Since the deadly violence is done with weapons, the association between the culture and the bringing of weapons to school then supports the hypothesis that school violence might be greater in culture-of-honor states. In order to obtain a violence indicator that does not rely on self-reported behaviors, they conducted another study: Study 2.
Study 2 sought to answer the question whether or not culture-of-honor can predict "actual levels" of school violence. To obtain data for this portion, they researched case studies, government Websites, media reports, Internet databases; and, admittedly, since their analysis was sociocultural as opposed to idiographic, they "did not require the level of detail needed for in-depth case studies." In Study 2, they were able to obtain information about the shooters' backgrounds unlike in Study 1. Approximately 97% of the shooters were male with the aaerage age being 18.3 years. Where race could be determined, 37 were Caucasian, 12 black, 5 Asian, 2 Native American, 3 Latino, and 1 Indian. Of the 108 prototypical shootings which occurred n the twenty year time span, exactly three times as many school shootings happened in culture-of-honor states. Even after multiple regression analyses which accounted for the states' populations and other variants, culture-of-honor remained a statistically significant predictor of shootings per capita. Furthermore, temperature, social composition, and economic insecurity were also predictors of violence in schools. Together, these studies confirm that there is a substantially increased risk of school violence in states classified as culture-of-honor states which may be…… [Read More]
Sworn officers or specially-trained staff members can patrol the campus and keep a close eye on at-risk students or potentially threatening situations. Moreover, sworn officers can watch out for drug selling or drug use at school. This is a highly specialized job that cannot be left up to teachers or school staff to perform, as they have their own jobs to worry about. Furthermore, when the threat of violence is immanent, these trained officers can alert the local law enforcement stations and call for required assistance if required. Having the ability to communicate instantaneously with law enforcement is one of the most important ways schools can reduce violence.
Preventative measures and educational tools to increase awareness about violence go a long way. However, prevention must be supplemented by proactive measures such as zero tolerance policies. Any student who is impaired while at school would be subject to suspension and/or the penalties of law. Zero tolerance sends a strong message and encourages discipline and public welfare. The only times that more flexible measures would be required is in the case with special needs students. Often students with special needs that exhibit violent or otherwise deviant behavior should not automatically be suspended or prosecuted under the law. Special education courses should hopefully provide the care that these students need.
Law enforcement must work closely with schools to prevent crimes on campus. By taking a zero tolerance stance on violence and drug use, schools send a strong message to their students that no deviant behavior will be brushed aside. Furthermore, students need to see a visible presence of law enforcement in order to feel safe and to prevent potentially violent situations from escalating. Training teachers and staff in case of emergencies can also go a long way to preventing violence. While school violence might not be eliminated altogether, it can be minimized when such proactive measures are…… [Read More]
Violence in Schools
Incidents of violence at school can be divided into nine categories: deadly weapons, threats of violence, fighting, child abuse, sexual abuse, bullying and hazing, vandalism, theft, and disruptive behavior. It is clear however, that these types of violence are not mutually exclusive and are often combined. Fighting can involve deadly weapons, bullying can include threats of violence, and sexual abuse can be part of hazing (Thomas).
Additionally, American youth are increasingly being exposed to violence through television, video games, movies, and music. This has raised concerns that children exposed to violence may become desensitized and attempt to resolve conflict in a violent manner. Crime and violence affects not only families but society as well ("Crime, Violence and Your Child").
According to the National Center for Children Exposed to Violence (NCCEV) school violence can hinder the learning process and lead to violent revenge and a range of mental health issues including depression and post-traumatic stress syndrome. Domestic violence can lead to bullying behaviors, acting out and shame. Media violence can lead children to fear going out because it makes them feel unsafe as well as the possibly desensitizing them to violent and criminal acts ("Children & Violence").
According to Moylan et al. (2010) every year an estimated 3.3 million to 10 million children are exposed to domestic violence in their home and almost 900,000 children are classified as maltreated by parents and other caretakers. Furthermore, different forms of family violence often co-occur, suggesting that many children who witness domestic violence have also directly experienced child abuse. Children exposed to domestic violence and/or child abuse are more likely to experience a wide range of adverse psychosocial and behavioral outcomes. Additionally, children exposed to both child abuse and domestic violence fare worse with respect to later outcomes than do those exposed only to one form of violence. Another form of domestic violence is incest. Figures on the frequency of cases of incest vary. The most common offenders are uncles, cousins, fathers, brothers, brothers-in-law, and step grandfathers. Victims report feeling guilt, shame, despair, and confusion. The effects may manifest themselves for years to come in…… [Read More]
Frankly, the first interview was disturbing to conduct. The parent, a young woman who had been a teenage mother was raising a daughter who seemed almost destined to follow in her mother's footsteps. Although the interview questions, themselves, did not elicit information that would lead the interviewer to that conclusion, the mother was very open about her own life experiences. She got pregnant at 15, when she was a freshman in high school. The father of her child was an adult at the time, a high-school dropout who had been involved in gang activity. He was incarcerated for the first time during her pregnancy, and has spent the last 15 years in and out of prison. He has been involved in robberies and other gang activity, and was a suspect in a murder, though there was not enough evidence to charge him with that crime. When he is not in prison, the mother often allows him to stay with her and her daughter. The father has been violent towards her on repeated occasions, though she minimizes both the severity and frequency of the violence. The daughter has seen her father pistol-whip her grandfather, which is the crime for which he is currently incarcerated.
Unfortunately, the daughter seems to be following in her mother's footsteps. Although the interview did not discuss sexual activity, the mother volunteered that she is aware her daughter is sexually active and that she has already been treated for one sexually-transmitted diseases, leading the interviewer to the conclusion that she is not practicing safe-sex. Her first significant boyfriend beat her up pretty severely, and, though the daughter broke up with him, she refused to contact the police and has discussed the possibility of reconciling with him. Although the mother seemed confident that her daughter was bright and described her as a good student, her grades are in the A-B range, and her mother did not indicate that she did a substantial amount of homework or spent time studying. In general, the interviewer had the impression that the daughter was coasting…… [Read More]
Antidepressants and School Violence
A persuasive essay, arguing link school shootings Columbine Virginia Tech, mass shootings, Aurora Theater shootings, Gabriel Giffords shooting, gunman/perpetrators psychotropic medications SSRI Antidepressants, Stimulant medications Ritalin, Adderall Concerta a, Atypical Antipsychotics, smoking cessation drugs Zyban Champix.
Dylan Klebold and Eric Harris took an arsenal of guns and improvised on April 20, 1999 and went on a killing spree at Columbine High School near Littleton. The two students killed themselves after killing their teacher, and twelve other of their classmates. These actions are among many other separate incidents that have occurred in the recent past raising a concern over what could be the cause (Jacqueline & Barry, 2005).
According to Clash Daily (2013) among the multiple shootings and suicides that have occurred in the last two decades one thing is common. The weapon used in these atrocities does not feature as the common aspect. The evidence from studies such as those by (Jacqueline & Barry, 2005; Kelly, 2000; Mohandie K., 2000) show that perpetrators of these actions were either being treated for psychological defects, actively taking psychotropic drugs, or suffering from drug related withdrawal effects. Although it goes unreported and undisclosed, studies have found that, some psychotropic drugs such as; Selective Serotonin Re-Uptake Inhibitors (SSRI), have side effects including; uncooperative behaviors, violence and suicide among others (Tilghman & McGarry, 2010).
Like any other alcoholic drink and drug, antidepressants have the effect of altering brain functions and chemistry by introducing foreign chemicals. The foreign chemical's effect by altering normal body chemistry can have unpredictable results to adults, children and teens. The effect to children and teenagers is more hazardous since their bodies and brains have not sufficiently matured to provide checks upon the medicines impulsivity (Robert, 2002).
Studies have shown that children and teenagers tend to have a hyperactive thought process and this is spiked further by the introduction of such chemicals as those contained in Antidepressants. This combination result to hyperactivity in children and teenagers and if, no control measures are deployed violence and harmful actions may be undertaken (Jacqueline & Barry, 2005).
Causes of Psychotropic Drugs
The grievous risk of Psychotropic drugs is evidenced in a review by Dr. David Healy and colleagues using clinical drug trial. The trial data was undertaken by GlaxoSmithKline for their…… [Read More]
At the age of 23, the alcohol abuse factor was replaced with a three-item lifetime alcohol disorder screen instrument that emphasized on binge drinking and five items from the Drug Abuse Screening Test. Other behavior problems consisted of stealing, selling drugs, gang violence, carrying a weapon, arson, burglary, trespassing, pregnancy and drunk driving.
The results showed that early drinkers were more apt than nondrinkers to use other substances, steal and have school problems. Compared to nondrinkers, early drinkers at 7 were 19 times more likely to engage in weekly smoking any hard drug use and 14 times more likely to be involved with weekly marijuana use; 4.5 times more apt to steal; 3 times more sure to be sent out of or skip class; 2 times more likely to often miss school and 1.5 times more prone toward having poor grades.
Early experimenters were also more likely to engage in problem behaviors compared with nondrinkers, but less apt to be involved with such actions than early drinkers. Compared to experimenters, drinkers at age 7 were 20.5 times more likely to engage in weekly marijuana use, 8 times more involved with hard drug use; 5 times more prone toward weekly smoking; 2 times more apt to steal; and 1.5 to 2 times more inclined to be frequently absent, have poor grades and exhibit behavioral problems in the classroom. Older adolescents continue this negative behavior with early drinkers more apt to have problems than nondrinkers. Early experimenters also remain more likely to exhibit problem behavior than older nondrinkers. Likewise, 23-year-old drinkers were more prone to miss work, engage in substance abuse and exhibit criminal and violent behavior.
The researchers concluded that conduct problems such as violence, delinquency, criminal behavior and substance abuse in school is most likely influence by other biological, psychosocial and cultural factors. Finding risk factors of students as young as 7th grade that lead to such issues can be challenging. However, it is impressive that grade 7 drinking status alone could account for 9 to 10% of the…… [Read More]
The facilitator spoke directly to individuals, as well as the group therefore extrapolating the true meaning behind some of the participant's comments. For the most part, the facilitator kept the personal bias out and asked tailored and appropriate questions.
Surveys and Focus Groups
Focus groups are interesting, yet hard to deal with. On the one hand, they allow the public the chance to speak, thus portraying the abstract symbolism and concentrations that drive the actions of individuals on a daily basis. Yet, on the other hand, findings can often be hard too read or inconclusive based on this high level of abstract concepts that derive from such sessions. The strengths of focus groups rest in the ability to test out certain theories, illustrate the major connections between concepts, and to test how the public reacts to certain concepts (Brophy, 2005). It is a crucial step in understanding very complex and abstract topics. However, it is not very definitive. Focus groups can help to augment earlier findings or point researchers in a general direction, but the weakness of them is that they often do not answer hypothesis with a sort of strict assertion that is needed in quantitative research.
Symbols and Metaphors
The transcripts were rich with symbolism. There was the symbol of a gun connecting to death. Also, there was strong symbolism of invoking some of the incidents that had just recently occurred. Thanks to media coverage, the parents involved had a lot of extensive prior knowledge of how the most recent shootings went down. As such, they often used these events as symbols for the senseless nature of the violence involved in school shootings and how it seems to cut short the lives of those who deserved to continue living.
Moreover, talk about the Constitution, the Bill of Rights, and the Second Amendment became very metaphoric at time. The Constitution took on a life of its own, becoming a living thing that seemed to govern over the lives of modern day citizens. The Second Amendment became the major source of the controversy, and for some was a symbol of hope and freedom, while for others was a symbol of foolishness and outdated governance.
The concept of the school also became a symbol. To the parents, it symbolized "community, learning, respect, friendship," and after all…… [Read More]
School Shootings by Adults or Juveniles
The increased number of school shooting incidents in America during the last two decades has gained public attention. Authorities are very much concerned regarding how to control these tragic incidents in the schools of different states. These shootings in schools conducted by adults or juveniles; have created an impression that schools are not a safe place for students.
However, in reality the situation is not that dangerous as perceived by public and most of the schools have been greatly successful in keeping their students safe. In contrast, many of the schools do face serious problems due to school shootings; which need to follow the effective evidence-based strategies in order to keep their schools safe and free from violence.
Why will an adult or juvenile bring a weapon to school or open fire on his colleagues and teachers? Are these adults and juveniles angry or have any psychiatric problem? Do they want attention? Are they frustrated or simply want to take revenge?
These are the questions that are very complex to answer. Different thinkers, psychologists and sociologists have answered them in different ways but there is not a single reason that can be considered as the cause of school shootings.
A committee of National Research Council performed a case study in 2001 in which six school shooting incidents were considered. It was accomplished in the study that it is impossible to "reach firm scientific conclusions" (Moore, Petrie, Braga, & McLaughlin, 2003, p. 3).
Statistics show that in the past several years, there have been many deadly shootings incidents in schools of Colorado, California, Pennsylvania and Ohio that resulted in deaths and injuries of students and teachers. Therefore, this problem has become an important issue for rural, urban as well as suburban communities of United States. Since 1992, more than 40 schools have faced the situations of multiple shootings; most of which never imagined that it could happen there.
If we look at…… [Read More]
They predict age and gender variations relate to bullying concerns. Of the 25 cartoons implemented in the study, two depict characters with different shades of skin color where skin color appeared to be an issue. One cartoon relating to sexual orientation was not used in several countries. Smith et al. report Olweus to assert bullying to be characterized by the following three criteria:
1. It is aggressive behavior or intentional "harmdoing"
2. which carried out repeatedly and over time
3. In an interpersonal relationship characterized by an imbalance of power. (Smith et al., 2002, p. 1120)
In their study, Smith et al. (2002), participating researchers in the 14 countries to completed the following
1. Listed and selected bullying terms as well as social exclusion in the applicable language.
2. Used fundamental focus groups with participating children to confirm usage and extensive comprehensive of terms.
3. Using cartoons, sorted tasks to describe ways terms relating to bullying are used.
Figure 1 depicts four samples of the 25 cartoons Smith et al. (2002) used in their study.
Figure 1: Four Sample Study Cartoons (Smith et al., 2002, 1123).
In Figure 1, cartoons 3 and 10 depict cartoons from the boy's set. Numbers 14 and 21 reflect cartoons from the girl's set.
Findings they retrieved from their study, Smith et al. (2002) assert, depict a" historical snapshot." They conclude that no significant gender differences exist in the participants' perceptions of the types of social situations the cartoon sets depicted. This suggests that even though boys and girls may differ in the varieties of bullying they implement or acquire at a particular age, they do, albeit, allocate common perceptions as to what bullying actually means.
Even though considerable overlap exists in results, boys, according to the study by Smith et al. (2002) may directly experience more physical bullying, while girls on the other hand, may experience less direct bullying. Both boys and girls likely to observe significant bullying that involves both same-sex and opposite-sex children.
Smith et al. (2002) also report that their study results indicate that 8-year-olds possessed a less discriminating perception than the 14-year-olds. The English term "bullying," which participating school children understood, does not completely match the definitional concept many researchers ascribe to the term;…… [Read More]
"It was tested on almost 600 kids in a desegregated Indianapolis middle school where there are a lot of aggressive kids," Bosworth says. "Those who used the computer were more aware of their own coping strategies and violence presentation. They also showed a decrease in the belief that violence was a way to solve problems" (quoted in Singer at p. 41).
Peacemakers Program. Violence Prevention for Students in Grades Four through Eight. This program uses role-playing to forge problem-solving, anger management and conflict resolution skills. Fifteen lessons are designed to be taught by teachers and counselors, and there is a computer games component starring an alien in a scenario based on the film it's a Wonderful Life. Unlike similar programs, says Jeremy Shapiro, vice-president of research for Applewood Centers, a non-profit, child-serving agency in northeastern Ohio, Peacemakers "does not assume kids want to learn these skills." Program testing showed a substantial decrease in disciplinary incidents related to aggression and in suspensions for fighting, Shapiro adds. Weinheimer recommends that school administrators should ask whoever is representing the program they're interested in for evidence. "Look for change in behavior or attitude, or issues like school attendance or completion rate," she says. "Where it has been shown to be effective and at what grade level. "Also, they should not be afraid to develop something on their own based on what they know works, because many of the best ways of handling issues match the needs and resources within the local community" (emphasis added) (quoted in Singer at p. 41).
Part II: Review of Safety and Security Plan for a School Corporation.
A review of the school corporation in question's safety plan from the employee handbook reveals a number of shortcomings. The current safety plan is as follows:
It is the responsibility of each employee that all tasks be conducted in a safe and efficient manner complying with all local, state and federal safety and health regulations, programmatic standards, and with any special safety concerns identified by Company XYZ for use in a particular are or with a client.
Although most safety regulations are consistent throughout each department and program, it is the responsibility of…… [Read More]
Psychology Human Services
Violence in schools is becoming prevalent as one of the worrying aspects in the society. This particular paper seeks to analyze the violence in schools from an educational and psychological point-of-view. According to studies and scholarly research, bullying is the most common form violence prevalent in schools. Scholars suggest that school violence signify a variety of manners referring to physical damage, psychological harm, and property damage. Literature indicates that the most prevalent form of violence in schools comes in the form of bullying. Bullying is seen as behavior intended to harm someone, occurs recurrently, and shows a distinct difference of power between the bully and the victim. The link between parental violence, history with violence and unfortunate socio-economic state of affairs and violence amongst children is perceived in the literature. The psychological aspect of having such scenes and the experiences projected on the children is considered to instigate the violence that they display in schools. In addition, the violent games and television shows that are watched and played by the children have a psychological impact on them as they transform such aggression into the schools.
Table of Contents
Major claim to be explored 4
Literature Review 4
What I learnt From the Topic 8… [Read More]
Violence in schools has been at the forefront of media attention for some time now. One of the main reasons for this is the apparently increasing incidents of violence against and among children. Media attention and the sociological issues stirred up by the situation regarding violence have prompted several studies around violence in schools, especially when directed by children and teachers against children. Violence against teachers, on the other hand, has not received similar research attention. This is therefore the focus of an article by Espelage et al. (2013), with the title "Understanding and Preventing Violence Directed Against Teachers: Recommendations for a national Research, Practice, and Policy Agenda."
The introduction of the article begins by acknowledging existing focus points for studying violence in schools. It explains its research focus by claiming that not much has been done to study the phenomenon of violence against teachers within the school context. The thesis of the article is therefore to provide solid grounds for researching the phenomenon, while also creating policies and procedures for handling it. In order to accomplish this, the body of the work begins by defining school violence. The basic concepts within this definition is that violence can be physical or non-physical and that it takes place within complex social situations. Existing, if limited, literature has revealed some of the basic causes and effects of violence against teachers, including emotional impacts for teachers and social impacts for school. Interactional and social-ecological theories are examined to determine predictors of violence. In terms of prevention techniques, suggestions are made for students and teachers at various levels, including leadership and community-level interventions. The final part of the article contains recommendations for research and policy to help address the problem of violence against teachers.
The article concludes by offering several suggestions, including increasing funding and support for education and…… [Read More]
Schools have more Responsibility to Prevent School Violence than ever before
Issues related to school violence have become an increasingly salient issue in modern society. This issue affects schools on many levels. On one level, there rise in the number of tragedies such as mass shootings have increased and these incidents clearly illustrate the need for safer educational environments for children and adolescents. However, there are also more subtle examples of violence that can occur in school environments such as bullying. The evidence that bullying is severe physical and psychological detriment to students has become increasingly clear. Furthermore, technology has also offered new platforms in which violence can occur between students. For example, there have been many cases of online bullying that have occurred on social networks. This analysis will provide a brief overview of different types of violence that can occur in schools as well as a discussion about a school's responsibility to students and the local community within this environment.
Overview of School Violence
There are many extreme cases of school violence that have flooded mass media channels in recent years. While the number of extreme incidents of school violence remains relatively small, extreme incidents cause the most concern for parents, teachers, law enforcement, and educational administrators (Crews, 2014). For example, the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting was among the most tragic events in U.S. History to date. This incident represents the second deadliest mass shooting by a single individual in U.S. history (the first was also a school shooting, but at a college at the 2007 Virginia Tech shootings).
These are clear and obvious examples of extreme violence that has occurred on school campuses and sparked a national debate about how to best protect children from incidents of extreme violence. This has prompted many to consider how guns are ending up in the hands of unstable individuals and as a result many people and politicians have demanded more effective gun regulations. The visibility of these school shootings has been wide spread and have dominated much of the discussion about school violence in recent years. The response to these evident have ranged considerably in different schools from doing nothing to increasing many school security measures such as introducing metal detectors and school security personnel on some campuses.
However, there are many more examples of violence that are not as extreme as…… [Read More]
..This perspective is from the U.S.A.; in Europe, violence in school and the concern about violence may not be at similar levels, but it is undoubtedly a topic of major concern (Smith, 2003, p. 1).
This article also makes the important point that school is intended as a developmental and educational environment and that violence in its various forms negatively effects and detracts from the goals of education.
Another general work that adds to the underlying body of knowledge on this topic is Stealing the Show? Crime and Its Impact in Post-Apartheid South Africa by Mark Shaw and Peter Gastrow (2001). Among others, this study makes a cogent assessment of the way that crime and violence is measured and reported in South Africa.
Most researchers assume that official crime statistics -- that is, those collected and released by the South African Police Service -- provide a poor indication of levels of crime in the country. This is because official statistics never seem to match the personal experiences of citizens (and their friends and neighbors), and because crime statistics are often, unsurprisingly, manipulated to serve political purposes (Shaw and Gastrow, 2001, p. 235).
The emphasis here is on "...personal experiences of citizens (and their friends and neighbors)" (Shaw & Gastrow, 2001, p. 235). This is an extremely important point that will be incorporated into the methodological strategy of this thesis. This useful study echoes the findings of many other reports and studies that stress the high level of general crime in the society. The implication in much of the literature is that this ethos of violence and crime influences children and adolescents. Shaw and Gastrow, (2001), also state that;
The country appears to have more serious levels of violent crime than states that have a comparable socioeconomic status, such as Brazil or Argentina. Thus, South Africa has, on the recorded statistics, the highest murder…… [Read More]
violence in the public schools. Teen violence in general has become a major concern in America today. One of the reasons for the issue being so prevalent is the number of school shootings in the last few years, especially the shooting at Columbine High in Littleton, Colorado. While the welfare of young people is always of concern, much of the fear being generated at the present time is excessive. For one thing, teen violence is not the new phenomenon many people seem to think it is, and an analysis of our history shows that violence in the schools has always been a problem and that in fact it is diminished at the present time. In truth, though, any school violence is too much, and ways of eliminating it and protecting students in school must be found. Several "solutions" to the problem have been offered.
One such recommendation is school uniforms, seen as a way of defusing tensions created by envy over the ability of some students to wear designer clothing, such as expensive sneakers. There are cases where clothing has led to violence. Another reason given is that administrators and teachers see the primary purpose of school a learning and believe that clothing differences are only a distraction to students. They note that at the elementary and intermediate school levels, students are not mature enough to understand the reason for clothing differences and for the ability of some students to dress better than others.
LaFalce states that when we send children to school, we expect them to learn and play with friends and return home happy. We expect them to be safe at school:
We do not anticipate that they should worry about being beaten up or shot at for their sneakers or designer jacket, or bullied for their supposedly unfashionable clothes, or robbed of valuable personal effects and jewelry (LaFalce).
School uniforms are not a new idea and have long been used at Catholic and military schools, as well as in certain school districts across the country. Uniforms are considered a way to promote academics…… [Read More]