(Kanade; Jain; Ratha, 4, 12) The accent of a person is influenced by his surroundings. The voice of a person has both behavioral as well as physiological relevance for biometric. Hence our voice is related to our body and surroundings. An example is the voice of a child and the voice of an adult. Further a person's voice modulates according to the surroundings from where he speaks. This makes voice an important aspect to assess security through biometric. A voice can be recorded either through a telephone or through a computer. A voice recorded through microphone fixed to a computer gives a better quality record for interpretation. Necessary deletion of other voice in the surrounding can be done in this method. (Reid, 110-112)
Retina person can be identified from his retina by evaluating the picture of the blood vessels behind the eyes. These blood vessels are called choroidal vasculature. While taking the picture of the retina using infrared rays, the retina is not clearly seen. But certain equipments catch a glimpse of the visual spectrum that assists the evaluation of the retina. The exclusive model of the blood vessels is the identifying factor in a retina. (Bolle, 53) it is not the same even in the case of twins. (U.S. General Accounting Office (a), 27) EyeDentify equipments used to verify retina can check almost three thousand people. Verification of around 1500 people may be conducted in less than five seconds by this equipment. This equipment however cannot capture the image of individuals who has poor vision or severe astigmation. The person under question should be placed near the equipment to get a good picture. This is a costly method to identify retina in comparison to other method of biometric verification. An important aspect of identification through retina is the permanent condition of the retina unless it undergoes a change due to severe mishap. This is a reliable method because a person cannot fix an artificial retina into the eyes. Besides the use of EyeDentify equipment, recent inventions has lead to capture the retina using electromechanical feeler from a close point to learn about its reflective aspects as well as its absorption features. In this method, the retina is first exposed to a 7mW light which enhances the opportunities to know about the model of the veins. One of the disadvantages of the method is the huge price of the feeler. (Bolle, 53)
Another method used to get a picture of the retina is by passing light through the pupil of the eye. The model of the blood vessels is recorded at 400 spots to create a 96 byte model. Identification of a person through retina is employed in important security settings and government buildings. Biometrics using retina is one of the most difficult methods. Ancient techniques required individuals to look at a circling green light for about ten to twelve seconds at a distance of half an inch from the eyes and remain constant. But latest technology requires a person to stay constant only for about 1.5 seconds and the picture of retina can be capture at a distance of about one meter. This method is not sensitive to cataracts, sun glasses or contact lens. Hence it has an edge over the older method. Retina remains the same throughout life, but may undergo a change if a person undergoes glaucoma, high blood pressure, diabetes or AIDS. Though there are latest techniques to identify retina, certain individuals are reluctant to this method since they are exposed to infrared lights. Some people show reluctance since they feel this test would reveal symptoms of illness. Other than EyeDentify, Retinal Technologies is the enterprise which sells equipment to verify retina. (U.S. General Accounting Office (a), 27)
The identity of a person is cracked down from his voice and speech. The words in a person's speech are classified into several parts called phonemes. Phonemes are distinguished based on the cadence, inflection and its pitch. The voice of a person is interpreted out of these three aspects which are inherited from ...
Modern digital cellular techniques can also be applied to record voice. There are four steps to verify a voice to find identity. They are permanent phrase assessment, permanent vocabulary assessment, flexible vocabulary assessment, text independent assessment. In permanent phrase assessment, the phrase is repeatedly interpreted by using the cadence in the phoneme. When a similar wave is found in the model of the interpreting equipment, the identity of the voice is established. Permanent vocabulary assessment is done using the words repetitively used by the person. The words are translated into digits zero through nine. A repetition of the model created by these digits compared to the person results in finding the match. Flexible vocabulary assessment is conducted in a situation where the person uses a set of words in a given setting for verification. Here the words are compared to a combination of phonemes. While testing for verification the person uses these words and then they are evaluated to find identity. In text independent assessment many words are checked for identity. This is judged as a poor method of verifying voice. The best method of verification can be assessed depending on the level of security in a setting and the ease to handle it. (Reid, 114)
Certification of identity using biometric assessment is gaining momentum in offices and common places to ensure security. Besides, security it is the convenience factor that gives importance to biometric. The details of identity are encrypted to stop duplication in various public facilities. Biometric details are entered into equipment and the embedded software verifies for authentication. Thus, factors like face, iris, retina, voice and fingerprints in a human body which cannot be duplicated, forms the basis for biometric verification.
Bolle, Ruud. Guide to Biometrics.
Jain, L.C. Intelligent Biometric Techniques in Fingerprint and Face Recognition. CRC Press.
Kanade, Takeo; Jain, Anil K; Ratha, Nalini Kanta. Audio- and Video-Based Biometric Person
Authentication. Springer, 2005.
Li, Stan Z. Advances in Biometric Person Authentication: 5th Chinese Conference.
N.A. Biometrics Technology. http://et.wcu.edu/aidc/BioWebPages/Biometrics_Technology.html
N.A. What is Biometrics. 10 October, 2006. http://searchsecurity.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,sid14_gci211666,00.html
Reid, Paul. Biometrics for Network Security.
Prentice Hall PTR. 2003.
U.S. General Accounting Office (a). National preparedness technologies to secure federal buildings. DIANE Publishing. 2002.
U.S. General Accounting Office (b). Technology assessment using biometrics for border security. DIANE Publishing. 2002b.
Zhang, David. Biometric Solutions for Authentication in an E-world.
The accent of a person is influenced by his surroundings. The voice of a person has both behavioral as well as physiological relevance for biometric. Hence our voice is related to our body and surroundings. An example is the voice of a child and the voice of an adult. Further a person's voice modulates according to the surroundings from where he speaks. This makes voice an important aspect to assess security through biometric. A voice can be recorded either through a telephone or through a computer. A voice recorded through microphone fixed to a computer gives a better quality record for interpretation. Necessary deletion of other voice in the surrounding can be done in this method. (Reid, 110-112)
The documents we provide are to be used as a sample, template, outline, guideline in helping you write your own paper, not to be used for academic credit. All users must abide by our "Student Honor Code" or you will be restricted access to our website.
Even public schools are not immune to the growing biometrics trend, as the scanning of the literal 'student body' is becoming commonplace. Some schools use portable scanners to collect digital images of the students' fingerprints, which need to be updated regularly as the students grow and their fingers change. Biometrics is used for everything from the authentication of new transfer students, to providing the ability to buy lunch in the
Biometrics Relates to IT Security Enterprises are more reliant on their information assets and computer systems than factory machinery or production equipment. Ironically these fixed assets of companies are protected more effectively than the main IT systems of a business. While there are a myriad of security technologies available today, biometrics shows the most potential for creating and sustaining a unified, enterprise wide security for a company's IT and information
(2003) According to Gray, the current direction of surveillance in society is "toward omnipresence; more spaces are watched in more ways, capturing information about those within." (2003) IV. BIOMETRICS in SOCIETY BECOMING PERVASIVE The work of Karsten Weber entitled: "The Next Step: Privacy Invasions by Biometrics and ICT Implants" relates that there are various forms of biometric recognition technology which are based on both physiological and behavioral characteristics which include those
Some Key applications are:Physical Acces facility and secure-area access, time-and-attendance monitoring. Growth: Flat, starting at 13% of total market revenues and ending at 14%. Logical Access: PC, networks, mobile devices, kiosks, accounts. Growth: From 21% to 31% of total market revenues. Identity Services: Background check enrollment, credentialing, document issuance. Growth: Decline from 65% to 47% of total market revenues. Surveillance and Monitoring: Time and attendance, watchlists. Growth: From less
Unsophisticated biometric systems are already available at relatively affordable prices but they are unsuitable for many sensitive assets and applications. Sufficiently sophisticated biometrics systems to safeguard highly sensitive assets and information systems are comparatively cost prohibitive for small and medium-sized business entities (Mills & Byun, 2006). For example, fingerprint biometric identification systems are perfectly appropriate for low-level information systems and assets, particularly where those systems are used I conjunction with
Introduction Sareen (2014) describes biometrics as the technology or the science that determines and assesses biological data. Biometrics is measurable behavioral and physiological characteristics applicable in the verification process of people’s identity (Sareen, 2014). In layman terms biometrics may be understood as a science that involves measuring behavioral and physical characteristics unique to an individual (Xiao, 2007). Biometrics verifies that any person is who they claim to be. The term biometrics