Alter-Muri, S. (2002). Viktor Lowenfeld Revisited: A Review of Lowenfeld's Pre-schematic, Schematic, and Gang Age Stages. American Journal of Art Therapy. 40:172-190 and Burton, J. (2009). Creative Intelligence, Creative Practice: Lowenfeld Redux. Studies in Art Education. 50(4), 323-337
Both of these articles analyze works undertaken by Viktor Lowenfeld. On one hand, Alter-Muri (2002) reviews Lowenfeld's Pre-schematic, Schematic, and Gang Age Stages, and on the other, Burton (2009) reviews Creative Intelligence, Creative Practice: Lowenfeld Redux. In both articles, the authors offer an extensive critique on the theory of creative intelligence that was introduced by Lowenfeld. This encompasses the notions of developmental phases, growth elements, and eventual outcomes. I am in agreement that creative activities and practices do offer ways of knowing and constructing the world that liven up understanding and awareness through acts of personal generativity. I do consider that the aspect of creativity is particularly necessary when it comes to education, with respect to different fields, such as technology and science. In particular, Burton (2009) makes the acknowledgement that in the present day, all faces of the growth and development of children are not only positioned within the culture, which they are separated. However, Burton also points out that these faces of the growth and development of children are fashioned by the abilities, skills, practices and expectations of that particular culture.
In the other article, Alter-Muri (2002) analyzes the schema provided by Lowenfeld with regard to creative and mental growth that takes place in graded phases that encompassed societal, emotive, perceptual, rational, artistic, and creative constituents. In analyzing the review, I have come to understand that all children experience and go through similar phases in a similar manner, at more or less the same ages or cohorts. In addition, I have come to understand that it is at the adolescent phase that societal influences play a significant role in creative growth and development.
Article Response 2: Burton, J. (1981). Developing minds: Ideas in search of forms. School Arts. 58-64
In this article, Burton (1981) makes the argument that young individuals have a great compulsion and impulse to act with brushes and pencils in hand. More so, one aspect that is largely overlooked and disregarded is that art undertaken by adolescents and young individuals is deemed doodling. However, it may function as a real function for the young individual and ought to be considered a graphic activity. In agreement, adolescence is a phase of emotional change for young individuals, which more often than not, can lead to confusion. However, Burton (1981) goes further to assert that the emotional states and sentiments experienced by adolescents go further than their physical state and can also impact their art. More often than not, this is an aspect that can be agreed upon. This can even be perceived in their sense of style. Most of the time, when young individuals enter their adolescent phase, they become conscious of what they wear and how individuals will perceive their sense of style. In most instances, their sense of style is considered a form of outrage regarding their feelings.
However, there are a number of aspects that Burton (1981) asserts, which I am not necessarily in agreement with. For starters, the author makes the argument that all of the doodling undertaken by young individuals may serve as visual metaphors for sexual sentiments and experiences. More so, the author argues that the art done can more often than not be considered as young individuals enquiring directly their sexual inquisitiveness and the appropriateness of their sexual frame of mind. This cannot be considered to be always the case. Artwork, and in this case doodling, done by young individuals, ought not to be always considered a way of relieving their sexual curiosity. This can easily be innocent artwork that has no relation whatsoever with such aspects.
Article Response 3: Harnden, B., Rosales, A. B., & Greenfield, B. (2004). Outpatient art therapy with a suicidal adolescent female. The Arts in Psychotherapy, 31(3), 165-180
The article presented by Harnden et al. (2004), offers the suggestion that adolescents experiencing suicidal tendencies can be treated on the basis of outpatient treatment through the use of art therapy. This is a different approach taken by the authors as majority of the research undertaken on art therapy is largely concerted on inpatient treatment for the participants. It has been shown on preceding research studies that most of the young individuals who visit the emergency room to be evaluated for...
Therefore, it is imperative to ensure that disruption does not have negative impacts, especially for suicidal patients. For this reason, I agree with Harnden et al. (2004) that outpatient art therapy can be effective as it is less intrusive on the individual's life. This is in the form of relating with family, school work and schedule, the work plan for the parents and also their social activities. Being hospitalized implies that the young individuals would have to face disruption in their lives to stay in hospital. In fact, this can eventually add on to the suicidal tendencies that they already have as some can perceive it as being taken away from family. Outpatient art therapy offers conveniences to not only the adolescent patient, but also to the family as well. However, it is imperative to note that outpatient art therapy can be argued against with regards to the relationship between the patient and his or her family; if it is not healthy. This is owing to the fact that the disruption in itself can function as a positive aspect in decreasing the extent of suicidal tendencies in their phases.
Article Response 4: Lyshak-Stelzer, F., Singer, P., St. John, P., & Chemtob, C. M. (2007). Art Therapy for Adolescents with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms: A Pilot Study. Art Therapy: Journal of The American Art Therapy Association, 24(4), 163-169
The article presented by Lyshak-Stelzer et al. (2007) outlines a research study that studied the effectiveness of an adjunctive trauma dedicated art therapy intervention in decreasing chronic child posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) indications in an inpatient psychiatric establishment for youth. The central idea forged within the article is that the youth whose treatment included art therapy had decreased severity in PTSD conditions and symptoms. I consider this central notion to be true and effective. Posttraumatic stress disorder comes about as a result of people failing to deal with trauma experienced at an earlier age. Art therapy can indeed be employed for individuals who have been through traumatic experiences. This is for the reason that, it is deemed that memories are retained within the mind of a human being as pictures. Therefore, art therapy facilitated by art therapists can assist young individuals suffering from PTSD to make art that is linked and corresponds to the picture recollections of the trauma. In particular, I do agree that this sort of therapy can be beneficial in the sense that it can help these individuals to remove such recollections from their mental memory and aid them in working out their emotions as well as perceptions associated with the trauma.
However, a conflicting perspective with respect to key notion proclaimed within the study is whether such therapy is effective and functional to young individuals experiencing PTSD, but have different personalities, in that they do not enjoy art. It is imperative to question whether art therapy is a methodology that is only effective and operational to young individuals who enjoy art through painting and coloring or otherwise. It becomes important to consider whether art therapy can be effective in entangling and resolving the feelings experienced by these young individuals. Is it only restricted to painting? What other ways can the therapy be effective?
Article Response 5: Pifalo, T. (2002). Pulling Out the Thorns: Art Therapy with Sexually Abused Children and Adolescents. Journal of the American Art Therapy Association. 19:1, 12-22
In the article, Pifalo (2002) outlines a methodology in which art therapy together with group practices can be incorporated in certain areas when dealing with children and adolescents who are victims of sexual abuse. Incest is an experience that several children and adolescents have gone through, which ends up having a traumatic effect perhaps even for the rest of their lives. In particular, the author proclaims that subsequent to working with art therapy, there is a conceivable decrease in the indications that are usually linked with sexual abuse during childhood. It is easily agreeable that art therapy can function as an important tool in dealing with symptoms of child abuse. This is for the reason that one of the challenges that are related with treating children and adolescents who have been previously sexually abused is that they find it hard to be able to verbalize their thoughts and emotions. More often than not, the reflection and representation of such experiences ends up…
Language acquisition is an aspect that comes about every day yet it is a mystic achievement of childhood. An important element learned is that language is acquired by means of knowledge and cognition of the semantic, syntactic, phonological, pragmatic and morphemic aspects of written as well as oral language. For instance, the children will respond to the languages that they hear in their environment. Children do in fact react to
In fact, rather than approve her action, the man who first awakens her new-found sexuality, Robert Lebrun, rejects Edna. As an idealized object of desire from far away, Edna was attractive to Robert. When Edna makes himself available to him, in real, physical terms, Robert's superego dominates his id-driven desire for pleasure. Although he desires Edna as an object of fantasy, because of his intense sense of guilt, she also comes to embody all he
corporate downsizing. Downsizing Articles Downsizing Kim, Wang-Bae (2003). Economic Crisis, Downsizing and "Layoff Survivor's Syndrome"; Journal of Contemporary Asia, Vol. 33, 2003 This article empirically examines the effects of downsizing on layoff survivors in South Korea to determine if any of the unintended negative consequences of economic restructuring are present. While studies at the macro level on the downsizing that has occurred since the 1997 economic crisis has highlighted changes to the labor
Homeschooling Quality of Education The Need for and the Purpose of the Project The Subproblems Definitions and Abbreviations of Terms Books Methodology for investigating problems identified as subproblems Note on the Anti-Homeschooling Debate Specific data by subproblem Conclusion by subproblem Subproblem one Subproblem two Subproblem three Sources Cited Growth in Homeschooling, 1978-1999 NCES Reasons for Homeschooling The Need for and the Purpose of the Project Homeschooling is providing a child's main educational program at home. (Webster) Homeschooling takes the place of full-time school attendance, whether at
(Reachout Trust, para. 12) Over the past six decades, the MBTI has become very successful worldwide. It is used by a number of educational concerns, non-profit organizations and corporations for a variety of reasons. These include: Careers/Personal Development: The MBTI helps people identify career and/or life paths. A person's type preferences indicates skills they are most likely to pick up easily, as well as occupations they might be interested in or
side-listed positions possible. There are also questions with regard to the nature of e-commerce queries and the trends in sponsored links that shed light on their effectiveness overall. Comparing Literature Reviews In both articles, the literature reviews are thorough and very well organized. Starting with (Jansen 2007) the depth of literature review to the cause -- and effect level of the analysis is impressive. The researchers who completed the analysis in