Benito Mussolini History Is Full Of Many Essay

Length: 10 pages Sources: 8 Subject: Government Type: Essay Paper: #16568567 Related Topics: Prime Minister, Italian, Italy, Richard Iii
Excerpt from Essay :

Benito Mussolini

History is full of many people who have made their mark for various reasons. Some of these people have made a profound difference because of the value they brought to their countries, and others have names that will remain more infamous. Such is the case with Benito Mussolini, an Italian dictator during WWII. His alliance with Hitler and his complete disregard for the people of his country were two of the most notable issues in his political career. Another notable point was his fascist focus and how he used it to convince the people of his country that there would be no more class warfare and that everything would be equal. As soon as the people rallied around him and he obtained absolute power, his real focus became apparent and he passed laws that were designed to help only the people who were already rich and already had power. He was eventually removed from power and arrested, but his country went through years of turmoil before Mussolini's eventual downfall.

Mussolini and Fascism

When Benito Mussolini was growing up, he was a socialist.

By the time he returned from WWI, there was very little of that belief left.

Instead, he had been convinced by that time that socialism was a poor choice because it had failed as a way to protect the people.

Instead, he got started in politics and called for a fascist government in which everyone would be equal and there would be no wars based on class.

He wanted someone who would come in and revive the nation of Italy through making a clean sweep of the government that was in power and starting over with something better. In 1919, he organized the Italian Combat Squad with 200 members, and his first fascist group was created.

Mussolini wanted to see Italy become great like Rome was in the past, and in order to do that he believed that a fascist government and society was necessary.

He argued that fascism would oppose any kind of discrimination based on a person's class, and that it supported sentiments of nationality like unity of all people in a country regardless of their social standing.

The ideas behind fascism did not come from Mussolini himself. He pulled ideas and beliefs from Plato, Nietzsche, Pareto, Sorel, and others.

He found a great deal of inspiration in Plato's Republic, but there were also key differences between that work and what Mussolini believed.

For example, The Republic promoted war only for defense, while Mussolini did not share that view and was a proponent of aggressive war.

Plato's views were idealistic in nature and designed to promote a society filled with and based on morality and justice, while Mussolini was a realist and focused on his desire to achieve specific goals in the political sector.

That was a key difference between what Mussolini read in the books that inspired him and what he actually chose to do in life.

The March to Rome

In 1922, Mussolini and his National Fascist Party staged a coup d'etat in which they removed Luigi Facta from power and took over the country.

Facta was the Prime Minister at the time, and the March took place between October 27th and 29th.

The idea of Mussolini taking over may conjure up images of war and bloodshed, but that was actually not the case at all. Facta asked the Italian government for permission to declare martial law on the 28th of October, but that request was denied.

Because of the denial, Facta decided to resign. King Victor Emmanuel III accepted Facta's resignation and invited Mussolini to take over the country and build a new and better government.

The liberal right wing, the business class, and the military all supported...


Once he was appointed to run the country things began to change for the worse. He focused his efforts on ensuring a right-wing coalition in his government. This was composed of many fascists, but there were also liberals and nationalists.

Two Catholic clerics were included, and they were part of the Popular Party.

This was actually rather ironic, since Mussolini was an atheist who often openly mocked the Catholic Church and was nearly excommunicated at least once.

When he first came to power, though, he kept some of that opinion to himself. He seemed to be for the people and of the people, and he "made friends" with whoever he needed to, pretending as though he liked them and found them valuable.

The truth was often very different, as Mussolini was really only concerned with the people who could benefit him in some way or help him move further into power and become more deeply entrenched in the government and more strongly supported by the people.

The stronger his support, the more he could get away with while still being loved by the people. He could even make changes that would be detrimental to certain classes of people and spin the changes so that they would sound as though they were the best options for everyone. He was very gifted in that way, and it was one of the reasons people were interested in having him come to power originally. Mussolini wanted to see state authority restored completely, and his ultimate plan was not to be Prime Minister of Italy but to be supreme ruler and dictator of the country.

Establishing a completely totalitarian state over which he had supreme power was the ultimate goal.

As Mussolini settled in he obtained complete power for one year, which was legal under the Italian Constitution during that time.

That power was granted to him by the legislature. Once he had that, he focused on new laws he was going to make that would affect both the social and the political economy. Legislation was soon passed that was highly in favor of the agrarian classes and the wealthy industrialists, despite Mussolini's original proclamation that there would be no class wars and the people would work together to have an equal society.

Some of the laws passed included dismantling unions, liberalizing laws regarding rent, and privatizing many things in order to benefit the rich and drive up prices for others.

Acerbo Law

The Acerbo Law was passed by the government in June of 1923, making Italy a national constituency.

A two-thirds majority was also granted in Parliament to a party that received at least 25% of the votes.

That majority could be used for a group of parties garnering that percentage of the vote, as well. The law took effect before the 1924 elections, so it was in effect at the time they were held, which was what Mussolini had intended.

Fascists and the majority of the older liberals were all part of the national alliance, which ended up with 64% of the total vote.

This was, of course, good news for Mussolini and his party. It was also how he planned things and why the law was passed. Once he had enough power to make and pass laws, he could essentially create laws that were the best choice for him and his party, and just pass them.

Being a dictator meant he could basically do anything he wanted, and he was determined to make the most out of that.

Squadristi Violence

Socialist deputy Giacomo Matteotti was assassinated soon after the elections took place.

This was a significant event because he had been vocal about his desire to annul the elections based on all the irregularities that had taken place during them.

The assassination caused a moment of crisis for Mussolini and his government, and a cover-up was ordered.

Witnesses linked Dumini to the murder of Matteotti, and he was put in prison for two years.

Later, Mussolini did state that it would have been possible for some very resolute men to alter public opinion and start a coup that would have been the end of fascism in Italy.

Many people were already disenchanted with Mussolini as a leader, and realized they had been swindled into believing that he was going to make everything better with fascism. Despite how good he had made it sound, it clearly was not working out in principle.

When Dumini was set free from prison, he made the statement that Mussolini was actually the one responsible for the assassination.

That resulted in him being returned to prison to serve further time.

Generally, the parties in opposition either did not respond at all or responded very weakly.

Many moderates, liberals, and socialists, though, did organize the Aventine Secession and boycott Parliament, hoping that King Victor Emmanuel III…

Sources Used in Documents:


Bosworth, R.J.B. 2002. Mussolini. London: Hodder.

Bosworth, R.J.B. 2006. Mussolini's Italy: Life Under the Dictatorship 1915 -- 1945. London: Allen Lane.

Farrell, N. 2003. Mussolini: A New Life. London: Phoenix Press

Gregor, A.J. 1979. Young Mussolini and the intellectual origins of fascism. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California, USA; London, England, UK: University of California Press.

Cite this Document:

"Benito Mussolini History Is Full Of Many" (2014, February 16) Retrieved September 25, 2021, from

"Benito Mussolini History Is Full Of Many" 16 February 2014. Web.25 September. 2021. <>

"Benito Mussolini History Is Full Of Many", 16 February 2014, Accessed.25 September. 2021,

Purpose of

The documents we provide are to be used as a sample, template, outline, guideline in helping you write your own paper, not to be used for academic credit. All users must abide by our "Student Honor Code" or you will be restricted access to our website.

Related Documents
Mussolini's Foreign Policy Goals Because
Words: 4013 Length: 12 Pages Topic: Government Paper #: 55333499

In that year, when the unification of Italy was achieved, the Papal Kingdom was confiscated by the Italian Kingdom, so the Pope refused to recognize the Italian Kingdom, or to step outside the Vatican City. Mussolini entered into negotiations with the Pope, aimed at healing that rift. In 1929, the Pope and Mussolini entered into the Lateran Agreements, which consisted of a Treaty, a Concordat, and a Financial Convention. At

Post-War Italy a Time of
Words: 3220 Length: 11 Pages Topic: Drama - World Paper #: 58981796

From the end of the War to the early 1950s, the Bank of Italy was credited for attracting and managing international aid, which helped bring the country out of a steep state of emergency and on the path of reconstruction. International aid came from Interim Aid, the Marshall Plan and the World Bank (Einaudi). Italy's Technical Redesign A substantial part of Italian construction legacy was destroyed during World War II and

Rise of Communism and Fascism
Words: 886 Length: 2 Pages Topic: Drama - World Paper #: 3758879

Nazism was fascist in nature, but rather than the State being the focus, it was race (Aryan), combined with fervent nationalism. Not all fascists are Nazi's, but it would be all but required to support fascist ideology in order to be a true Nazi. Fascists are not necessarily racist, which is contrary to the anti-Semitic doctrines which are at the core of Nazi ideology. Part 2 -- Was World War

World War I Was Believed to Be
Words: 1167 Length: 3 Pages Topic: Drama - World Paper #: 6700530

World War I was believed to be the last general war that this world had to go through. Due to massive losses during the first major conflict, people believed that no country will ever want such an event to happen. However, twenty years after the Treaty of Versailles, Britain and France declared war on Germany. The Second World War caused the death of many more people than the first. Unlike

Historic Cities Online How Is
Words: 7372 Length: 17 Pages Topic: Drama - World Paper #: 92889112

The next category that visitors are prompted to use in this website is the 'picture gallery' that consists of about nine pictures that the visitor to Verona must see before he visits the famous city. Each picture- the pictures being that of famous and historic monuments in Verona, come with an explanation of where the monument is, and also short snippets of information on the monument. For example, under

Nazi Germany Nazism Is a
Words: 2939 Length: 10 Pages Topic: Drama - World Paper #: 43057464

During the games, Hitler staged elaborate ceremonies, such as a parade of ethnic Germans from all over the world. During the games, the Nazis introduced Germany as a nation reborn and dealing with the Depression in much better ways than did Western democracies. In the same year, the Germans took after Hitler's role model, Benito Mussolini of Italy, in sending troops to support Spanish General Francisco Franco. Hitler moved