Psychotherapy Essays (Examples)

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Psychotherapies if Rape Were Legal This Is

Words: 1296 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10364136


If ape were legal

This is a story about a cancer patient who objectifies women and his life changes drastically for the better after his therapist takes an aggressive stance in one of the personal therapy sessions after a disturbing incident in his group therapy session. This paper reviews the relationship between the patient and the therapist by analyzing their dynamic through the following psychotherapies: Dynamic, Person-Centered, EBT and Alderian.


Psychodynamic psychologists research human habits by trying to find the unseen meanings in things that individuals think, do or state. This needs them to collect huge quantities of qualitative information about individuals, which is typically done with using the specific case-study technique. The topic of the case history is typically an individual who is dealing with a mental ailment and who is being treated with psychoanalysis. The professional gathers details from things the individual states or finishes treatment…… [Read More]


Gergen, K.J. (1999). An invitation to social construction. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Korobov, N. (2000). Social constructionist 'theory hope': The impasse from theory to practice. Culture and Psychology, 6, 365-373.

Martin, J., & Sugarman, J. (1997). The social-cognitive construction of psychotherapeutic change: Bridging social constructionism and cognitive constructivism. Review of General Psychology, 1, 375-378.

Sammons, A. (2007). Psychodynamic approach: the basics. Psychodynamic Psychology.
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Impact of Psychotherapies on Clients

Words: 919 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37722491

Multi-Cultural Theories of Psychotherapy

A majority of therapeutic approaches realize that clients' individual differences should be appreciated and recognized. ut major psychotherapy theories, which have originated from Western society, are inclined to be built in a perspective that is mono-cultural. They foster conventional cultural values, while ignoring multicultural philosophies of life. Unfortunately, this mono-cultural approach to psychotherapy often fosters ethnocentrism, an idea that one's culture is intrinsically desirable and better than that of others. Those who espouse multicultural psychotherapies encourage cultural sensitivity, are aware of, respect, and understand cultural diversity. Appreciating diversity fosters a critical analysis of conventional psychotherapeutic norms and practices, as definitions of disease, health, treatment, abnormality, and normality are culturally rooted. Therefore, multicultural psychotherapies study worldviews of both clients and themselves. 'Worldview' denotes individuals' traumatized beliefs and ideas regarding the world. The use of multicultural psychotherapies in self-analysis leads to assessment of potential bias and professional socialization.…… [Read More]


Danny Wedding and Raymond J Corsini (2014) Current Psychotherapies 10th Ed.
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Analysis on Integrative Psychotherapies

Words: 927 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28060695

Integrative Psychotherapies

Psychotherapy Integration

Psychotherapy integration is distinguished by dissatisfaction with single school advances and a related longing to look across boundaries to view how patients could gain from other means of carrying out psychotherapy. Even though certain labels are implemented to this movement, treatment adaptation, prescriptive therapy, integration eclecticism, responsiveness, and matching, the objectives are the same. The ultimate objective is to improve the efficiency as well as the applicability of psychotherapy. Given the maturity of the psychotherapy field, integration has surfaced as a stronghold. oth a drop in ideological struggle and movement toward rapprochement has been witnessed. Clinicians now recognize the insufficiencies and potential value in all theoretical systems. Actually, majority of the young psychotherapy students display astonishment when they learn about the ideological cold war of the earlier generations (Norcross & eutler, 2014).

Integrative Psychotherapy and Theory of Personality

Stating that integrative therapies do not respond to…… [Read More]


Norcross, J., & Beutler, L. (2014). Integrative Psychotherapies. In D. Wedding, & R. Corsini, Current Psychotherapies (pp. 499-526). Boston: Cengage Learning.
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Analyzing the Contemplative Psychotherapies

Words: 913 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38379865

Contemplative Psychotherapies

Some ancient contemplative customs of meditation are the Christian meditation, Jewish Tzeruf, Buddhist and Confucian meditation, Islamic Sufi Zikr and Taoist and Hindu yoga. In several settings, the practices are believed to be conventional and a part of the everyday lives of the people. All of these practices were either used for spiritual or religious purposes in the ancient days; however, they are now also used for emotional and mental benefits. There are professional academies for training and providing relief to the people through meditation and yoga. Yoga and meditation are the main two types of Contemplative customs. Yoga is a set of beliefs, obligations and knowledge that has almost the same aims as of meditation. It includes a set of diet, ethics, intellectual exploration, breath control, and lifestyle and body postures. Meditation is complete peace of mind, which helps to improve health, growth and intellectual space intentionally…… [Read More]


Walsh, R.(2014). "Chapter 12: Contemplative Psychotherapies" In Wedding, D., & Corsini, R.

J. Current Psychotherapies 10th Ed. Belmont, CA.: Bookes Cole.
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Psychotherapeutic Models and My Practice

Words: 686 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84356087


Corey's ultimate recommendation, when it comes to the different schools of psychotherapy, is to pursue an integrative approach, in which the different methods are combined and individually tailored to suit the client. This seems ultimately very sensible, but the goals for my own practice are highly specific, and I think it is worth considering the ways in which I might be able to integrate different techniques in a practice that focuses on life coaching and career counseling.

The chief advantage of traditional Freudian psychoanalysis is that it encourages the patient to talk as much as possible with very little intervention by the therapist. I still consider this to be a useful technique to start. A therapist can only work with what he or she is given. But when the therapist's specific area of professional expertise is life coaching, a certain number of assumptions can be made about what sort…… [Read More]


Corey, G. (2008). Theory And Practice Of Counseling & Psychotherapy, 8th Edition. Belmont, CA: Brooks / Cole.
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Dsm Iv and Dsm V Diagnoses for a Character

Words: 557 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80818444

Psychotherapy: The client will benefit from ongoing and in-depth psychoanalysis to attempt to discover some of the root causes of the issues. Because Belfort did not exhibit his behavioral problems prior to working in the Wall Street sector, it is likely that talk therapy will help elucidate some of the core reasons why he changed.

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Once talking therapy has clarified some of the core issues Belfort is facing, cognitive-behavioral therapy can help him to identify the irrational, unreasonable, and untenable thought processes and biased beliefs that lead to his dysfunctional behaviors. The goal of the cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention will be behavioral change but also shifts in the ways Belfort views himself, other people, and his values.

Volunteer work and selfless service: Because Belfort has been consumed with an identity linked to money, power, and prestige, it may be helpful for him to shift focus to working with…… [Read More]

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Diversity Using the Memoir as

Words: 2153 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36776239

Her cancer and disfigurement distinguish the subject as being in a specific cultural group due for counseling, with many of the strategies used to engage her centering the culture of sickness and its attendant modes of recovery, rehabilitation and return to normalcy. Current logic supports group-based treatment imperatives for those who may be characterized accordingly. For the subject through, as with most any counseling subject, a number of specific cultural and personal features have made this sickness and its consequences a unique experience. e can also see that her perspective and needs have been formed by dimensions such as the subject's unstable economic upbringing; the sense of difference from wealthy suburban children; and an internal portrayal within the family suggesting a retention of the identity of foreigners in a strange land.

The interplay of these multiple dimensions is discussed in the article by Croteau et al. The article quotes several…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Croteau, J.M.; Talbot, D.M.; Lance, T.S. & Evans, N.J. (2002). A Qualitative Study of the Interplay Between Privilege and Oppression. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 30.

Grealy, L. (2003). Autobiography of a Face. Harper Collins Publishers.

Hwang, W (2006). Acculturative Family Distancing: Theory, Research, and Clinical Practice. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 43(4), 397-409.

Leary, K. (1995). 'Interpreting in the Dark': Race and Ethnicity in Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 12(1).
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Constructive Therapy Constructivism Is a Theoretical Perspective

Words: 3489 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13177749

Constructive Therapy

Constructivism is a theoretical perspective that asserts that people attempt to make sense of the world by developing their own set of personal individualized constructs. Personal experience, interpretation, social context, and linguistic factors define a person's subjective reality. Constructive psychotherapy focuses on individual experience, personal resilience, change, and the therapeutic relationship to assist people with change. The current article asserts that constructivism and constructive psychotherapies heavily draw from principles of past theorists such as George Kelly and Kurt Lewin, and constructivism and constructive psychotherapies do not represent facets of a new paradigm. In this sense constructive psychotherapy is not a unified form of psychotherapy but instead a form of integrated psychotherapy. Finally the article applies five basic principles of constructivism: activity, order, the self, social-symbolic relations, and lifespan development in the proposed psychotherapy of Sam, a man who is experiencing frustration and anger-management issues at his work and…… [Read More]


Arkowitz, H. (1992). Integrative theories of therapy. In D.K. Freedheim, H.J. Freudenberger, J.W. Kessler, S.B. Messer, D.R. Peterson, H.H. Strupp, & E.L. Wachtel (Eds.), History of psychotherapy: A century of change (pp. 261-304). Washington, DC: APA Press.

Chiari, G., & Nuzzo, M.L. (1996). Psychological constructivisms: A metatheoretical differentiation. Journal of Constructivist Psychology, 9, 163-184.

Dollard, J. & Miller, N.E. (1950). Personality and psychotherapy: An analysis in terms of learning, thinking, and culture. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Kelly, G.A. (1955). The psychology of personal constructs (Vols. I & II). New York: Norton.
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Knowledge Concerning Ethical Issues Involved

Words: 4963 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86009486

100). Much of the focus of personnel selection using psychological testing was on new troops enlisting in the military during two world wars and the explosive growth of the private sector thereafter (Scroggins et al., 2008). Psychological testing for personnel selection purposes, though, faded into disfavor during the 1960s, but it continues to be used by human resource practitioners today. In this regard, Scroggins and his colleagues advise, "Many H practitioners, however, have continued to use personality testing with an optimistic and enduring faith in its ability to discriminate between good and poor job candidates" (p. 101).

In cases where cheating is suspected (such as in the case of an teen applicant possibly using a smartphone or consulting crib notes during testing by visiting the restroom), psychologists have a professional responsibility to conform to relevant privacy laws with respect to the results of such tests, including following the decision-making model…… [Read More]


Barnes, F.P. & Murdin, L. (2001). Values and ethics in the practice of psychotherapy and counseling. Philadelphia: Open University Press.

Bersoff, D.N. (2008). Ethical conflicts in psychology. American Psychological Association.

Bonventre, V.M. (2005, Spring). Editor's foreword. Albany Law Review, 68(2), vii-ix.

Charman, D. (2004). Core processes in brief psychodynamic psychotherapy: Advancing effective practice. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
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Alternative Therapy Types

Words: 948 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94123070

Existential Psychotherapy


he class text makes mention in one of its chapters about existential psychotherapy. his treatment style seems to be yet another tool in the proverbial toolbox that psychiatrists and therapists can use or advocate along the same lines as cognitive behavioral therapy, EDMR and so forth. he author of this report will review how it came to be, what it is comprised of and how/why it may work for many or at least some people. he author will also offer thoughts and feelings about how promising and relevant this topic seems to be. While some therapeutic techniques are more widely known and/or ostensibly effective than others, it is also true that any method that garners good results for even a subset of patients is worth exploring or leaving aside as an option should the need arise.


As was made clear by the text, the people behind…… [Read More]

The world can be a very chaotic and dangerous place for a human mind. This is confirmed by the fact that everyone suffers from some degree of anxiety and/or depression at one time or another. Others still suffer on a chronic and consistent basis over years and decades and those people have their own demons and hurdles to defeat. However, existential psychotherapy is a good option for those that don't need to parse out what happened in the past and just need to take steps forward one after the other. Inner peace, no matter how it is garnered, is a noble pursuit and existential psychotherapy is just another option to pick from for those it would work for.


Corsini, R.J., & Wedding, D. (2013). Current psychotherapies (Tenth ed.). New York: Cengage Learning.
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Analyzing Yalom's if Rape Were Legal

Words: 1541 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13288052


The opening phase of dynamic psychotherapy helps the therapist to understand why the patient is seeking treatment; what kind of triggers to current problems are present; and house troubled the patient is in terms of both physical and psychological health (text p. 41). Yalom (1989) allows for several sessions of introductory therapy, also in keeping with the psychodynamic model. At this introductory phase, the therapist gets an idea of what treatment options to present and how to proceed. Yalom (1989) also determines the frequency of the treatment in the introductory phase (text p. 41). The core way that the relationship between Yalom (1989) and Carlos exemplifies psychodynamic therapy is in regards to the transference neurosis, which intensifies in therapy (text p. 53). However, transference is worked through as a core element of the therapeutic process. In the case with Carlos, neurotic transference is exemplified most clearly in the way…… [Read More]


Corsini & Wedding (n.d.). Textbook.

Yalom (1989), I.D. (1989). "2 - If Rape Were Legal..." In Love's Executioner and Other Tales of Psychotherapy. New York: Basic, 1989. 59-78.
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Fisher C And Oransky M

Words: 889 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8297051

Discussion -- Textbook approach gives a great deal of theory; value of the article is in taking the material and applying it to situations that are relevant to one's current profession and/or understanding different approaches to conflict.

Review -- the Million Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI) - the MCMI is a psychological assessment tool that was written to provide information on psychopathology including specifics outlined in the DSM-IV. It is intended for adults over 18 who have at least an 8th grade reading level and who are seeking mental health services. The test was actually developed and standardizes on clinical populations in psychiatric hospitals or individuals with current existing mental health issues. The authors are quite specific about it not being used with the general population or with adolescents, as values will likely not be appropriate for extrapolation (Pearson, 2012).

History -- Published in 1977 by Theodore Millon based on his…… [Read More]


Million, T., (2006). MCMI-III Manual. Minneapolis, MN: Pearson.

Pearson Educational Services. (2012). The Million Clinical Multiaxial Inventory III.

Retrieved from: 

Widiger, T., (1985). The MCMI and DSM-III. Journal of Personality Assessment.
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Red -Violet Book the Imaginal

Words: 3420 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66196320

The boy just stood there staring at the pile of clothes and cat food and bows. I went over and asked him if I could do anything but he told me that he was used to it. I wasn't actually all that surprised by his answer.

And so I ask myself: Which story of the family are these two telling themselves? Does the boy know that he is Horus and Apollo? Or does he know that he is Bluebeard in the making? And does the woman yearn to be Demeter? Or is she still aching to be Persephone? Persephone is for Jung a symbol of completeness, for she encompasses opposites -- life and death, mother and daughter, even male and female. The whole eternal cycle of birth through to rebirth.


Then there were two women, well dressed, nice jewelry, standing in the candle aisle. I was there because --…… [Read More]


Jung, C.G. (1966). The practical use of dream analysis in the practice of psychotherapy. Princeton: Princeton University Press: pp 139-161.

Jung, C.G. (2009). The Red book: Liber novus. S. Shamdassani, ED and trans., M. Kyburz and J. Peck, Trans. New York: Norton.
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What Is Development

Words: 1243 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29428979

Developmental Processes Across the Life Span With Diverse Sociocultural Contexts

The objective of this study is to identify development processes across the life span with diverse sociocultural contexts and to demonstrate theoretical comprehension and application in psychotherapy in order to identify theoretical strengths and weaknesses based on the setting and/or client population specific to child behavior. Finally, this work will demonstrate basic knowledge of the range of normal an abnormal behaviors and child developmental processes. The work of Havighurst (1971) entitled 'Characteristics of Development Task' reports that living is a process beginning with birth and ending with death, which is, comprised of people "working their way through from stage of development to another, by solving their problems in each stage.") When the individual does not complete a task, which results in unhappiness as well as "disapproval by society and problems in later tasks." (1971, p.1) Six primary stages of the…… [Read More]


Havighurst, R.J., (1971) Developmental Tasks and Education, Third Edition. New York. Longman.

Lam, WSE (nd) Re-envisioning Language, Literacy and the Immigrant Subject in New Mediascapes. Northwestern University / Evanston, IL.

Castel, AD, et al. (2011) The Development of Memory Efficiency and Value-Directed Remembering Across the Life Span: A Cross-Sectional Study of Memory and Selectivity. Developmental Psychology © 2011 American Psychological Association. 2011, Vol. 47, No. 6, 1553 -- 1564.

Waszak, F. et al. (2010) The Development of Attentional Networks: Cross-Sectional Findings From a Life Span Sample. Developmental Psychology © 2010 American Psychological Association 2010, Vol. 46, No. 2, 337 -- 349
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Epstein Book Summary I Interpreted This Reading

Words: 1019 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82278440

Epstein Book Summary

I interpreted this reading as Buddhist philosophy as being a novel way to address the difficult condition of narcissism that seems to be misunderstood by more conventional and modern methods. For me, Buddhist thought is about putting the ego into its proper perspective and this chapter introduced the author's ideas on how the ego and its different aspects influence metaphysics and how the deconstruction efforts targeted towards the ego within the Buddhist approach is aligned as an acceptable way to solve the problems of the modern mind in a self-realized manner that does not require medicine only mediation.

I have learned from this chapter that the components of the mind can be dissected and manipulated to put the individual at the forefront of creation. The Buddhist approach is one that requires looking at yourself in a new way without becoming too involved or narcissistic.

Chapter 2

I…… [Read More]


Epstein, M. (2007). Pyschotherapy Without the Self: A Buddhist Perspective. N.Y.: Basic Books
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Relationship and Development of Child's Personality --

Words: 1765 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21206330

relationship and development of child's personality -- developmental theories in Integrative psychotherapy and their use by working with clients

The foundation of our daily lives is created on the relationships that we have with other people. This contact with others, a feeling of reverence it produces and the relational needs it satisfies are all the requirements for us. Our capability to make complete contact with others is frequently disturbed as we confront the unavoidable sufferings of life, either large or small. Psychological dysfunction will result if contact decreases and relational needs get curtailed. Through a method called Integrative Psychotherapy, people can revive their capability to uphold real relationships and improved psychological health. The integrative psychotherapy is based on oger's client-centered therapy, Berne's transactional analysis, Perls Gestalt therapy, Kohut's self-psychology, and also the contributions of British object-relations theorists. (Erskine; Moursund; Trautmann, 1999)

Integrative Psychotherapy:

Integrative psychotherapy involves a practice of psychotherapy…… [Read More]


Erskine, Richard G; Moursund, Janet; Trautmann, Rebecca. (1999) "Beyond Empathy - A Therapy of Contact-In Relationship" Brunner/Mazel. Retrieved from  Accessed on May 12, 2005

Erskine, Richard G; Moursund, Janet. (1998) "Integrative Psychotherapy in Action" Gestalt Journal Press. Retrieved from  Accessed on May 12, 2005

Erskine, Richard G. "Introjection, Psychic Presence and Parent Ego States: Considerations for Psychotherapy" Institute for Integrative Psychotherapy. Retrieved from  Accessed on May 12, 2005

Erskine, Richard G; Trautmann, Rebecca. "Resolving Intra-psychic Conflict: Psychotherapy of Parent Ego States" Institute for Integrative Psychotherapy. Retrieved from
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Theory Therapy Levy Meehan Kelly

Words: 4158 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86662734

Kellogg & Young in Schema Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder offer a comprehensive explanation of the use of Schema Therapy for patients with BPD, by first explaining the disorder and how it is particularly prime for the use of schema therapy as the disorder itself and the behavior and emotions exhibited from it can be seen as an individual traversing through a short list of schemas and are reflective of the childhood origins of BPD. The modes of BPD are described by the authors as consisting of the angry and impulsive child mode, the detached protector mode, the punitive parent mode and lastly the healthy adult mode. According to the authors if these modes are lacking in integration and emotions cannot be traversed across each, or if the modes are significantly unbalanced they become schemas that override normal adult behavior. The particulars of Schema Therapy are then described after a…… [Read More]


Clarkin, J.F. Levy, K.N. Lenzenweger, M.F. Kernberg, O.F. (June 2007) Evaluating Three Treatments for Borderline Personality Disorder: A Multiwave Study Ameican Journal of Psychology 164:6, 922-928.

Clarkin, J.F. & Levy, K.N. (April 2003) a Psychodynamic Treatment for Severe Personality Disorders: Issues in Treatment Development Psychoanalytic Inquiry 23:2 248-268.

Kellogg, S.H. Young, J.E. (February 2006) Schema Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder Journal of Clinical Psychology 62:4 445-458.

Kimball, J.S., & Diddams, M. (2007). Affect Regulation as a Mediator of Attachment and Deliberate Self-Harm. Journal of College Counseling, 10(1), 44.
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Affective Disorders and Cognitive Failures a Comparison of Seasonal and Nonseasonal Depression

Words: 572 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58231365

Predicting Patient Investment Into Psychotherapy

Psychotherapy Investment

Prediction Patient Investment in Psychotherapy

Predicting Patient Investment into Psychotherapy

The factors that cause an individual to terminate psychotherapy have been of interest since this form of therapy was developed. Some researchers and theorists have argued that the need to relieve personal isolation and habits of dependency may motivate patients to remain in psychotherapy (reviewed by Ackerman, Hilsenroth, Clemence, Weatherill, and Fowler, 2000, p. 387). This does not imply that patients who remain in psychotherapy are docile though. Quite the contrary, studies have shown that these patients are often aggressive, contrary, have turbulent negative emotions, and high levels of interpersonal distress.

The research data that produced the above findings were based primarily on orschach examinations. Whether these findings would be validated by non-orschach instruments is unknown. Towards this goal, Ackerman and colleagues (2000) examined the utility of the Westen's Social Cognition and Object…… [Read More]


Ackerman, Steven J., Hilsenroth, Mark J., Clemence, Amanda J., Weatherill, Robin., and Fowler, J. Christopher. (2000). The effects of social cognition and object representation on psychotherapy continuation. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 64, 386-408.
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Cognitive and Affective Psychology According

Words: 2587 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25257859

The psychotherapist's role is then to enhance the already existing tools to help those who need it develop their intelligence and problem-solving abilities in order to promote the healing process.

Question 2


Both the cognitive and affective domains are important considerations within psychotherapy. Indeed, the two often function within a causal relationship to each other. In the Communicative Theory of emotion, as expounded by Brett et al. (2003), for example, emotions are directly related to conscious or unconscious cognitive evaluations. These cognitive evaluations then cause an emotional response, which might include happiness, sadness, or anger. The subconscious internalization of the original cognitive evaluation and accompanying emotion could then result in behavior-related problems such as prejudice. Sometimes such behavior problems are so deeply seated that they need to be treated by means of psychotherapy.

Cognitive therapy, as explained by Michael Herkov (2010), acknowledges the relationship between thought (the cognitive aspect)…… [Read More]

References (2010). Cognitive Neuroscience.

Brett, a., Smith, M., Price, E., & Huitt, W. (2003). Overview of the affective domain. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved [date], from http:/

Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct.

Eysenck, Michael W. & Keane, Mark T. (2005). Cognitive Psychology: a student's handbook. East Sussex: Psychology Press Ltd.
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Human Beings Make Sense of Things in

Words: 3786 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29364579

Human Beings Make Sense of Things

In the early-1900s, Edmund Husserl sought to provide psychology with a truly scientific basis, not by copying the physical sciences but through the description of conscious experiences. This would be a truly humanistic psychology, grounded in human life and experience rather than materialistic and mechanistic theories like functionalism and behaviorism. Karl Jaspers called for a psychology that would describe phenomena such as "hallucinations, delusions, dreams, expressions, motor activity, and gestures" for the "person as a whole" (Churchill and Wertz, 2001, p. 247). This holistic or Gestalt psychology is dedicated to the search for the authentic self, and to heal the "hollow' men and women of our time who have lost touch with themselves" (Churchill and Wertz, p. 248). Intentionality is one of the key assumptions of phenomenological psychology in which "experience must be grasped holistically and a relationship in which the subject relates to…… [Read More]


Churchill, S. And Wertz, F. (2001) "An Introduction to Phenomenological Research in psychology: Historical, Conceptual, and Methodological Foundations," in K.J. Schneider, J .F .T. Bugental, & J.F. Pierson (Eds.) The Handbook of Humanistic Psychology: Leading Edges in Theory, Research, and Practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, pp. 247-62.

May, R. (1958). "The Origins and Significance of the Existential Movement in Psychology" and "Contributions of Existential Psychotherapy" in R. May, E. Angel and H. Ellenberger (Eds.), Existence. New York: Basic Books, pp. 3-36; 37-91.

Heidegger, M. (1971)." Building, Dwelling, Thinking," and "The Thing" in Poetry, Language, Thought. (A. Hofstadter, Trans.). New York: Harper and Row, pp. 145-61; 165-86.

Heidegger, M. (1955, 2003)."Memorial Address," in Stassen, M. (Ed). Martin Heidegger: Philosophical and Political Writings. Continuum International Publishing Group, pp. 87-96.