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It is suggested that this system be used as a springboard for communication about fire safety measures and fire drills. It is suggested that a fire drill be implemented once every three months.
Furthermore, residents must receive fire extinguishers and training on how to use fire hoses and extinguishers. Management must ensure that extinguishers are refilled regularly.
Wu (2001, p. 26) also mentions that smoke control is an important element of fire prevention in buildings. Smoke control can occur by means of dilution, airflow, pressurization, buoyancy and compartmentation. In the even of a fire, any of these methods will reduce the likelihood of residents being harmed by smoke inhalation. For my building, a combination of dilution and airflow is likely to be a viable solution.
In the light of the above, one might assess my building's fire safety features as currently mostly relying on its design features. Internal and external…… [Read More]
Fire Safety Management
The purpose of this paper is to explore several key concepts related to Fire Safety Management. Specifically this paper aims to explore the following concepts in greater detail: Fire protection/suppression systems, Building Construction and Exit Drill in the Home (EDITH) and other Home Safety Programs.
Fire technology has expanded in recent years, providing for important fire safety management components. This includes construction of more fire retardant buildings and implementation of fire codes and OSHA regulations that require certain safety standards be acknowledged and followed in commercial environments. esidents may also benefit from fire prevention measures geared toward education and safety. Some fire safety measures applicable to the home may also be applied in a commercial setting. For example, use of an emergency evacuation route is an essential fire safety plan with residential and commercial applications. The most critical components of fire safety management are examined in greater…… [Read More]
However, there are some problems that appear to be universal, and these are the ones that are of the largest concern because they affect the greatest number of schools and their fire safety workers as well. y detailing this information and explaining it clearly, it is assumed that more individuals in the profession will be made aware of it so that more can be done to make schools safer. Ultimately, making those outside of the profession aware of these issues is also important, because many of the problems that school fire safety personnel deal with are caused by other people that are not paying attention or that do not respond well to orders and instructions. These people can cause serious injury and even death in some cases due to their lack of concern for others and the needs that school fire safety personnel may have.
Studies such as this one…… [Read More]
A multi-signature early warning fire detection system is being developed to provide reliable warning of actual fire conditions in less time with fewer nuisance alarms than can be achieved with commercially available smoke detection systems." (Rose-Pehrsson, 325)
The research conducted on this subject also supports the claim that while there is a value to establishing legal standards requiring the use of smoke detectors in all homes, there is also some effectiveness in the cultural and informational sway inclining private residents to employ this method of detection. As sophisticated technology becomes available for business facilities, public buildings and newer residential apartment buildings, the battery-operated sound-alarm smoke detector remains a standard presence in many American homes. However, it was not until 1985 that the first county in the United States responded to the proven benefits of smoke detector by mandating their usage. Interestingly, the findings yielded would produce a mixed outlook with…… [Read More]
It is through these safety inspections that customers and patrons are better protected against the incidence of fire or other natural disasters. This lowers costs incurred from the loss of reputation, lawsuits, rebuilding, and fines incurred with non-compliance of safety standards. As such, all parties involved benefit from a proper and thorough inspection process. If a particular building does not comply with safety codes, the government has the authority to suspend activities within the building for a predetermined time frame. As such, safety standards are very serious in regards to overall business entities. The government has the power to enforce these standards to the degree they deem necessary for the safety of the community involved.
Fire safety administration also works with municipal governments in the form of education and awareness of hazards. This is of particular interest to individuals suffering from Alzheimer's who may not be aware of certain warning…… [Read More]
operations contributed to this incident?
The first factor would have to be the 71-day training program. This is not enough time to cover theory and practice when learning something as important as rescue and fire safety. Smoke inhalation kills people much more than the actual fire itself. The firefighters could have died from smoke inhalation or loss of oxygen from going up the stairs and not having enough air to breath while wearing their gear.
It takes a certain level of knowledge of both theory and implementation of theory (experience) to know where to go and how long to take in order to get out of a situation like in the case study safely. Although the older firefighter was more experienced, he was also slower than the less experienced firefighter. In addition, since the less experienced firefighter would follow the more experienced one, they would go at the older one's…… [Read More]
fire safety management. The writer explores several areas of fire safety and proposes several ways to manage its implementation. There were six sources used to complete this paper.
Throughout history fires have destroyed property and killed people. Because a fire can happen anywhere at anytime the world has experienced fires in almost every setting and capacity. Fires in major hotels, high rise buildings and single dwelling homes are all things that have been experienced within the last few years. Fire fighters devote their lives to the rescues and saving of others, while risking their own lives in the process. In the effort to curb the number of lives lost and to decrease the amount of property being destroyed fire safety management has become a popular line of defense in many venues. Fire safety management can be utilized in all areas of life. Whether it is promoting safety at elementary schools,…… [Read More]
NIOSH eport -- Fire Safety
Case #1 - Explain the primary hazards presented by bow-string trussed roofs that are involved in a fire.
The void space created by a bow-string truss can allow smoke, heat, and fire conditions to go undetected causing a false sense of security for firefighters operating beneath it (Fornell, 1995). Because more surface area is exposed to flames than with standard construction, collapse can take place in a much shorter time frame (Dunn, 2006). In Case #1, a captain became a victim due to just such a scenario. He became trapped after fire conditions changed dramatically on the roof, leading to a collapse and ultimately the blocking of the main escape and rescue entries.
Communications and updates between interior and exterior personnel must be continual when dealing with any type of truss construction. At many incidents involving trusses, reports from crews inside the building indicate that…… [Read More]
Fire services are on the front lines of community safety, and are occasionally integrated with other community organizations. However, fire service affiliations with other community groups are frequently underutilized. Fire service organizations sometimes fail to form effective alliances with community groups, and vice-versa, leading to breakdowns in communication and diminished delivery of service. Given the relationship value inherent in forming deeper and broader affiliations within the community, fire service organizations and the areas they serve benefit tremendously from relational and institutional embeddedness. Relational and institutional embeddedness refers to the comprehensive coordination of communications and other critical services, not just when responding to disasters. Relationship value is created throughout the processes of disaster prevention.
One of the ways community group affiliation with the fire service creates value is through the process of education, public relations, and public awareness, and how awareness promotes public safety. Affiliated groups need to establish ongoing information…… [Read More]
If this is the case please enlist this.
A xxii) Is the hotel equipped with an organized emergency procedure in the eventuality of a fire? A copy of this has to be appended with the complete checklist.
A xxiii) Is the hotel and its facility equipped with adequate sprinkler system? In case the entire facility is not provided with such system mention may be made as to where such sprinkler system has been installed (a) Meeting rooms (b) Corridors - Public lobbies (d) Guest ooms (e) Public Washrooms (f) Other rooms xxiv) Does the entire hotel facility have smoke detectors? In case it is no, state the locations where they are located? (a) Meeting rooms (b) Corridors - Public lobbies (d) Guest ooms (e) Other rooms xxv) Are all smoke detectors connected high tensile wires to the Central Signaling System or directly into the ire department? In case such a…… [Read More]
The analysis as described William E. Koffel, P.E., FSFPE of Koffel Associates in the Fire Protection Engineering magazine article, "A Methodology to Analyze the Concept of Balanced Design," states, the fire impact can be managed by either managing the fire or managing the exposed. The fact that the diagram contains an "or" gate indicates that one need only manage the fire or manage the exposed. However, the use of the "or" gate also assumes 100% effectiveness and reliability associated with the chosen strategy, assuming that the fire safety objectives are to be achieved in all reasonably credible fire scenarios (Koffel, 2002, ¶5).
The concept evaluates all scenarios that can happen and any failures that can occur with the fire safety and prevention equipment.
Analysis of the fire at the Watts Bar Hydroelectric Plant and the NFPA 550, Guide to the Fire Safety Concepts Tree, indicates that the fire could…… [Read More]
In 1033 of the National Fire Protection Association's guide, the responsibilities and details are defined for the fire inspector role. Essentially, it is the responsibility of this specialist to investigate the sources and causes of fires. To fulfill this role, it is the responsibility of the specialist to 'thoroughly examine the fire scene, document the scene completely, collect and preserve all evidence associated with a scene, conduct interviews and interrogations, provide post-incident investigation, and present findings to the appropriate institutions or persons' (NFPA, 1998). It is essential to fire prevention, protection, and safety to understand how fires are initialized and this is the job of the fire investigator.
Clearly, it takes a detailed oriented person to fill any of these positions. Further, the person must possess excellent organizational skills and observational skills. Additionally, the most suited fire protection specialist must also possess excellent oral and written communication skills. Obviously, the…… [Read More]
Deng, Tzu-Jeng, Charng-Horng Hsieh, Her-Jiun heu, Chyan Yang. (2001) A conceptual framework for improving fire-fighting service quality of a public fire department.
Includes results of a study on improving fire-fighting services by improving fire fighting and recognition techniques. Good for those interested in other than wildland fires, and those interested in going into fire management.
International Journal of Public Administration, Vol. 24, 405.
Drysdale, Dougal. (1999, October). An introduction to fire dynamics, 2nd Edition. John Wiley & ons.
Problems addressed include: the conditions necessary for ignition and steady burning of combustible materials to occur, how large a fire has to become before fire detectors and sprinkler heads will operate, and the circum- stances that can lead to flashover in a compartment.
A very comprehensive information on fire behavior, especially from an engineering viewpoint. Identifies fire science and fire dynamics and provides the scientific back- ground necessary…… [Read More]
Fire Dangers With Magnesium
Magnesium is a heavy element which can become a danger when ignited. The fires that result from magnesium burning are hot and bright, but also dangerous because they cannot be extinguished by traditional methods. Putting water on a magnesium fire is dangerous because it will only reignite the fire and make it burn more. This is the case even days after the fire may have been extinguished, making it crucial to understand the hazards of dealing with a magnesium fire before trying to extinguish it using traditional methods.
When relatively small amounts of magnesium burn, fires are extinguished using commercially available dry power. Water cannot be used in the extinguishing of magnesium fires. When water is used, it produces hydrogen gas and the oxygen escaping only makes the magnesium fire burn more. When water is used on a magnesium fire, it can turn it into a…… [Read More]
The codes also serve as a model, in themselves, of an integrated, comprehensive regulatory framework for public safety in buildings.
City of Dallas uilding Code (2006)
City of Dallas Fire Code (2006)
http://www.dallascityhall.com//pdf/uilding/Chapter52ooklet.pdf - p. 10 Enforcement
Annual check not required, Questions arise about what city could have done to ensure safety
MICHAEL GRAELL and RENDAN M. Dallas Morning News, July 27, 2007.
Dallas to add more safety inspectors, MARK WROLSTAD and SELWYN CRAWFORD.
Dallas Morning News. February 22, 2003.
Code violations shut down homeless shelter. CYNTHIA VEGA. WFAA-TV. Thursday, December 11, 2008
Team didn't have roof work inspected, Cowboys were contractor for '08 project; inquiry may take months
RANDON FORMY. Dallas Morning News. May 5, 2009.… [Read More]
Other types of systems include carbon dioxide systems. This is ideal for electrical hazard areas; however, it's more expensive than sprinkler systems. Foam extinguishing systems use a foam producing solution. it's effective for combustible liquids; however, again, it is not cost effective for most applications ("Chapter 31").
Determination of ater Amount and How it Can be Provided:
The problems encountered regarding the determination of the amount of water required on premises for a system and how that amount of water can be provided begin with the layout of the system. So many factors come into play, from the length of the piping run, to the size of pipe, to the elevation of the floor on which the system is installed, to the number of sprinklers included in the system. Each of these affects the pressure at each of the sprinkler head, and the amount of water needed to meet the…… [Read More]
Six people died and several more were severely injured in the 2003 Chicago Loop high rise fire, at the Cook County Administrative Building. Around 2,500 government employees work in the building, which was built in the 1960s and bought by the county in 1996. Officials now believe that many of the fire's casualties could have been prevented had the building fire safety codes been up-to-date and had proper protocols for evacuation been followed by the Chicago ire Department. Although the building did have an official fire evacuation plan, it was not followed, and although evacuation drills were conducted four times a year, the evacuation procedure was chaotic and disorganized. Conflicts of interest related to political ties between the mayor's office and the building management company may be partially responsible for the building's inadequate safety features such as its lack of a sprinkler system. In addition to the building's…… [Read More]
Fire Service Technology:
The modern fire service is characterized by increased interactions between fire researchers and service in general. The interactions have mainly been geared towards producing research outcomes that can be utilized to enhance the effectiveness and safety of firefighters. As part of the development of suitable fire service technology, recent research results have shown that changes in construction methods and fuel loads have impacted the fire environment within residential structures ("Fire Fighting esearch Online," 2013). While the changes have transformed the conventional fire behavior, they have also contributed to significant changes in fire equipment. The research outcomes have not only brought changes to fire behavior and equipment but have also resulted in the development of fire service technologies that are currently used and continue to have tremendous impacts.
Examples of Technologies in Fire Service:
The first technology used in fire service is the World Wide Web that has…… [Read More]
Fire Suppression Systems
Fire results when fuel, oxidant, and sufficient heat combine in time and place (New Zealand Institute of Chemistry, n.d.). The fuel is typically a carbon-based material like paper, wood, oil, or gas, while ambient air typically provides the oxidant in the form of oxygen. Other oxidants include nitrates, chlorates, and peroxides and therefore should never be stored alongside fuel materials. For combustion to occur the heat must sufficient to ignite the fuel. Once ignited the chemical reaction is typically extremely exothermic and becomes self-perpetuating in the presence of fuel and oxidant. If heat accumulates faster than it can be dissipated to the surrounding environment an explosion will occur.
The three ways in which heat can be dissipated is through conduction along a temperature gradient, convection due to movement of the gaseous fire matter, and radiation to other surfaces (New Zealand Institute of Chemistry, n.d.). The primary method…… [Read More]
Kevin Golden v. Town of Collierville 06a0062n.06; 167 Fed. Appx. 474; 2006 U.S. App.
Plaintiff firefighter appealed a decision of the United States District Court for the estern District of Tennessee, which granted summary judgment in favor of defendants, a town, its administrator, a fire chief, and an assistant fire chief, on his procedural due process and equal protection claims under 42 U.S.C.S. § 1983. The district court also dismissed the firefighter's claims for civil conspiracy under state law.
The firefighter, who was white, claimed that he was offered but then denied a promotion to the position of fire lieutenant because of his race. Instead, another firefighter who was black was promoted to the position. Defendants argued that the black firefighter was promoted because he ranked above the white firefighter in the testing and interview process. On appeal from the district court's decision, the court held: the district court properly…… [Read More]
Fire Hazards of Trusses: Sample Report
Structures often play the important role when a building is on fire. Upon many reviews, there are a lot of fires claiming for lives of the inhabitants of the building, but there are also some cases, which had taken the firefighters' lives as well. Such cases should not have happened, but limited information of the building's structures and length of fire could have caused it.
Chesapeake automobile warehouse happened to be a fatal case of fire (NFPA, 2002). The 12-year-old building was constructed under lightweight wood trusses. There were two steel frames and another brick construction located at the building. The trusses were built using the combination of wood and metal plates that joined them altogether.
On Monday morning, March 18, 1996, the repair shop operated as usual. The employees were coming along to start their first day of the week, taking up service…… [Read More]
Safety and Heath in it Environments
Applied Business esearch: The need for Safety and Health Standards in Hazardous Working Environments in the Information Technology
Businesses including IT firms are flooded with IT tools like microcomputers, photocopiers, digital surveillance tools, internet, among others. There is mounting evidence from a review of literature that in the IT work environment, especially the IT industry, present hazardous working environments to workers. Workers in these environments also undergo stress from the lack of knowledge of the tools, the lack of, or reduced human contact. Information technology tools also create electrical and fire hazards, which threaten the safety of employees. Employees also suffer from health issues like bleary-eyes from bright screens and monitors of IT tools. The research proves the need for increased safety and health measures in these environments. In the end, the research creates knowledge in the business community of the importance of increased…… [Read More]
Any organization that deals directly with petroleum-based products, including storage facilities, will be affected by the act. The act also provides for Area Contingency Plans in case of emergency. The Pollution Prevention Act aims to reduce pollution "through cost-effective changes in production, operation, and raw materials use," ("Pollution Prevention Act"). Recycling programs fall under the Pollution Prevention Act; therefore, organizations might be required under this law to participate in large-scale recycling programs. Moreover, the Pollution Prevention Act is designed to curb source pollution, so the act applies especially to organizations that are potential polluters. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act applies especially to storage of toxic waste. The act will pertain to employees of waste management facilities or of any organization that must dispose of its waste material in an environmentally sound and legally authorized way.
About EPA." 2005. Online at http://www.epa.gov/epahome/aboutepa.htm.
Clean ater Act." Online at http://www.epa.gov/region5/water/cwa.htm.…… [Read More]
Fire Investigation Unit
How important is it to a city fire department to have an investigation unit? Since police departments in most cities have an investigation unit -- it seems logical given the issues related to fire and arson that fire departments should also incorporate investigation units into their programs. This paper provides positive arguments in favor of an investigation unit, arguments that the fire chief can use in his presentation to the county council.
The field of fire investigation is "…extremely specialized" and there are a very limited number of "truly certified individuals" that have the needed training and experience to conduct "thorough, competent investigations" (United Professional Fire Fighters). In other words, fire departments should hire a proven professional in this field -- or select one or more quality firefighters from the current department to be sent to a training program -- and in either case this will cost…… [Read More]
It association with the DH means that the UFA is closer to the ecretary's office, with a direct presence at the DH headquarters.
The UFA's association with the DH brought a number of new opportunities to represent the nation's fire service. The National Operation Center (NOC), for example, works closely with the U.. FA in order to create a safe environment for citizens. The Center provides the DH with data regarding national and global situational awareness. According to Dickinson, it is vital that the fire service be represented in this organization, as it can only protect the country's citizens properly if it has access to the most relevant, up-to-date information regarding threats to the country.
Another contribution by the UFA within the Preparedness Directorate is the Incident
Management Teams created in order to handle emergencies. These teams are trained according to the best, most up-to-date training techniques of the fire…… [Read More]
The fire causes lots of damage to industrial as well as residential assets. It is vital to have a system that suppresses fire and explosion. Often humans take much longer to detect fire particularly if they are not close to site for example at night. In such cases, the automatic detection of fire and smoke helps a lot. The explosion suppression system and water spray systems are used to minimize the damages of explosion and fire by detecting fire in not time. These systems are very effective and detect fire in milli-seconds and also respond with less than a second time. The protection systems offered by explosion suppression and water sprays are comparable and organizations are suggested to use one of these on the basis of cost and suitability to their infrastructure. The explosion suppression is mostly used in extinguishing fire in space and buildings while water sprays are…… [Read More]
Safety and Health Considerations in Fire Incident esponse
The issue of safety during emergency response by the fire fighters has been discussed and severally emphasized. In as much as the responders are out to save lives and property, they too need to be safe so that they do not add to the count of the victims, if any be, as well as avoid injuries in the process of saving others. There are manuals that have been developed in various states and even counties all with the aim of streamlining response to emergencies and reducing the number of deaths of both the victims and the responders. Hundreds of fire fighters die in the line of duty each year with most of the death being from the exposure to rapid fire, getting trapped by objects and collapsed buildings. It can be said that there are sufficient safety regulations and guidelines concerning the…… [Read More]
(The Hackensack Fire adio Communications Issue)
Although there was plenty of controversy surrounding the issue, wherein some stated that it was plain human error, and bad judgment, while some others stated that it was because of interference, or due to mechanical malfunction, the actual truth, as it was later discovered, was that the firefighters had been inadvertently transmitting their communications on a general channel, and since nobody listened to it, no one knew that they were all trapped upstairs, and therefore, no one could rescue them. Since the fact cannot be proved beyond reasonable doubt, and since not one of those firefighters in the incident came out alive, one must believe that a combination of different factors led to such grave fatalities in the firefighting department of Hackensack, in July 1, 1988, in New Jersey. (The Hackensack Fire adio Communications Issue)
Analysis report on Firefighter Fatalities. Fire Analysis and…… [Read More]
In grounded systems, you always connect equipment-grounding conductors to the system grounded conductor to provide a low impedance path for fault current. This allows the operation of overcurrent devices under ground-fault conditions.
When implementing a grounding system, there are important rules that must be followed to ensure that the system is efficient and safe. Extracted from Gregory Hayward's grounding system tips, the following procedures must be considered vital.
All ground points must be bonded together.
Use the recommended features of grounding components such as size and connection of ground wires.
Integrity Check of Grounding System.
It is important to check the total resistance of the ground by efficient grounding system checking equipment. Hayward indicates that the ground should ideally have a total resistance of.25 ohms and below.
All electric services and points where electricity is distributed must have surge protector devices.
Grounding systems do not…… [Read More]
Effectiveness of Emergency Management and the eadiness of Trauma Centers
Emergency Management and the eadiness of Trauma Centers are fundamental facilities in any given State and country. These facilities come in handy in times of disasters and traumatic events. Most traumatic centers are health care facilities or departments, which offer immediate response in such times of emergency. Emergency management and trauma centers handle mitigation, response, preparedness, and recovery. Emergency management includes activities such as evacuation, decontamination, disaster recovery, and integration with other community emergency groups. These facilities play a key role in providing care to both natural and man-made disasters (Premier, 2012).
The phenomenon, issue, or condition to be researched
In order to create a safe surrounding in the community, emergency management and traumatic centers have to be established (Trunkey & Potter, 2006). Often, disastrous situations call for urgent and high demand for patient care. For instance, the traumatic…… [Read More]
hen an airplane catches on fire and jet fuel is the catalyst, the amount of time that the plane and the object around it will burn is dependent on many different factors. One of the primary factors is the amount of fuel that is still contained on the plane. For instance a jet that is taking a transatlantic flight will have more jet fuel than a regional flight. Investigators would need to know this type of information so that they can estimate how much time it might take for the fuel to burn off or the types of measures that need to be taken to extinguish the fire.
Investigations can also be effected by the presence of cabin fires. According to Improved Fire- and Smoke-Resistant Materials for Commercial Aircraft Interiors: A Proceedings, (1995) post crash Cabin fires have been extensively researched. A great deal of this research has occurred in…… [Read More]
, 2006). The ongoing investigation is being conducted by a "National Interagency Serious Accident Investigation Team," with the purpose of "determining fact surrounding the incident, identify lessons learned," and with the end result a set of "...recommendations for accident prevention purposes."
The investigation will no doubt look into the fire shelter issue, although since the firefighters are gone, the question of why shelters were not used cannot be answered. If all five men had fire shelters on board the engine, it will seem sadly ironic that those protective units were not deployed. For wildland firefighters, it is not only important for escape routes and other safety procedures to be established, but it is imperative that firefighters are in possession of the very newest, safest fire shelters; and with this in mind, the USDA / USFS "Fire & Aviation Management" eb site offers some conflicting and confusing information.
On one page…… [Read More]
fire in U.S. history and the codes/Regulations it may have influenced
Fire safety: The 'Big Blowup' of 1910
Only five years after the U.S. Forest Service was established in 1905, a series of deadly forest fires engulfed Idaho, Montana, and ashington. Fire season began unusually early that year, starting with a larger wildfire in the Blackfeet National Forest in northwestern Montana on April 29, 1910. Conditions remained extremely parched throughout the summer. On August 10, brushfires began breaking out in Montana, Idaho, ashington and Oregon. Over 4,000 troops as well as firefighters were called into action. The men appeared to have the fires contained until hurricane-force winds on August 20 reactivated the fires, causing flames hundreds of feet high. "Trains raced to evacuate towns just ahead of the flames" ("1910 Fires," U.S. Forest Service History, 2012).
Over the summer of 1910, "1,736 total fires burned more than 3 million acres…… [Read More]
As the different standards and safety equipment, will help to quickly extinguish any possible flames. This is the key to increasing safety standards, as the various systems will protect the structure as much as possible against such events.
Are there fire plans, fire drills, fire brigades or any other human life safety support to the installed systems?
Yes. The City of Honolulu Fire Department will maintain and support the different fire safety standards for the building. Where, they will have fire brigades, plans and resources available to deal with any kind of situation being faced. ("State of Hawaii Fire Code," 2010)
What is your assessment of the structures readiness for a fire emergency?
Given the fact that the building is considered to be of historical significance for Hawaii. The various fire safety systems and procedures are superior to other structures, as the city / state will utilize the building for…… [Read More]
Recommendation: The training staff must ensure all participants in a "live" fire training exercise "have received the training and opportunities to properly perform the job." And this is pivotal to safety measures for recruits: A student's first experience "in a live burn exercise should not be in an acquired structure" (IIL).
Structures and Facilities (NFPA 1403 4.2 & 4.2.2): Buildings selected for structural fire training exercise must be properly prepared -- which in this case, the row house at 145 South Calverton Road, it was not properly prepared. A previous ventilation drill, which opened several upper floor walls to the outside air (and the wind which was 20 miles per hour at that time) made the building "unsuitable" for live fire training. Adding to the mistakes made in the exercise at 145 South Calverton Road was the serious question as to whether the fire department had permission to burn that…… [Read More]
Organizational structure and physical structures are the two main components of fire departments in any community. The following is a proposal for a newly designed fire department in a suburban area. Occupational safety, integration with community infrastructure, and strategic alliances with other public service sectors will all be included in the department design proposal.
Organizational structure in fire departments is in dire need of change. In some departments, that change is happening from the top down, as departments respond to the needs of young recruits and rookies who may be unfamiliar or uncomfortable with the “paramilitary” culture that has permeated the service (Shaw, 2011). However, it is not just a matter of matching organizational culture to suit the norms of the next generation. Restructuring fire departments is best practice for safety. According to Brauer (2016), organizational structure problems have been directly linked to increased ratios of fatalities: “the…… [Read More]
role fire has played throughout my life. Perhaps that should not be too surprising that fire should be my frame of reference. After all, I have made my living in the field of firefighting.
Fire itself is a study in contrasts. The substance that can cause searing burns also brings pleasant warmth. Its forms range from flickering candlelight to blazing infernos.
Its power to destroy and consume is matched only by its power to nurture and support life.
Even before I entered firefighting, I believe that the dual qualities of fire can be seen as a metaphor for my life. Like most young boys, I was confident but unfocused, like a flame spread in all directions. With the supreme confidence of one who thought he knew it all, I dropped out of school at ninth grade. Back then, I though that school had nothing left to teach me.
Instead, I…… [Read More]
Since ownership of the building had not changed recently, there was no requirement to upgrade to a sprinkler system, and combined with the building's historic status, this was never done. There were also problems with water pressure and receiving water during the fire, which they recommended should be addressed.
In conclusion, the Mizpah fire was a tragic fire that did not need to occur. Had the building been equipped with a sprinkler system, the tragedy and damages could have been avoided. The City of eno has begun inspections as a result of the fire, and there have been some changes in procedure. The entire building was eventually demolished, and the site is empty today. Twelve victims might be alive today if a working sprinkler system had been installed in the building, and it is a lesson for other fire departments across the nation. They need to make it easier to…… [Read More]
The apathy of private landowners discussed earlier may be due to the feeling that one may not feel that individual efforts are important. However, the case in Waldo, Florida demonstrates just how important the actions of one individual can be in averting danger.
Bend, Oregon has developed large community efforts to help reduce fuel in the area. They open up the landfill several times a year free of charge to allow citizens to dispose of debris from thinning and pruning (NCS, 2003). Thinning and pruning around houses creates a barrier of defensible space should a fire threaten. The landscape and fire resistance efforts in Bend have become a social factor.
These case studies demonstrate how communities can be spurred into action. The study conducted by eams, Haines, & enner et al., (2005) found owner apathy as the number one obstacle that they faced in preparing communities in case of a…… [Read More]
Residential Fire Sprinklers
Fire Administration data shows that the most dangerous fire damage happens at home. The residential fire sprinklers installation is in high demand in the coming years as people grow high awareness for their home safety. While this trend varies from every other community and locations regarding the sufficient information and instrument availability, the need to see the quality equipments and service is a must to meet the standard security purpose. The trend should also give another light for the economy and construction business; therefore it requires good industrial handling of the products and service. The research will examine how the trend affects all sectors in community and constructions.
As Karter (1994) and Holdgate (2001) said, "about 80% of all fire deaths occur in residential properties," which makes clear of no reason why people should delay any home sprinklers installation. There are three major parts that will determine…… [Read More]
Lessons Learned for Nightclub Fires
In some ways the historical events that accompanied "The Station" fire were precedent setting. In other ways, however, these historical events were sadly a little too familiar. A perfect example of this sort of dichotomy is found in the trigger to this fire. According to a report compiled by obert Duvall (2006) regarding this particular fire and nightclub fires in general, the conflagration at The Station "resulted from a form of ignition not often seen when comparing other fires in assembly occupancies: pyrotechnics" (p. 22). In this regard, the fire at The Station was unique when compared to the other fires detailed for their historical events in Duvall's document. The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has very specific standards and requirements for the utilization of pyrotechnics in "Existing Assembly Occupancies" (Duval, 2006, p. 22). Interestingly enough, even a cursory examination of those standards introduces the…… [Read More]
We have never prescribed a "let-it-blow policy for tornadoes and hurricanes, a "let-it-erupt" policy for volcanoes or a "let-it-grind" policy for glaciers. Why, then, did we need a "let-it-burn" policy for fires, or surrogate strategies like prescribed fire? Humans and fire have an inseparable history." (p.5) Agee states that the classical view of the succession of plants "...persisted much of the 20th century: the Clementsian view of regional convergence towards a vegetation life-form created by autogenic succession in the presence of stable climate." (p.6)
Agee relates that the primary obstacle to conducting an "appropriate economic analysis of fire in wilderness as understanding "the natural state" was defined by Mills in 1985 who held that the objective of wilderness policy then would be to "allow resource change to be viewed as cost or benefit." (p. 14) Agee reports that in 1983 the Wilderness Fire workshop was held in Missoula in which…… [Read More]
Examples include gyroscopic blind-flying instruments, which enabled flight even in low visibility conditions. At the same time, radio navigation and approach systems help pilots land safety even during low visibility. These instruments later developed to include radar technology in combination with radio. De-icing and anti-icing systems were also implemented in order to minimize the dangers of ace accretion. Weather radars were implemented in order to serve as a warning of poor weather conditions, and autopilots were implemented to automatically maintain the flight course and altitude of the craft..
Electronic and technological advances have also served airline safety well during the late twentieth century. In f1990, for example, an airliner was introduced with a new digital flight control system; the lack of necessity for a flight engineer on the deck was therefore eliminated, along with the cost involved as well as the danger of the human factor. Another new concept is…… [Read More]
Fire Prevention Week from a Physical Educator's Perspective" by ichard D. Wetzel and Amrit Chima (2011)
The annual Fire Prevention Week observed in the United States represents a valuable opportunity for educators to highlight the need for remaining physical fit as well as the responsibilities that go hand in hand with being a citizen. Although offerings differ, many schools provide educational materials for use at home by students and their parents. For instance, the authors report, "Typically, conversations about fire prevention focus on safety measures and emergency procedures. Some teachers provide students with take-home worksheets on home safety or create assignments that include testing smoke alarms and planning emergency escape routes with their families" (Wetzel & Chima, 2011, p. 12). During school hours, though, the offerings are frequently much more exciting and engaging for young learners and provide opportunities for demonstrating the latest in firefighting technologies. In this regard, Wetzel…… [Read More]
Fire Alarm Systems
Every year, thousands of people die in home and commercial building fires, but far more are saved as a result of fire alarm systems that provide them with sufficient notice to evacuate the premises. In the distant past, fire alarm systems consisted of men and sometimes animals, but more recently, increasingly sophisticated systems have been developed that form an essential part of the concentric layers of building defense. To identify current trends in this field, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning automatic fire alarm systems in general, as well as their composition and working principle in particular, including their design, basic configuration, and the types of notification devices that are typically used, as well as the detectors and emergency voice and other alarm communication systems that are currently deployed with respect to the Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines for…… [Read More]
1. What are the leading causes of death in the United States?
Accidents are considered to be the fourth leading cause of death after heart disease, cancer and strokes.
2. When the overall cost of an accident is calculated, what elements make up the cost?
The elements making up the cost of an accident are lost wages, insurance administration, medical expenses, motor vehicle damage, fire-related losses, and indirect costs.
3. What are the five leading causes of accidental deaths in the United States?
Motor vehicle, poison, falls, drowning, and fire-related accidents.
4. What are the leading causes of death in the United States of people between the ages of 25 and 44?
Motor vehicle, poison, falls, drowning, fire-related accidents, heart, and cancer disease.
5. Explain how today’s rate of accidental work deaths compares with the rate in the early 1900s.
Per a population of 100,000, accidental work deaths have reduced…… [Read More]
Construction Systems and Fire Behavior
The fire destruction menace is an accident that lives with the societies on a daily basis and as long as there are activities within any building, there are predispositions to fire accidents without exclusion. This comprises the domestic buildings, high commercial buildings and even the office blocks within the city. There are procedures that can be followed while putting up a building or renovating a building that will ensure there are enough measures that help in the eradication of fires or at least suppression of fires when one breaks out.
One such system is the general rule of having effective fire separation within the building which could be between one floor and another or even within the same floor. This is rarely the case since even where such systems are put in place, they are often imperfect in nature and inmost cases not existing at…… [Read More]
On the plus side, though, the research also showed that innovations in technology, both high- and low-tech, hold enormous promise for improving miner safety by providing early warnings of impending disasters and by providing rescuers with better techniques for locating and rescuing trapped miners. In the final analysis, the technology already exists to accomplish these improvements and it remains a matter of establishing the relevant priorities at the state and federal levels to ensure that all mines are equipped with these devices before disaster strikes, and that these technologies are available for rescue efforts when the inevitable does occur. Future studies should investigate how these technologies can be deployed more cost effectively for developing nations and what steps should be taken ahead of time to ensure that these devices provide the maximum amount of protection for the investments involved.
Cooper, S., yan, J., & Sinback, M. (2003). Employment-related crimes.…… [Read More]
There are a number of different modes of transportation, and each mode has different safety considerations. This paper will look at road, rail, sea and air freight in particular. Obviously, there will be some safety issues that can affect any mode of transport -- human error or mechanical breakdown can happen to anything, anytime. But within each mode there will be unique risks, and it is important to understand what those risks are, in order that they be addressed effectively.
ail transport is generally considered to be one of the safer modes, but rail accidents are surprisingly common. The particular issues relating to rail tend to be issues with track maintenance, and trains taking corners too fast, both resulting in derailment. The Federal ailroad Administration provides oversight on railroad safety issues, in order to minimize the number of accidents that occur on the rails. However, derailments still occur,…… [Read More]
Hazardous Materials Incident
Key Lessons for Preventing Hydraulic Shock and New Cumberland, WV Metal Dust Explosion and Fire are two case studies that will be examined in this report. One examines a metal dust explosion and fire and the other involves a pipe that catastrophically failed thus leading to the release of more than 32,000 pounds of anhydrous ammonia. Each also gives formal detailed reports on significant chemical accidents and include key findings, root causes, and safety recommendations. With that said, this essay will summarize the findings of each investigation, and compare and contrast the two incidents with respect to the chemicals involved, underlying hazards, accident causes, and recommendations from the CSB.
Casse study one: The New Cumberland, West Virginia Fire Explosion
This case study examines a metal dust explosion and fire at the AL Solutions facility in New Cumberland, West Virginia. The incident resulted in three employee fatalities and…… [Read More]
What factors/operations contributed to this incident?
Several factors and operations contributed to the incident resulting in a deceased and inured firefighter. The initial response was according to standard procedure, and was admirably fast and well attended by District Major 204, Engine 11, Engine 6, Emergency Medical Service EC6, and Aerial 4. The presence of a multifaceted team should have provided the diversity of services and resources needed to control the fire in a way that reduced the likelihood of unnecessary or preventable injury. Moreover, the District Major was the first on the scene and had the capacity to respond in a way consistent with leadership protocols. The District Major was correct to first interact with civilians to find out if there were people inside the dwelling.
However, there are several core elements that bear noting. One is the equipment failure on Engine 11, in which the pressure relief valve…… [Read More]
Sports Risk Assessment
The author of this report has been charged with the task of looking at the sports facilities and amenities of a local sports facility and assessing the risks and hazards that exist when it comes to the same. With that in mind, there has been checklists created and used, identification of the setting that will be looked at, the conducting of an assessment at that facility and a narrative of the findings discovered. The facility that was selected was the basketball arena for the local Acme University program. Overall, the arena is in great shape and is rather low-risk in terms of its structure and so forth. Even with most of the facility being top-notch, there was most certainly some weaknesses and those will be addressed one by one within this report.
Areas of Compliance
• The outside of the facility has great walkways and there…… [Read More]
Fire-ased providers as the sole form of EMS
EU member states do not follow a uniform EMS model. This often leads to difficulties at the times of crisis as the preliminary response to the situation varies from state to state. Each region is characterized by a unique set of geographical, cultural, linguistic and medical systems. The vast differences that occur can and do hamper response procedures and critical time. Health professionals and politicians need to have instant access to data of updated EMS structure from each member state to enhance proper care promptly.
The main issues that should be addressed in the uniform code for EMS services in the EU should include the academic qualifications to be possessed by the members of the response team, medical facilities and equipments that the in-hospital and out-of- hospital emergency services should mandatorily be equipped with, a reliable mode of communication between…… [Read More]
Emergency personnel occupying the fire and emergency services make day-to-day decisions and their behavior contributes to the constant evolving of public perceptions. The negative perception of the public due to their scrutiny of fire and emergency operations, budgets, and behavior has slowly tarnished the image of these departments. Therefore, measures should be undertaken in saving the image of the fire and emergency services field through talking openly, reflecting on honesty, working collaboratively, taking responsibility for upcoming issues and acting professionally. The following study looks at the perceptions of the public concerning the Fire Department and the factors influencing their opinions. In addition, the paper looks at what they do in an attempt to either increase or decrease the perceptions of their communities. Furthermore, it identifies the Fire Department’s activities aimed at establishing positive perceptions from community members.
Fire Departments continue to be under scrutiny, and they continue to…… [Read More]
Adoption of this practice will ensure that accidental energization of power lines from back feed electrical energy from generator. Hence this will help in safeguarding utility line workers from possible electrocution. The generators need to be turn off and allow them to cool prior to refuelling. (Occupation Safety and Health Administration, n. d.)
(ii) Power lines: Safety measure are required to be adopted from overhead and underground power lines as they carry very high voltage current. Fatal electrocution is the main impending risk as also burns and falls. The safety precautions that are required to be taken are (a) Overhead and underground power line indicators need to be looked. (b) it is important that one stays 10 feet at the minimum from overhead power lines and take for granted that they are energised. (c) Lines need to be de-energised and grounded when people are working in close proximity. (d) While…… [Read More]
Ford's tests also determined that the gas tanks could be protected by the installation of a simple part that would have cost the company $11 per vehicle. To make matters even worse, Ford was also aware that rear-end collisions typically caused the Pinto's doors to malfunction and become inoperable, sealing occupants inside the vehicles to burn to death when their cars caught fire.
Because the applicable government safety tests had been changed to include rear-end crashes only after the Pinto was already in production, the company was not under any statutory obligation to meet the new government standards. The company calculated the price of recalling the Pinto and of installing the $11 part on all 12.5 million affected vehicles at $137 million. t also calculated the total monetary cost of paying out the damage awards to the owners of 2,100 Pintos statistically likely to be involved in burns from crashes…… [Read More]
The organization mainly focused on analyzing the history of the construction of the building by examining its two main sections, floors, and walls.
Cause of the Collapse:
Following its extensive and detailed investigations, alter J. Hickey Associates, Inc. presented a report on the possible cause for the collapse of the hotel. After making computations, it was discovered that the load on the cast iron column from the dead load alone was approximately 200,000 pounds in consideration of a minimal allowance for the corbelling action. However, a study revealed that the arching or corbelling effect of the C-Line all was only of slight importance. Due to the load, the bearing stress on the wall was estimated at around 7 to 8 times the permissible stress for a wall of good grade brick that has a good line cement mortar ("Investigation of Collapse," p. 45).
hile the bearing stress at the opening…… [Read More]
Wildfire is an uncontrolled fire occurring in combustible vegetation, typically in an wilderness area or countryside (Pyne, Andrews, & Laven, 1996). They are commonly referred to as forest fires, brush fires, or grass fires depending on the type of vegetation involved. Wildfires are characterized in terms of the cause of ignition, their physical properties such as speed of propagation, the combustible material present, and the effect of the weather on the fire (Pyne, Andrews, & Laven, 1996). A wildfire is distinguished from other types of fires due to its size, the speed at which it can spread, and its ability to suddenly change direction and traverse inflammable gaps like rivers (Pyne, Andrews, & Laven, 1996).
In the past wildfires were viewed as strictly a local phenomena; however, wildfires now are recognized as a comprehensive global scale environmental process (Collins, 2009). Wildfires have greatly influenced the biosphere and atmosphere of the…… [Read More]
The mechanic must have adequate knowledge, training, data for assigned task, tools and equipment, be mentally and physically prepared, take safety precautions, have adequate resources, and have researched FAR, Federal Aviation Regulations, to ensure compliance. The task must be performed with a committed attitude, in accordance with appropriate data and acceptable methods, techniques, and practices that are industry acceptable. The mechanic must perform without pressures, stresses, and distractions, re-inspect work, properly record work performed, and perform operational checks. The mechanic must also be willing to sign for work performed and be willing to fly in the aircraft upon approval for return to service.
In spite of having measures in place to mitigate human error in aviation, there is still a major amount of incidents that involve human error. A Quantas plane flew from Darwin to risbane with a rag over a power generator, left on the generator during a…… [Read More]
Airport Rescue and Firefighting
Approximately half of all aircraft accidents take place when the pilot is bringing the plane to an initial approach, a final approach, and the phases of landing at an airport (Richardson, 2003). Fewer than 31% of airport accidents occur within "200 meters of the centre line of the active runway," Richardson reports, and within "1,500 meters of the runway threshold," which is the Critical Rescue and Fire Fighting Response Area. during the "final climb or initial descent phases." The airport accident that seems to be the most common is a failed take-off, which results from a tire blown out, or a mechanical failure or human error, Richardson explains. Nearly 10% of fatalities are reported to have been caused by a "post-crash fire" or a design error.
On the subject of fatalities caused by a post crash fire, this paper delves into the equipment that is used…… [Read More]