Further, Robinson and Sirard posit that applying a "Litmus Test" helps to identify the specific research questions, study designs, and methods that will most likely contribute to improving individual and overall population health (198). The researchers suggest that a study should only be performed if the researcher(s) knows what the conclusion from each possible result (negative, null, positive) will be, and how the result will incline intervention to address policy, clinical or a public health problem like childhood obesity. If research is conducted as suggested, the authors maintain that studies with a greater possibility of advancing science and directly, not suggestively, improving well being and health, would be the result. Therefore, greater assurance that will be provided that ethical responsibilities of not devaluing the contributions of research participants, and responsibly responding to the need for useful research to the public, particularly if public funds are used for the project, will be adequately met.
Hood, in his article, "Sharing Solutions for Childhood Obesity" took a critical look at Shaping America's Youth (SAY), a public-private partnership program that has established a national registry of initiatives for increased physical activity and nutrition with youth and has shown significant improvement in the health and nutrition of the children the program has worked with. The mission of SAY is to foster dialogue at the community level, and ultimately develop a call to action on a national level to combat childhood obesity. Hood notes the historical problems of efforts regarding remediating childhood obesity not being organized, failing to target the right age group, and not being sustained to garner any meaningful results. The focus of SAY, however, is to "get to common goals, common language, and common standards that are modified community by community, and for each family, but getting to the fundamental message is necessary" (p., 521).
While the author acknowledges that the socioeconomic environment is a major contributing factor in the childhood obesity epidemic, he cites that as a paramount reason for getting involved on the individual family, individual community level. Instead of having scholars and experts articulate the problems that foster childhood obesity, those most significantly impacted would have a voice in determining causal factors, and more importantly what they perceive viable solutions to be.
At present, SAY uses geographic system mapping to delineate the current distribution of childhood obesity, lower socioeconomic status, and minimal access to healthy food choices as the primary methodology to elicit associations at the local level to combat the problem. Hood acknowledges that reversing the current trajectory of childhood obesity will require long-term commitments and efforts on the part of all involved, he expresses optimism that if certain aspects of the environment can be strategically and successfully modified, the epidemic of childhood obesity can be significantly reduced if not eliminated within the next decade (p., 523).
Lotz, in her article "Childhood Obesity and the Question of Parental Liberty" suggests that the issue of childhood obesity is a moral one; and due to the reluctance of many to engage in the moral debate because of the prevailing commitment to the current concept of the family and rights to autonomy and privacy of parental control, childhood obesity will continue to manifest at epidemic rates (p. 289). She acknowledges the argument many have that if childhood obesity is indeed a moral issue, and falls within the domain of private parental decision making, then the state has no legitimate say. However, Lotz maintains that regarding the "appropriate stance to take in respect to childhood obesity" the value of parental liberty, family privacy, and freedom from state interference must be critically examined if there is to be a viable solution to childhood...
Further, parents must be supported in instituting an anti-obesity program to reverse the current patterns of their children's food intake, nutritional level, and involvement in physical activity. Support from parents is relatively encompassing and includes addressing issues such as long work hours of parents, isolation from the community, and extended family networks that have all been identified as areas of concern and a potentiating factor in childhood obesity.
Although all of the solutions offered have empirical and clinical research to support that positions, what is most striking between them is the fact that all suggest, to one degree or another, that childhood obesity cannot be successfully addressed from the macro level, but requires a much more micro level approach in order to be successful. All of the arguments are meritorious, and all of the arguments have some weaknesses or areas that could be finer tuned. However, the notion of involving the children and family at the base level, as posited by Robinson and Sirard; focusing on solution-based paradigms vs. problem based ones, seems to have more merit than the others. If the way in which the issue is viewed changes from simply identifying the problem and then placing everything within the contextual framework of the problem and moving toward research that is solution focused, then greater strides can be made in developing programming and even ideology that will be more impactful in addressing childhood obesity.
Allison, D.B., Pietrobell, A., Faith, M.S., Fontaine, K.R., Gropp, E., & Fernandez, J.R.
(2003). Genetic influences on obesity. In Eckel, R. (ed). Obesity: Mechanisms
and Clinical Management. Elsevier: New York, pp. 1-74.
Ballard, M.B., & Alessi, H.D. (2004). The impact of childhood obesity upon academic.
personal/social, and career development: Implications for professional school counselors, Journal of School Counseling, 4(4).
Berg, F.M. (2004). Underage and overweight: America's childhood obesity crisis what
Every family needs to know. Long Island City, NY: Hartleigh Press.
Burke, V., Milligan, R., Thompson, C., Taggart, A., Dunbar, D., Spencer, M., Medland, A., Gracey, M., Vendogen, R., & Beilin, J. (1998). A controlled trial of health promotion Programs in 11-year-olds using physical activity "enrichments" for high risk children. Journal of Pediatrics, 132, 840-848.
Center for Disease Control and Prevention. State Indicator Report on Physical Activity 2010. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2010.
Daniels, S. (2011). Diet quality and the risk of cardiovascular disease: The women's health initiative, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 94, 49-57.
Franko, D., Striegel-Moore, R., Douglas, T., Scheirber, G., & Daniels, S. (2005). Does adolescent depression predict obesity in black and white young adult women?
Psychological Medicine, 35, 1505-1513.
Freedman, D.S., Zuguo, M., Srinivasan, S.R., Berenson, G.S., & Dietz, W.H. (2007).
Cardiovascular risk factors and excess adiposity among overweigh children and adolescents: The Bogalusa Heart Study. Journal of Pediatrics, 150(1), 12-17.
Hood, E. Sharing solutions for childhood obesity, Environmental Health Perspectives,
Huberman, M., & Miles, M.B. (Eds.). (2002). The qualitative researcher's companion: Classic and contemporary readings. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Kimm, S., Obarzanek, E., Barton, B., Aston, C., Similo, S., Morrison, J., et al. (1996).
Race, socioeconomic status and obesity in 9 to 10-year-old girls: The NHLBI Growth And Health Study. Academy of Epidemiology and Pediatrics, 6(4), 266-275.
Lotz, M. (2004). Childhood obesity and the question of parental liberty, Journal of Social
Philosophy, 35(2), 288-303.
Mellenbergh, G.J. (2008). Surveys. In H.J. Ader & G.J. Mellenbergh (eds). Advising on research Methods: A consultant's companion. Huizen, the Netherlands: Johannan van Kessel Publishing.
Robinson, T., & Sirard, J. (2005). Preventing childhood obesity: A solution-oriented
research paradigm, American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 28(2S2), 194-
Rogers, J.H. (2003). Living on the fat of the land: How to have your burger and sue it too. Washington University Law Quarterly, 81, 859-884.
Sallis, J.F., Mckenzie, T.L., Conway, T.L., Elder, J.P., Prochaska, J.J., Brown, M., Zine, M.M.,Marshall, S.J., & Alcaraz, J.E. (2003). Environmental interventions for eating and physical activity: A randomized controlled trial in middle schools. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 24(3), 209-217.
United States Department of Health and Human Services, (2001). The Surgeon General's call to…
The documents we provide are to be used as a sample, template, outline, guideline in helping you write your own paper, not to be used for academic credit. All users must abide by our "Student Honor Code" or you will be restricted access to our website.
Childhood obesity is becoming prevalent with every passing day, almost uniformly in the developed parts of the world. This problem needs to be discussed on important forums so that substantial solutions can be sort for this issue as this is creating a lot of burden on the government as well as the parents of the children who become obese. Childhood obesity is defined as a condition in which the child has
Childhood Obesity Growing Where some oppose the idea of childhood obesity being a disease, there is still a growing epidemic where children's weight exceed the normal weight per height and age and increasing health concerns that must be addressed with a commitment to appropriate action plans to reduce and eliminate childhood obesity. From 1971-74 to 2009-10 childhood obesity increased from 4% to 18% in ages 6-11 and from 6.1% to 18.4% for
Childhood Obesity Study The research study titled, "Parents' perceptions and attitudes on childhood obesity: AQ-methodology study" by Akhtar-Danesh et al. (2010) details the perceptions that parents have toward the cause of obesity, how much obesity affects health, and the obstacles that exist in successfully implementing an obesity prevention program for children. Due to the nature of the research experiment, the test that was used was an appropriate method to attain the
Childhood obesity is one of the most discussed health problems in the United States, and is a growing health issue in many places worldwide. The reason that childhood obesity is a worry for healthcare officials will be discussed in this paper, along with statistics that show the current trends. Also, potential solutions to this crisis will also be presented. How is Obesity defined? The Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) defines
Childhood Obesity/Exercise The study by Akhtar-Danesh, Dehgham, Morrison, and Fonseka (2011) was designed to address the problem of parents' perceptions of the causes of childhood obesity, barriers to prevention, and the impact of obesity on child health. As noted by the authors, childhood obesity is a growing public health concern; rates of childhood obesity more than doubled between 1980 and 2003. Statistics show that obese children are at increased risk of
Childhood Obesity One of the most significant health problems seen in the United States is obesity. Within this dynamic there are particular issues of special concern for the health care industry and society in general, most notably the exponential increase in obesity found among children. (Strauss, Pollack, 2001, pgs. 2845-2848) and (Troiano, Flegel, 1998, pgs. 497-504) "Childhood obesity has more than doubled over the past 20 years, and it represents the