8 results for "School Violence Essays"

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Violence in American Schools Violence a & Essay

Words: 938 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99387375

Violence in American Schools


(a & b) Columbine High School is in Jefferson County in Littleton, Colorado. In the spring of 1999, two male senior students executed a plan to commit a brutal series of violent acts against their fellow students, teachers, and staff. In essence, they took the school by siege and they took every person within the school hostage. There were several aspects to the plan. These domestic terrorists definitely premeditated this attack, which included specific activities to block or hinder the fire department that was bound to arrive on scene. They ignited explosions in the school (such as the cafeteria and parking lot), but what people mostly remember are the shootings. They killed 12 students and 1 teacher. Dozens of other students were injured because they tried to flee the scene to save their lives. Eventually, the two attackers turned their guns upon themselves and committed suicide.

Local authorities were very concerned about the lives of everyone inside of the school. There was a full time uniformed deputy who worked at the school. He was with the students when the attacks started. Local authorities arrived on the scene within a few minutes of the initial gunshots. The school deputy called for assistance from the parking lot. The guard assigned to the school entered into a gun fight with the attackers. He was not harmed as a result and he requested more assistance, which, again, arrived very shortly after the attacks started. After the attack concluded (with the suicides of the attackers), there were many types of local authorities, civil and social service employees at the school. There were firefighters, and police.

There were also members of the SWAT team present because of the gravity and collateral damage of the situation. There were parents and emotional/psychological support staff for the students. Of course, the local sheriff's office was there, as they were the first on the scene, and technically a represented was already present, as aforementioned (the uniformed full time guard). The country District Attorney was also at the school where a press conference was held,…… [Read More]

NBC News. (2007). Worst U.S. shooting ever kills 33 on Va. campus. NBC News, Web, Available from: http://www.nbcnews.com/id/18134671/ns/us_news-crime_and_courts/t/worst-us-shooting-ever-kills-va-campus/. 2013 June 25.

Shen, A. (2012). A Timeline of Mass Shooting in the U.S. since Columbine. Think Progress, Web, Available from: http://thinkprogress.org/justice/2012/12/14/1337221/a-timeline-of-mass-shootings-in-the-us-since-columbine/?mobile=nc. 2013 June 25.
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School Shootings by Adults or Juveniles Essay

Words: 2929 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79564732

School Shootings by Adults or Juveniles

[Criminal Justice]

The increased number of school shooting incidents in America during the last two decades has gained public attention. Authorities are very much concerned regarding how to control these tragic incidents in the schools of different states. These shootings in schools conducted by adults or juveniles; have created an impression that schools are not a safe place for students.

However, in reality the situation is not that dangerous as perceived by public and most of the schools have been greatly successful in keeping their students safe. In contrast, many of the schools do face serious problems due to school shootings; which need to follow the effective evidence-based strategies in order to keep their schools safe and free from violence.

Why will an adult or juvenile bring a weapon to school or open fire on his colleagues and teachers? Are these adults and juveniles angry or have any psychiatric problem? Do they want attention? Are they frustrated or simply want to take revenge?

These are the questions that are very complex to answer. Different thinkers, psychologists and sociologists have answered them in different ways but there is not a single reason that can be considered as the cause of school shootings.

A committee of National Research Council performed a case study in 2001 in which six school shooting incidents were considered. It was accomplished in the study that it is impossible to "reach firm scientific conclusions" (Moore, Petrie, Braga, & McLaughlin, 2003, p. 3).

Statistics show that in the past several years, there have been many deadly shootings incidents in schools of Colorado, California, Pennsylvania and Ohio that resulted in deaths and injuries of students and teachers. Therefore, this problem has become an important issue for rural, urban as well as suburban communities of United States. Since 1992, more than 40 schools have faced the situations of multiple shootings; most of which never imagined that it could happen there.

If we look at the history of school shootings, we find several cases in which adults and juveniles behaved abnormally by conducting shootings in school. For instance, United States was shaken in 1997; when surprisingly only a 16 years old student at Mississippi killed his mother and moved to school where he targeted another nine students. Two students died in this tragic incident and others were badly injured.

Another sad incident…… [Read More]

American Psychological Association Zero Tolerance Task Force. (2008). Are zero tolerance policies effective in the schools? An evidentiary review and recommendations. American Psychologist, 63, 852 -- 862.

Centre for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010) Fact Sheet. Understanding School Violence, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.
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School Uniforms Essay

Words: 4090 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20134622

School uniforms for students are becoming more and more popular across the country. Research suggest that schools with a mandatory school-wide uniform policy have better attendance, better behavior, fewer discipline referrals, and more school spirit. Children seem to become more focused on academics. They are also easily identified on campus, in the community, and on field trips, making general safety another benefit of wearing uniforms.

It is hypothesized that behavior in schools which require their students to wear uniforms will be better than those schools which do not with respect to discipline and behavior.

This study will use existing empirical research. The independent variable is wearing school uniforms. There are two levels of independent variables, with school uniforms and without school uniforms. The dependent variable is student behavior. Existing empirical research will provide proof that wearing school uniforms has a positive effect on student behavior.

Mandated Uniforms in School: A Benefit for Students and Educators Alike

The scenarios are endless. A young boy was left dead in the street after his Air Jordans and Raiders jacket are stolen from his body (Jones, 2000). In another city, children playing on a school playground run for cover as a stranger shoots bullets towards them. At another schoolyard, a fight breaks out between two opposing gangs who can be identified by the colors they are wearing. More and more cases of youth-related crimes are reported each year (McWhirter, McWhirter, and McWhirter, l998). In response to increasing youth crime regarding clothing, many communities choose to incorporate uniforms as part of a general safety program.

While educators and parents have long assumed the many benefits inherent in school uniforms, there is actually little empirical data supporting this ideology (DSN, 2004). However, new research shows that uniforms not only keep children looking neat and presentable, but they also carry a positive impact in numerous other areas.

Uniforms are usually part of comprehensive educational reform programs instituted across the United States, which are prompted…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Vanderklis, Kimberly. (1999). School Uniforms May Decrease Discipline Problems. Southeastern Louisiana University.

Washington DC: U.S. Department of Education. (ERIC Document Reproduction No. ED 367-729).

Woods, H. And Ogletree, E. (1992). Parents' opinions of the uniform student dress code. Urban Society, 28, 424-435.
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School-Based Bullying Prevention Programs the Essay

Words: 9042 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8170287

They predict age and gender variations relate to bullying concerns. Of the 25 cartoons implemented in the study, two depict characters with different shades of skin color where skin color appeared to be an issue. One cartoon relating to sexual orientation was not used in several countries. Smith et al. report Olweus to assert bullying to be characterized by the following three criteria:

1. It is aggressive behavior or intentional "harmdoing"

2. which carried out repeatedly and over time

3. In an interpersonal relationship characterized by an imbalance of power. (Smith et al., 2002, p. 1120)

In their study, Smith et al. (2002), participating researchers in the 14 countries to completed the following

1. Listed and selected bullying terms as well as social exclusion in the applicable language.

2. Used fundamental focus groups with participating children to confirm usage and extensive comprehensive of terms.

3. Using cartoons, sorted tasks to describe ways terms relating to bullying are used.

Figure 1 depicts four samples of the 25 cartoons Smith et al. (2002) used in their study.

Figure 1: Four Sample Study Cartoons (Smith et al., 2002, 1123).

In Figure 1, cartoons 3 and 10 depict cartoons from the boy's set. Numbers 14 and 21 reflect cartoons from the girl's set.

Findings they retrieved from their study, Smith et al. (2002) assert, depict a" historical snapshot." They conclude that no significant gender differences exist in the participants' perceptions of the types of social situations the cartoon sets depicted. This suggests that even though boys and girls may differ in the varieties of bullying they implement or acquire at a particular age, they do, albeit, allocate common perceptions as to what bullying actually means.

Even though considerable overlap exists in results, boys, according to the study by Smith et al. (2002) may directly experience more physical bullying, while girls on the other hand, may experience less direct bullying. Both boys and girls likely to observe significant bullying that involves both same-sex and opposite-sex children.

Smith et al. (2002) also report that their study results indicate that 8-year-olds possessed a less discriminating perception than the 14-year-olds. The English term "bullying," which participating school children understood, does not completely match the definitional concept many researchers ascribe to the term; the meaning researchers in the scientific community also generally accept. This, according to Smith et al., may be attributed to the fact that in…… [Read More]

Retrieved March 03, 2010 from HighBeam Research:

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Violence at Schools in South Essay

Words: 4378 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58268265

..This perspective is from the U.S.A.; in Europe, violence in school and the concern about violence may not be at similar levels, but it is undoubtedly a topic of major concern (Smith, 2003, p. 1).

This article also makes the important point that school is intended as a developmental and educational environment and that violence in its various forms negatively effects and detracts from the goals of education.

Another general work that adds to the underlying body of knowledge on this topic is Stealing the Show? Crime and Its Impact in Post-Apartheid South Africa by Mark Shaw and Peter Gastrow (2001). Among others, this study makes a cogent assessment of the way that crime and violence is measured and reported in South Africa.

Most researchers assume that official crime statistics -- that is, those collected and released by the South African Police Service -- provide a poor indication of levels of crime in the country. This is because official statistics never seem to match the personal experiences of citizens (and their friends and neighbors), and because crime statistics are often, unsurprisingly, manipulated to serve political purposes (Shaw and Gastrow, 2001, p. 235).

The emphasis here is on "...personal experiences of citizens (and their friends and neighbors)" (Shaw & Gastrow, 2001, p. 235). This is an extremely important point that will be incorporated into the methodological strategy of this thesis. This useful study echoes the findings of many other reports and studies that stress the high level of general crime in the society. The implication in much of the literature is that this ethos of violence and crime influences children and adolescents. Shaw and Gastrow, (2001), also state that;

The country appears to have more serious levels of violent crime than states that have a comparable socioeconomic status, such as Brazil or Argentina. Thus, South Africa has, on the recorded statistics, the highest murder rate in the world -- the 1997 Interpol data show a figure of 121.67 murders and attempted murders per one hundred thousand citizens. Of this total, the proportion of attempted murders is 53% (Shaw & Gastrow, 2001, p. 235).

This study also makes the important point that official data and statistics are often unverifiable…… [Read More]

Abbink, J. & Kessel, I.V. (Eds.). (2005). Vanguard or Vandals: Youth, Politics, and Conflict in Africa. Boston: Brill. Retrieved January 3, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=114080610

Bility K.M. (1999) School Violence and Adolescent Mental Health in South Africa: Implications for School Health Programs. "http: Sociological Practice, Vol. 01, No, 4, pp. 285-303 www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002024684
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Violence in the Public Schools Teen Violence Essay

Words: 1762 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7002212

violence in the public schools. Teen violence in general has become a major concern in America today. One of the reasons for the issue being so prevalent is the number of school shootings in the last few years, especially the shooting at Columbine High in Littleton, Colorado. While the welfare of young people is always of concern, much of the fear being generated at the present time is excessive. For one thing, teen violence is not the new phenomenon many people seem to think it is, and an analysis of our history shows that violence in the schools has always been a problem and that in fact it is diminished at the present time. In truth, though, any school violence is too much, and ways of eliminating it and protecting students in school must be found. Several "solutions" to the problem have been offered.

One such recommendation is school uniforms, seen as a way of defusing tensions created by envy over the ability of some students to wear designer clothing, such as expensive sneakers. There are cases where clothing has led to violence. Another reason given is that administrators and teachers see the primary purpose of school a learning and believe that clothing differences are only a distraction to students. They note that at the elementary and intermediate school levels, students are not mature enough to understand the reason for clothing differences and for the ability of some students to dress better than others.

LaFalce states that when we send children to school, we expect them to learn and play with friends and return home happy. We expect them to be safe at school:

We do not anticipate that they should worry about being beaten up or shot at for their sneakers or designer jacket, or bullied for their supposedly unfashionable clothes, or robbed of valuable personal effects and jewelry (LaFalce).

School uniforms are not a new idea and have long been used at Catholic and military schools, as well as in certain school districts across the country. Uniforms are considered a…… [Read More]

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School Crime Including the Characteristics Essay

Words: 2347 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8865251

Several areas, if poorly designed, can lead to violent and criminal behavior, including parking lots, isolated spots on campus, locker rooms, and corridors. Often, violent behavior occurs in these areas when adults are not present (Astor, Meyer, and Behre, 1999, p. 3). Designing schools with more open areas, more planned classrooms, and a more defined perimeter can create a safer, less violent campus by creating a more functional and enjoyable educational experience. Thus, older, poorly designed schools often attract more violent behavior.

Location can also be a risk factor in certain schools, although that is not always the case. Another researcher notes, "Some urban schools are located [...] in slum neighborhoods where drug sellers routinely kill one another, as well as innocent bystanders, on the streets surrounding the school" (Toby, 1994, p.169). Children growing up in violence prone neighborhoods such as these may simply accept violence as a way of life, both in and out of school, and use violence to be accepted by their peers, especially in communities where gang activity is present.

As noted, the environment of the school can also be a major factor in violent behavior at the school. The design may be antiquated, and the school may be located in a poor, violent community, and yet the school does not experience as much violence and crime as other schools. Author Welsh has a theory that the school's who are successful in controlling their violence are schools that manage discipline fairly and evenly, are clear about rules and consequences, use reward systems to motivate the students, and reduce frustration in students (Welsh, 2001, p. 920). This means that schools can master their violence problems by rethinking their management and discipline techniques, and working with the students more effectively. Thus, even schools in notoriously "bad" neighborhoods do have to follow the community lead and become havens for violence and crime. Instead, they can stand out as models of student behavior and discipline, and become elevating and motivational to the students, instead of frustrating them, causing fear and a sense of hopelessness, and becoming magnets for violence and crime.

Studies indicate that big-city and inner city schools are the most common sites of school violence and crime, and this…… [Read More]

Astor, R.A. Meyer, H.A. And Behre, W.J. (1999). Unowned places and times: Maps and interviews about violence in high schools. American Educational Research Journal, Vol. 36, No. 1, 3-42.

Crowe, T.D. (1990). Designing safer schools. School Safety. 43-47.
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Violence Reporting Behaviors of High Essay

Words: 2098 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87278678

Two of the schools in the current study have active GSA's which may account for the acceptance of LGBT students at these schools.



Procedures for anonymous reporting (Fear of retaliation)

As stated above, fear of retaliation was the major barrier to reporting according to the findings in this study. It is recommended that school develop safe, anonymous reporting procedures such as that described above. In addition, students must feel that retaliation will be addressed and every attempt will be made to protect the student from retaliation, both inside the school and outside the school. Perpetrators must be informed that retaliation will carry serious consequences and that administrators will follow through. Students must be told that any discussion of disciplinary actions discussed among students will cause further disciplinary actions to be instituted.

Further Research

The schools involved in the current study are known as being very gay-friendly. Two of the schools have very strong GSA's. The school without a GSA receives students from the other two schools and therefore may have a similar acceptance of LGBT students. The reported acceptance of LGBT students may be site specific and therefore not generalizable to most high schools. It is recommended that the research be replicated at a number of schools with and without GSA's.

The original design of the study included an item asking students to identify as LGBT or not. At the recommendation of the dissertation committee, that item was withdrawn from the research instrument. The committee was concerned that approval from the Internal Review Board would not be forthcoming if that item were included. The lack of sexual orientation as a variable seriously impacted the findings. In addition, it was discovered that the study sites were not only willing to include that data in the research instrument, they were anxious to have that data. As the IRB approval was not obtained until…… [Read More]

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School Shooting Issue Essay

Words: 1355 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18041005

old fairy tale which has been called various things such as "Chicken Little" or "The Sky is Falling, The Sky is Falling" but whatever it is called the moral of the story remains the same: mistaken beliefs repeatedly said do not make the belief true. Throughout the ages, society has had to adjust to situations where scams, rumors, and mistaken beliefs have had to be handled in an appropriate way. The examples where society has not necessarily handled these circumstances are numerous. The Salem witch trials, Hitler's attack on the Jews in Nazi Germany, and even Orson Welles infamous radio broadcast of The War of the Worlds," are all examples of how society reacted irrationally and inappropriately to reports and information. In each of these incidents, the media, in various forms, played a significant role and, as society becomes more media savvy and dependent, media's role and influence has increased.

One of the most glaring examples of this situation is the coverage of the various school shootings that have occurred in the United States in the past several years. Needless to say, the media has provided extensive, almost exhausting, coverage of such events to the point that the perception has been created among parents and the general public that school shootings are a profound problem. This perception has served to create an exacerbated fear that our nations' schools and school children are not safe in the public school environment.

The situation described above has been identified by sociologist Stanley Cohen as moral panic. According to Cohen, moral panic is when " (a) condition, episode, person or group of persons emerges to become defined as a threat to societal values and interests (Cohen, 1980: p.9)." In the case of the school shootings the media's failure to provide information regarding the school shootings within the…… [Read More]

Burns, R. And Charles Crawford. (1999). School shootings, the media, and public fear: Ingredients for a moral panic. Crime, Law and Social Change, 147-168.

Cohen, S. (1980). Folk Devils and Moral Panics: The Creation of the Mods and Rockers (New Edition). Oxford, UK: Martin Robertson.
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Campus Violence in High School Essay

Words: 931 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96911664

Violence in High Schools

Violence in schools has been an issue of great concern in our culture for many years, but never so much as today. Society has demanded accountability and practical intervention to address the problem at its source. Parents, educators and students are asking for ways in which they can make changes within schools and recognize problems before they escalate to violence and extreme violence. The work will focus on the history and present records of each student studied and will look for signs and symptoms of problems in every way possible. This work is a proposal for the study of the phenomena of violence within the high school aged group. The work will be divided into three areas of study, data analysis, interview and observation and will be conducted over a four-year period following students from freshman to senior.

The work will create a base for comparison between works done on younger aged children and other works associated with high school aged students and will attempt to demonstrate differences and similarities in patterns of behavior of violent or potentially violent students. The need for a greater understanding of the motivations for violence by students is clear as the demand for intervention become stronger in every area of the culture.

The study would be beneficial for all future studies on the issue and for an overall greater understanding of the phenomena of violence in schools. Additionally, it is especially important to demonstrate an understanding of the phenomena among the high school aged group because they potentially have the greatest degree of violence because of their pre-adult psychology. This work will possibly give all parties a greater understanding of the signs, symptoms and effects of actions that could exacerbate rather than prevent violence. Parents, students and educators need clear and defined answers to tough questions about school violence and it is through research that these answers can be found. This work could also impact the data collection process and intervention process of officials streamlining the process for future ease of understanding. This research could add to the growing body of knowledge about the intervention and prevention of violence in schools, including the possible removal or reduction of stressors that trigger violence and intervention at a stage that could produce earlier results of violence reduction.

Data analysis is crucial to a greater understanding of the history…… [Read More]

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Campus Violence in K 8 Setting Essay

Words: 945 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18441278

Violence in K-8 Schools

The issue of violence among young people has become demonstratively more controversial within our culture in the last few years. The demands of society in general for more accountability and a greater sense of awareness among both parents and school officials have created an exponential need for research associated with the phenomena. Society and officials alike have called for a greater understanding of the motivations and reasons for violence within the schools and also a greater security of awareness of the ability to recognize and intervene when potentially violent young people exhibit warning signs of future violence. This work is a proposal for the study of the phenomena of violence within the K-8 school setting, and will be divided into three parts, studying both primary aged schools and middle school aged school settings.

The proposal demonstrates the need for research associated with a tertiary standard, of analysis, interview and observation to gain greater knowledge of the signs symptoms and actions of potentially violent students.

The need for a greater understanding of the reasons and motivations for violence among K-8 students is clear in the growing recognition of the problem and the demand for accountability by all involved. It is clear that the design of such a study and the implementation of it would benefit all involved by giving students, parents and school officials a greater understanding of the warning signs potentially violent students might exhibit, in an attempt to intervene and therefore prevent violent actions in the future. This work will greatly impact the data collection process and intervention process of officials, parents and possibly the students themselves, who are often much more aware of potential dangers than parents or officials. The research will be an attempt to compile information about the intervention and prevention of violence in schools, including the possible…… [Read More]

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Implementing of School Uniform Policies Essay

Words: 1884 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72323029

School Uniforms

Perhaps the biggest debate of public education over the past decade besides school vouchers has been the debate over whether or not it is legal to require students to wear a uniform to school. Increased crime, gang violence, poor academic performance in public schools has sparked the movement towards mandatory school uniforms. While school uniforms may seem the perfect solution to the problem, to some its as good as putting a band-aid on a three-inch deep wound. There are many arguments for and against school uniforms in public schools; the main concern has to do with the legality of making uniforms compulsory for public school students. The focus of this paper will be to discuss the issues presented by those both for and against school uniforms. Additionally, the legality of such a policy if implemented will also be presented. Finally, facts and figures on those schools that have implemented school uniform policies will be revealed.

The Issue

In certain areas of California certain colors convey that the person wearing it is a member of a gang. Sadly, even those who wear these colors who are not members of the gang often become victims of the gangs mindless violence simply for wearing "their" colors. Three thousand miles away in New York City, students have been victims of crime because they wear what is considered to expensive clothing, students are not only targeted by their fellow students but outsiders as well. In the early 1990's the infamous and costly "8-Ball" jacket was highly sought after by thieves and many schools found themselves responding to situations because a student was attacked for his or her jacket. Many are also concerned about the learning environment; some argue that today's youth place more emphasis on clothes and fashion than their schoolwork. Some view the only solution to this violence is to require students to wear the same attire. Despite whether or not one thinks that school uniforms are a good idea or not, lawmakers are still debating over the legality of mandating school uniforms. Angry parents and students alike feel that such a policy is in clear…… [Read More]