The fires burned "out of control" on six of the lower floors at #7 which seriously damaged the floor framing on several floors. When a main girder on the 13th floor "lost its connection to a critical interior column that provided support for the long floor spans" on the east side of #7, that caused the 13th floor to collapse and from there on down it was like a domino effect down to the 5th floor (Stein).
In 2005 NIST published its research on 22 collapses of buildings resulting from fires. Looking specifically at the building materials used on those 22 collapses, the NIST research revealed: 7 buildings were built with concrete; 6 were built using structural steel; 5 were built with brick/masonry; 2 buildings were built using wood; and in the remaining 2 buildings it was unknown as to what materials were used (Beitel, 2005). .
Thirteen of those collapsed buildings were 4-8 stories; 3 were between 9-20 stories high; and 6 of those buildings were 21 or more stories (Stein). The NIST study also found that "very little information" was available on building collapses "unless the fire event was significant for other reasons… [such as] loss of wealth of specific information about all building collapses due to fire should be a priority.
Beitel, Jesse, and Iwankiw, Nestor. (2005). Historical Survey of Multistory Building
Collapses Due to Fire. Fire Protection Engineering, 158(6).
Post, Nadine M. (2003). Experts Debate Using Structure to Resist Fire Loads. ENR:
Engineering News-Record, 251(15), 14-14.
Post, Nadine M. (2004). Performance-Based Design Tops Research Wish List. ENR:
Engineering News-Record, 252(7), 15-14.…
During the construction process, dead loads "can be accurately calculated," (Brannigan: 15). Yet, live loads are much harder to plan for. Carefully planning for the planning of these types of considerations in building design has been crucial. Recent fire codes have begun to implement live load constrictions. All of these elements can have an effect on the health of a structure during a disaster like a fire. Constructing smart means
Building Design Construction Methods and Collapse General building design and construction methods Contemporary building regulations are effective in ensuring the safety of occupants throughout the life cycle of the structure. Government agencies have the responsibility of inspection to ensure safety and enforcing compliance to regulations and codes during constructions. Building design and construction methods evolve in response to emerging trends and demands in the industry. Advancements within the design and construction industries
This is exactly the same case as the cladding stones used in covering the pyramids, if we use the same technique. We would break the quarry stone into pieces, move it to the construction site, and put the pieces back exactly as they were in the quarry. This method required the stones to be marked or numbered at the quarry in such a way that enabled putting them back together
Construction Daily Field Construction Report DeMatteis/Turner Construction Site Contractor: DeMatteis/Turner Report No: Weather Temperature Conditions a.MP.M Low Temperature: |_| Partly Cloudy . |_| High Temperature: 50F |_| Cloudy |_| |_| Windy |_| Notes ? |X| Rain |X| |_| Snow |_| |_| Other ? |_| Workmen/Visitors Total Total Total Abatement ? Field Staff ? Plasterers 1 Others: (list trade) Balancing ? Finish Carpenters 1 Plumbers ? 1 safety officer ? Carpenters 7 Flooring ? Roofers 1 laborer Caulking ? Insulator ? Sheet metal Ceiling Iron Workers ? Sheet rockers/Tapers Concrete Finishers
The epoxy supplier knew full well that his brand wasn't good for the long haul and assumed the construction bosses knew that too -- but they did not know that. So, the bottom line is that the I-35W bridge "apparently lacked the kind of redundancy planning that is the norm today," Teschler asserts. And since the I-35W bridge was designed in the 1960s it went online prior to the ASCE
"Egyptian Project Management had over 200 years of experience with pyramid building which saw a clear evolution in learning. The approach was based on trial and error, or prototyping. This is exemplified by the Bent Pyramid at DAHSHUR, clearly experimental, with two different slope gradients for the sides at the lower and upper levels. This experience gave them the confidence to take on the Giza project" (Miroslav, 1997). Parthenon "The Parthenon