l billion in 2007. This growth can be seen to represent the increasing interest of Chinese firms in acquiring resources, technology and brands outside of their own country (Carpenter & Wyman, 2009).
Lenovo was able to seal the deal essentially by acting like a Western firm. It did not approach the deal from the same perspective as say, the way that CNOOC did with its unsolicited bid and ultimately failed bid for Chevron. Lenovo had a strategic alliance with IBM prior to the deal, so that the latter's management and shareholders understood the strategic value of the deal. For Lenovo, it was able to maintain relationships with IBM, including taking some of its talent back to China with it.
Lenovo traded on the Hong Kong exchange, giving it the transparency needed by Western investors. Moreover, this also lent liquidity to Lenovo shares, allowing them to be used in the deal. Furthermore, Lenovo was a large company that through its deal with IBM already had a sizeable international presence. While China's hundreds of thousands of SMEs may not be able to seek foreign M&As, Lenovo was among the handful of Chinese firms large enough, and with sufficiently significant presence in both the domestic and international markets, to execute such a deal.
Despite the differences in business cultures, Chinese firms expand overseas for the same reasons that Western firms do -- to acquire strategic capabilities, to offset competitive disadvantages and to leverage their strengths in overseas markets (Rui & Yip, 2008). The Lenovo deal was focused on resource-driven acquisition of strategic capabilities. The resource-driven perspective on Chinese M&A activity shows that Chinese firms engage in activities in part to acquire resources they lack -- in the case of Lenovo they wanted some of IBM's marketing and managerial talent, having already earned IBM's production capacity (Deng, 2009).
Lenovo's strategy was driven by the need to acquire this talent. They had already leveraged their competitive advantage in production to win IBM's business, but had prior to the merger allowed IBM to manage the Lenovo and IBM brands in the U.S. Recognizing that its future was in moving beyond low-cost production and therefore required an increase in managerial competency, Lenovo made the deal to acquire managerial talent in addition to U.S. market share. To do this, Lenovo took advantage of its prior relationship with IBM, the liquidity of its stock, and its abundant supply of cash, spending some $1.1 billion on the acquisition. The main deterrent to the deal with the lack of managerial talent at Lenovo, so the acquisition of U.S. talent not only was a strategic benefit to Lenovo but helped to assuage U.S. investors and IBM management who may have had skepticism with respect to the deal.
Chapter 5: The coming age of Chinese MNC
As reported, the cross border M&A activity of Chinese firms increased dramatically in 2008. Although the domestic market is expected...
Chinese firms are improving their managerial capabilities and experience. For example, a large Chinese firm like Huawei would have had difficulty engaging in a sizeable M&A transaction overseas just a few years ago, but now has begun to build up experience in competitive markets and may be able to become more involved in such activity in the future.
The obstacles with respect to the structure of the Chinese economy remain, however. With markets that are relatively illiquid in relation to the size of the economy and with heavy government involvement at all levels of industry, Chinese firms still have some ground to overcome before M&A outflows can begin to approach the levels (as a percentage of GNP) of Western nations. Gradually, however, Chinese companies are overcoming their internal deficiencies and Westerners are overcoming their hesitations, which should lead to a substantial increase in crossborder M&A activity for Chinese firms going forward.
Wong, J. & Chan, S. (2003). China's outward direct investment: Expanding worldwide. China: An International Journal. Vol. 1, 2, 273-301.
Schuller, M. & Turner, A. (2005). Global ambitions: Chinese companies spread their wings. Im Fokus. Retrieved November 23, 2009 from http://www.giga-hamburg.de/ifa/kostenlos/ca/0504/Fokus-Schueller.pdf
Hamm, S. (2005). Lenovo and IBM: East meets west, big time. Business Week. Retrieved November 23, 2009 from http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/05_19/b3932113_mz063.htm
Fuhrman, P. (2009). Private equity and strategic M&A transactions in China. China First Capital. Retrieved November 23, 2009 from http://www.chinafirstcapital.com/blog/archives/202
Ma, S. & Trigo, V. (2008). Winning the war for managerial talent in China: An empirical study. Chinese Economy. Vol. 41, 3, 34-57.
Green, S. (2003). China's stock market: Eight myths and some reasons to be optimistic. Cambridge University. Retrieved November 23, 2009 from http://www.chathamhouse.org.uk/files/3066_chinasstockmarketfinalpdf.pdf
Jennings, R. (2004). China's Lenovo announces acquisition of IBM's PC business. Kyodo News International. Retrieved November 23, 2009 from http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-125926575.html
Farh, J. & Cheng, B. (2000). Management and organizations in the Chinese context. Palgrave Macmillan.
No author. (2005). The Chinese are coming! Business Week. Retrieved November 23, 2009 from http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/05_27/b3941067.htm
Carpenter, G. & Wyman, O. (2009). M&A in China -- A focus on value. Marsh Mercer Kroll. Retrieved November 23, 2009 from http://www.mercer.com/referencecontent.htm?idContent=1343005
Antkiewicz, A. & Whalley, J. (2006). Recent Chinese buyout activity and implications for global architecture. National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper. Retrieved November 23, 2009 from http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=888274##
Rui, H. & Yip, G. (2008). Foreign acquisitions by Chinese firms: A strategic intent perspective. Journal of World Business. Vol. 43, 2, 213-226.
Deng, P. (2009). Why do Chinese firms tend to acquire strategic assets in international expansion? Journal of World Business. Vol, 44, 1, 74-84.
Taylor, R. (2002). Globalization strategies of Chinese companies: Current developments and future prospects. Asian Business & Management. Vol. 1, 2, 209-225.
China Manufacturing Chinese Manufacturing Industry The social group that I choose to analyze is the population involved with the Chinese manufacturing industry. I choose this particular group is because of three reasons. The first reason is China's economic develop is growing rapidly relative to the rest of the world. Another interesting fact is that compared with other countries, Chinese labor is much cheaper yet there is still a high skill level. Because
2. Global integration has significant impacts for firms such as Starbucks that have built a strong brand based on a consistent product, no matter where the operation is. Global marketing integration demands that the marketing component of the company should also be integrated, and consistent. One of the major implications is with regards to product. Starbucks sought to expand into Asian markets, but their core product of coffee has very
For example, there are several suspicions regarding the foreign companies audited by Chinese authorized auditors, given their reduced number and lack of experience. Another example regards China Life Insurance, which was listed on the Hong Kong and New York stock exchanges, raising approximately $3.4 billion. The company's future evolution was not as successful, since the following year a routine audit on the company revealed that it had uncovered $652
State Domination and Financial Markets The Chinese government has characterized its involvement in economic development as "serving rather than supervising the private economy" since 2008 (Xinhua, 2009). With this shift in focus a number of changes to Chinese management can be expected. The paternalistic approach will remain, as it is part of Chinese culture, but there will be further Western influences, particularly with respect to the desire outcomes of management behavior. In
China's Intellectual Property Rights: Current Issues, Strategic Considerations And Problem Solving In this paper, the focus is primarily on the Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) that are given to individuals within the Republic of China. The paper starts off by defining IPR and the different ways that IPR is provided like copyright infringement. The paper them moves on to define IPR and its progression in China through the imperialistic years, the era
China and the World Trade Organization On December 11, 2001, China officially became a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO), opening the country's doors to change and a new economy. One year after china's entry into the WTO, the country reported great success, showing better-than-expected economic growth and fulfillment of its WTO commitments, despite the shaky world economy. The excellent performance of the Chinese economy was clearly demonstrated by its 8% growth