This new political project would come to the forefront in the Bauhaus's conceptualization of functionalism, particularly under the second director Hannes Myer, who believed that architecture should be low cost and fulfill the living and working needs of the common working man. This idealistic belief, as detailed in such works as Karel Teige's the Minimum Dwelling, resulted in the construction of panel housing units in cities throughout Germany - and Central and Eastern Europe - throughout the course of the following century.
The Bauhaus School would operate until the year 1933, when the rise of fascism put an end to its activities (the Deutscher Werkbund attempted to conform to the ideals espoused by the Nazi regime, and was thus sharply criticized by Gropius.)
The changing concerns of the Bauhaus as a style and pedagogical approach during this period was rooted in the shifting directorship that the school underwent - not to mention its shifting locations, from Weimar to Dessau to Berlin. After Gropius departed the Bauhaus in 1927, Myer led the school up until 1930. In its final three years of existence, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe led the Bauhaus.
The development of the Bauhaus represented a turn away from the expressionism that many architects had begun to turn towards during this period. The architectural achievements of the Bauhaus soon became the yardstick by which previous accomplishments - including those of the Werkbund - would be measured. Gropius's Bauhaus buildings in Dessau, constructed in 1925 and 1926, stressed both the development of the Werkbund's functionalist ideas through the artist's individual vision; in the words of Siegfried Giedion, "major endeavors of modern architecture are fulfilled [through the] conscious realization of an artist's intent."
Whereas the Deutsche Werkbund had confused its aesthetic principles with advances in engineering, the Bauhaus was seen to have accomplished a veritable fusion of form and function in their architectural and design practices.
Ironically, the Bauhaus managed to realize many of the Werkbund's (i.e. Muthesius's) earliest ideas in completely severing its ties to the past in favor of a completely modern vision, as represented by the stern geometric structure of Gropius's Bauhaus buildings in Dessau. Whereas the architects affiliated with the Werkbund still injected classical ideals of architecture into their designs, effectively giving rise to such a-tectonic forms as represented in van der Velde's controversial building for the 1914 Cologne Exhibition, the Bauhaus managed to shed all indications of the classical past in forging what would become known as the "New Objectivity."
While the Bauhaus and many of its creations would continue to live on in one form or another, the Bauhaus School was essentially destroyed when the National Socialists came to place to go explore the multiple political implications of the Werkbund in detail, suffice to say that the figure of Muthesius proved to be a conflictual force in the Werkbund's evolution. While he was responsible for spearheading the movement in the first place - and doubtless that without Muthesius, there would have been no Bauhaus - at the same time he was responsible for the movement's decline, thanks to his militant denial of individual expression in architecture and design. It was this negation of Muthesius that the Bauhaus school would reverse, effectively transforming a national platform into an international style, a conservative aesthetic into a highly progressive and open-ended approach.
Anderson, Stanford. Peter Behrens. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1999.
Giedion, Siegfried. Space, Time, and Architecture: The Growth of a New Tradition, 5th ed.
Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1967.
Huddersfield Information Project. "Deutsche Werkbund." Huddersfield University Library. http://www.hud.ac.uk/schools/library/hip/design/lecture/deuwer.html (Accessed September 24, 2007).
Schwartz, Frederic J. The Werkbund: Design Theory and Mass Culture before the First
World War. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1996.
Maciuika, John V. "Wilhelmine Precedents for the Bauhaus: Hermann Mauthesius, the Prussian State, and the German Werkbund." In Bauhaus Culture, ed. Kathleen
James-Chakraborty. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2006.
Teige, Karel. The Minimum Dwelling. Trans. Eric Dluhosch. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2002.
Frederic J. Schwartz, the Werkbund: Design Theory and Mass Culture before the First World War (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1996).
Stanford Anderson, Peter Behrens (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1999), 138.
Schwartz 1996, 3.
John V. Maciuika, "Wilhelmine Precedents for the Bauhaus: Hermann Mauthesius, the Prussian State, and the German Werkbund," in Bauhaus Culture, ed. Kathleen James-Chakraborty (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2006), 19-23.
Huddersfield Information Project, "Deutsche Werkbund," Huddersfield University Library, http://www.hud.ac.uk/schools/library/hip/design/lecture/deuwer.html.
Karel Teige, the Minimum Dwelling, trans. Eric Dluhosch (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2002)
Huddersfield Information Project.
Siegfried Giedion, Space, Time, and Architecture: The Growth of a New…
Bauhaus remains one of the most important design movements of the 20th century. Many of the core principles of Bauhaus have become fully integrated with design and development, influencing city planning and public art as well, because the fundamental principle of Bauhaus is the integration of design with everyday life. Architect Walter Gropius started the Bauhaus movement in 1919 Weimar. In 1925, Gropius moved Bauhaus's headquarters to Dessau. Simplicity of
" (Nora FitzGerald, 2002) Bauhaus popularized functional design, a technique that focused specifically on the major functions of everything including buildings, textiles, tables, lamps etc. To make them more easily accessible and usable. Bauhaus artists were the first to understand the needs of the new urban breed of workers who were looking for cleaner and sleeker design in everything in order to make better use of space without feeling cramped. Gropius
According to Schmutlzer, "The buildings of Horta reveal the full importance of architectural initiative" (114). In his book, a History of Modern Architecture, Joedicke (1959) reports that, "In the nineteenth century a circle of adventurous artists, known as 'Les XX,' had already appeared in Brussels, who were strongly influenced by William Morris and his followers. In 1893 Victor Horta, who belonged to this group, built the house in the Rue
De Stijl (The Style) movement of was founded in 1917 by a group of young Dutch architects, among whom the most important are Piet Mondrian, Theo Van Doesburg, and Bart Van Der Leck. In the magazine they founded ( De Stijl), they first displayed their paintings, sculpture, and architectural design. They were eager that their new aesthetic conceptions should embrace everything from city panning to applied arts and philosophy.
He was an amazing man with an amazing mind, and as current projects show, many of his designs are just as viable today as they were in the 15th century when he conceived them. References Annabell, Maxine. "Catapults and Crossbows." Lairweb.org.nz. 2000. 15 April 2008. http://www.lairweb.org.nz/leonardo/catapaults.html Flying Machines." Lairweb.org.nz. 2000. 15 April 2008. http://www.lairweb.org.nz/leonardo/ornithopters.html Editors. "The Leonardo Bridge Project." LeonardoBridgeProject.org. 2008. 15 April 2008. http://www.leonardobridgeproject.org/Sands-Leonardo-Bridge-Project.htm Gani, Martin. "Leonardo Lives on," World and I Nov.
Consciousness in Purpose The twentieth century was a period of major change for humanity, not only because of the increasing rapidity of technological advancements that the period was witness to but also because of the growing understanding humanity acquired of itself. Through psychological, sociological, and even philosophical inquiry man came to know and understand man in a more empirical fashion, including some concrete demonstrations of how certain choices are made.