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IBM DB2 Express - C
Installing and Analyzing IBM DB2 Express -- C
IBM DB2 Express-C database for Microsoft Windows was downloaded, installed and used as the basis of analysis in this paper. What differentiates UBM DB2 Express-C from the many comparable low-end enterprise-level databases is support for XML integration, dual core processors and 2GB of memory. IBM has been selling their DB2 databases for decades to enterprises globally, and has created this version for free download. While this is a low-end, freely downloadable version, IBM has been generous with its support for many core features. IBM also has included access to its online support communities and forums. These communities and forums are highly valuable for getting insights into the administration, development best practices, XML integration insights, and how to write programs with this application. The system the downloaded application is running on for purposes of this analysis has dual…
Alsultanny, Y. (2010). Database management and partitioning to improve database processing performance. Journal of Database Marketing & Customer Strategy Management, 17(3-4), 271-276.
Beyer, K., Cochrane, R., Hvizdos, M., & Josifovski, V. (2006). DB2 goes hybrid: Integrating native XML and XQuery with relational data and SQL. IBM Systems Journal, 45(2), 271-298.
Cuzzocrea, A., Furfaro, F., & Sacca, D. (2009). Enabling OLAP in mobile environments via intelligent data cube compression techniques. Journal of Intelligent Information Systems, 33(2), 95-143.
Tulchinsky, V.G., Yushchenko, A.K., & Yushchenko, R.A. (2008). Graph queries for data integration using xml. Cybernetics and Systems Analysis, 44(2), 292-303.
IBM Case Study
Compare and contrast the project portfolio management approaches that IBM and Deloitte Consulting used to rank and select the projects for their respective portfolios.
IBM uses the Q-sort approach to manage their project portfolio. This approach enables them to analyze opinions raised by groups based on rankings given by each group member. The company embraced this strategy as a way of measuring the relationship between opinions of different employees. This approach seeks to find out correlations between the views expressed by individuals. The company uses this approach to prioritize their projects. This process involves rounds, which consist of people making assessments through group discussions. Each group member writes down a short description of a project on a card. The card is duplicated and distributed to group members. They hold discussions and improver their understanding of the project (Denney, 2005).
On the other hand, Deloitte uses the real…
Cooper, R., Scott J., & Elko J. (2008). Portfolio Management for New Products. Reading, MA:
Denney, R. (2005). Succeeding with Use Cases: Working Smart to Deliver Quality. Boston, MA:
IBM -- Maintaining Culture
IBM was able to maintain its corporate culture for many years in the midst of an every changing environment. This paper explores how IBM was able to do so.
IBM serves as a prime example for many organizations who wish for create a corporate culture that endures. The organization was able to embed a corporate culture that was able to withstand the pressures that are created by a dynamic and rapidly changing global business environment. Not only was IBM able to keep its sole throughout the changes, so to speak, but it was also able to leverage its culture to tackle the emerging dilemmas that it faced in the wake of globalization. ith nearly half a million employees this was not an easy task either. The culture that IBM was able to sustain definitely had its access to state of the art technology. This…
George, B. (2012, January 18). How IBM's Sam Palmisano Redefined the Global Corporation. Retrieved from Havard Business Review: http://blogs.hbr.org/hbsfaculty/2012/01/how-ibms-sam-palmisano-redefin.html
Jetter, M., & Neus, G. (2009). Technological Innovation and Its Impact on Business Model, Organization and Corporate Culture -- . Business & Information Systems Engineering, 37-45.
Also, IBM neglected gaining a more dominant position in the nascent industry in that period by allowing another corporation to take over the business of programming the new computers. Therefore, IBM missed this incredible opportunity which might have granted the company a dominant position on the market at that time.
IBM has shown its innovation capabilities not only in technological areas, but in strategy models also. The company's negotiation strategy became a successful model followed by enterprises all over the world, regardless of their object of activity, size, or environmental conditions. IBM developed a negotiation process that may be applied in any area. The IBM model is based on relating differently with each client, by adapting strategies according to the client's profile, behavior and requirements and developing a strategy based on these traits. IBM strategists have identified several client types: the businessman, the optimist, the pessimist, the hesitant, the impatient,…
IBM's strategy. Management discussion (2005). International Business Machines Corporation and Subsidiary Companies. Retrieved April 22, 2007 at http://www.ibm.com/annualreport/2005/md_3strategy.shtml .
The future of the enterprise (2006). IBM United States. Retrieved April 22, 2007 at http://www.ibm.com/ibm/ideasfromibm/us/enterprise/mar27/global_innovation.html .
Metz, Cade (2003). A Glimpse of IBM's Future. PC Magazine online. Retrieved April 22, 2007 at http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,4149,1216006,00.asp .
McDougall, Paul (2005). IBM's Future Is in Business-Performance Transformation. InformationWeek online. Retrieved April 22, 2007 at http://www.informationweek.com/story/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=56900493 .
IBM Case Study
What is the key problem facing IBM Europe managers (at the end of the case)?
It is a complex problem of recruiting more resellers for the new B2B initiative based on order capture, distributed order management, and minicomputer product configuration and customization workflows running RosettaNet PIPs over an XML network. This problem was made more complex by the fact that for any reseller to participate in the new B2B initiative, they would need assurances they would not be disintermediated from the sales they bough to IBM. Another aspect of this challenge was the lack of faith in RosettaNet throughout the industry for being able to scale beyond simple, EDI-0like batch transactions of which it was known for (Boh, Soh, Yeo, 2007). During this time of RosettaNet's development it was common knowledge that the standard had been created for sharing content yet the only process workflow that everyone…
IBM New UNIX Computer
Over the past years, Sun has managed to take the lion's share of the market for servers running the UNIX operating system. By putting mainframe-style features such as partitioning into its servers, and building hardware for its own Solaris operating system, Sun managed to take the lead with their UNIX systems (Vance).
With the release of its p690 server, however, IBM is giving Sun some heavy competition and creating a more competitive environment that could benefit users.
Designed for large, single-system applications and server consolidation, the power of the p690 comes from its unusual combination of advanced microprocessor technology, enhanced memory capability and increased I/O bandwidth. Eminently scalable, multiple p690 servers can be clustered to form supercomputers of more than 512 processors when complex problems demand it ("pSeries 690").
The core of the p690 is IBM's POWE4 chip. With a processing speed of 1.1-1.3 GHz, the…
IBM launches World's most powerful server." October 4, 2001. IBM Press release. Available at http://18.104.22.168/search?q=cache:8N8w6q33QBIC:www.ibm.com/servers/eserver/pseries/news/pressreleases/2001/oct/annc_104.html+Adkins,+IBM+p690&hl=en&ie=UTF-8 pSeries 690." pSeries 690 Virtual Tour. Available at http://www-1.ibm.com/servers/eserver/pseries/hardware/tour/690_text.html .
Vance, Ashelee. "IBM set to sail Regatta." ITWorld. October 4, 2001. available from www.itworld.com.
Investors should be more wary today. It would be expected that a similar announcement by Intel would not bring forth such a fevered response. The dot.com bubble has burst and dissipated, and in its wake consumers are more wary of techniques to inflate stock value on paper. In 2005, Intel attempted a similar technique as IBM. However, the slightly more skeptical business press was quick to point out the 'fancy math' behind the move. Noting, Intel had only reduced earnings per share on paper, because of the increase of profits accorded to investors, with little real increase in wealth. BusinessWeek's 2006 article on Intel's buyback scheme was entitled: "The dirty little secret about buybacks."
Had a similar buyback technique been used by Intel right after the 2008 credit crisis, investors would have been even more leery. But now that the market has rebounded, investors may be less apt once again…
Eisenstader, Ingrid. (1998, May 10). Bullish on buybacks? The New York Times. Retrieved May
18, 2010 at http://www.nytimes.com/1998/05/10/business/investing-it-bullish-on-buybacks-take-a-second-look.html
The dirty little secret about buybacks. (2006). BusinessWeek. Retrieved May 18, 2010 at http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/06_04/b3968099.htm
Geralds, John. (1998). Who wins in IBM stock buyback? VNU newsletter. Retrieved May 18,
IBM vs. Microsoft
Comparison Between IBM and Microsoft
How different corporate emphasis upon hardware vs. software affects accounting practices and financial records
IBM and Microsoft are two technological behemoths. Both companies have been criticized for de facto and de jure monopolistic practices within the software industry at different junctures of their corporation's life. However, from a financial and an accounting standpoint, both companies have distinctively different strengths as well as have exhibited distinct differences in their financial structure, organization, and yes, investor public relations. Microsoft's emphasis on software has led to its stress upon encouraging individual education and familiarity with its web-based and software systems. IBM's need to purvey its hardware has resulted in more conservative advertising and inventory strategies, as well as more outreach to businesses rather than individuals, where depreciation of hardware goods can generate additional profits for the company.
The Microsoft Corporation is currently the more successful…
MSN. (2004) Money Central: IBM. http://news.moneycentral.msn.com/ticker/sigdev.asp?Symbol=IBM
MSN. (2004) Money Central: Microsoft. http://moneycentral.msn.com/investor/research/profile.asp?Symbol=msft
Parish, Bill. (11 November 1999) "Microsoft. http://www.billparish.com/msftfraudfacts.html
However, this scrutiny extends to intense self-monitoring on the part of the corporation as a whole. According to its mission statement, it is "IBM's practice to voluntarily and promptly disclose known violations of government procurement laws to appropriate officials of government. In the event that IBM benefited economically from such known violations, it is our practice to reimburse the government customer accordingly" ("Business Conduct and Ethics," 2008, IBM.). In other words, IBM does not simply strive to uphold the law and ensure that violators within the company are punished. It also submits itself to intense self-scrutiny and self-monitoring, is committed to transparency in regards to violations and will go above and beyond the law even in the absence of a conviction to ensure that customers are treated fairly.
Business Conduct and Ethics." (2008). IBM Official ebsite. Retrieved 20 Jul 2008 at http://www.ibm.com/ibm/responsibility/company/management/policies/conduct.shtml
Lend an Ear." (7 Dec 1981).…
Business Conduct and Ethics." (2008). IBM Official Website. Retrieved 20 Jul 2008 at http://www.ibm.com/ibm/responsibility/company/management/policies/conduct.shtml
Lend an Ear." (7 Dec 1981). Time Magazine. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,953249,00.html
IM is a globally integrated technology and consulting firm. It specializes in computer hardware, software, and Information Technology. It offers infrastructure, hosting and consulting services for the enterprise market. IM's clients include many different kinds of enterprises, from sole proprietorships to the world's largest organizations, governments and companies representing every major industry and endeavor.
The majority of the company's enterprise business, which excludes the company's original equipment manufacturer (OEM) technology business, occurs in industries that are broadly grouped into six sectors: Financial Services: anking, Financial Markets, Insurance; Public: Education, Government, Healthcare, Life Sciences; Industrial: Aerospace, Automotive, Defense, Chemical and Petroleum, Electronics; Distribution: Consumer Products, Retail, Travel, Transportation; Communications: Telecommunications, Media and Entertainment, Energy and Utilities; Small and Medium usiness: Mainly companies with less than 1,000 employees.
IM's business model
The company's business model is built to support two principal goals: helping clients succeed in delivering business value by becoming more…
IBM Annual Report 2010
David Walters and Mark Wainbird, Strategic Operations Management: A Value Chain Approach. (2007).
http://www-03.ibm.com/press/us/en/background.wss http://www.ibm.com/investor/strategy / http://www.designnews.com/index-dn-ad.html?gotourl=http://www.designnews.com/article/366874-Dassault_to_Acquire_IBM_s_PLM_Sales_And_Consulting_Arm.php
As it is important for IM Canada, to: identify different types of legal liabilities and their possible consequences on a regular basis. Some of the main legal risks being faced by the company include: employee lawsuits, cyber issues, product liability, patent / licensing and criminal investigations / compliance.
An employee lawsuit is a legal issue of paramount importance for IM Canada. Discontent employees can file a claim against the company for: sex / age discrimination, pregnancy, race, gender, disability, wrongful termination and other injuries. Matters related to salary deductions, payments, and other dues; if not properly dealt with, can also bring litigation for the company.
The operation of IM Canada mostly includes the use of: technology, internet communications and resources. As cyber legal issues pose a significant threat for the company. The instances of data theft due to: unauthorized access and hacking can bring huge financial…
Alternate Service Delivery (2006). (ASD) Project Summary. Retrieved from: http://www.lcs.gov.bc.ca/asd/docs/PCHS_Project_Summary.pdf
Corporate Legal Risk - Management and Mitigation. (2007). Padmanabhan T.K.A. Retrieved from: http://www.icsi.edu/cs/December2007/Articles/CorporateLegalRiskMgmt.pdf
E-commerce risks becoming mainstream insurance concern. (2004). Asia Online Retrieved from: http://www.aaisonline.com/viewpoint/04spr2.html
Legal Issues in Software Development. (2011). E How, Retrieved from: http://www.ehow.co.uk/list_6727210_legal-issues-software-development.html
IBM to Acquire NetSol: An Economic Analysis
Classical economic theory would support recent news of IBM's acquisition of NetSol as a complementary agent in its journey toward servicing global customers. In the article IBM to Acquire NetSol the author discusses the recent acquisition of Bangladore-based company Network Solutions (NetSol for short) by IBM corporation. NetSol offers infrastructure services to corporations around the world. The company NetSol currently employees more than 1,400 people and services multiple major clients including Cisco, Microsoft, Oracle and more, with revenues quite stable during the 2004 through 2005 fiscal year. The company was expecting growth exceeding 25% in the upcoming fiscal year.
Why the decision to acquire NetSol? IBM is taking advantage of multiple economic principles to expand and strengthen its ability to service multiple enterprises. The acquisition will enable the IBM to service multiple in-market businesses by providing infrastructure capabilities; examples of these services include…
"Economic Theory." (2005). Retrieved Nov. 8, 2005:
Economic Times. (2005). "IBM to acquire NETSol." Times News Network. (2005).
IBM Indiana Telecommuting Project
IBM had been a leader in the computer industry for most of the 20th century, accounting for a staggering 70% of the computer market during the 70s. As the computer market and the information technology was on the rise during the 80s, IBM continued to grow as a company, expanding its overseas activities and increasing its revenue. However, starting with this period, IBM had also become "more bureaucratic and slow-moving." The company began to lose its market share and the profit margins began to drop as well. It was clear that there was a problem.
Studying the table in Exhibit 1, I noticed that IBM's revenues had continuously increased between 1985 and 1990, by as much as 10% (1989 to 1990) and only in the two last years had the company experienced a slight decrease in revenues. This proved that the company was still selling its…
IBM's profits and ROE increased dramatically over the period of four years, from 1996 to 2000. here were a number of factors that helped contribute to Big Blue's profitability in this case. First, there was a spike in revenues that lead to a stable increase starting in 1998 and really solidifying in 2000. his increase in revenue allowed the gross margin to increase; therefore positively impacting net income for the company, as operating expenses remained relatively stable during the same period. Moreover, cash levels and EPS were other factors that helped boost IBM's profitability.
Moreover, IBM had growth in revenue, receivables, and gross margins. Revenue growth spiked beginning in 1998 and remained stable until 2000. his increased the cash flow the company was able to work with, as operating costs and expenses also remained stable, with no major increases that would have eaten into the new increases in…
The peak season for IBM seems to be during the holiday season, and thus numbers from December tend to be higher than other periods of the year. Still, numbers from June of each year also show that the company goes through a second seasonal summer period where sales are up. Therefore, IBM would most likely keep higher levels of inventory during its seasonal peak periods. Also, the receivables are greater during seasonal peak periods. Thus, December and June show the highest revenue. Still, the gross margins of these periods balance out, as there is more money being spent during these seasonal periods as well. Still, since IBM does not have an extreme peak season, unlike other industries like tourism, the company should not be affected by seasonality in terms of making crucial decisions regarding working capital.
IBM also saw an increase in overall earnings per share during this period.
Evaluate IBM's earning per share and identify the factors most responsible for the increase in IBM's earnings. The evaluation shows high levels of percent of surprise from December 1999 to June 2000. There was a huge increase from September 1997 at only $0.69 per share to December 1997, which was at $1.08 per share. This trend of keeping earnings per share above the one dollar mark continued strongly into 1998 and 1999. There are a number of factors that helped increase IBM's earning per share. First, the steady increase in the gross margin over the period of four years would have definitely boosted per share earnings, as it had such a positive impact on overall revenue and cash flow within the company, effectively boosting assets. Seasonal increases in revenue definitely have an impact on the earnings per share, as numbers from December prove higher than any other monthly period. For example December 1998 was at $1.27 earned per share. Yet, at the same time, the summer period also seems to have strong earnings per share as well. June 1999 was actually the highest earned, at $1.32 per share.
From 1996 to 1997, IBM saw their OE increase between 15 and 25%. During 1998 to the first quarter of 2000, is when they began to steadily decrease from 27 to 18%. These factors are showing how IBM is having trouble increasing their OE after 1998. This is because the company was experiencing a slowdown in capital spending. In the first quarter of 2000, these figures came in at a rate similar to what was experienced in late 1996. These trends are illustrating how the company is seeing a decline in their net income. This is decreasing the OE percentages, with them gradually declining in 1999. In the first quarter of 2000, these amounts became more severe. ("IBM Corporation," 2013)
evenue growth peaked in the final quarter of 1998. This is when the company saw the highest levels of sales, with customers spending their capital budgets for the…
IBM Corporation. (2013).
Identify the Industries. (2013).
Evaluation of Effectiveness of the IMC Campaign:
To evaluate the effectiveness of IBM's integrated marketing communication campaign, one must first understand what IMC truly is. IMC is a marketing concept whereby all aspects of marketing communications are unified. Advertising, sales promotions, public relations, direct marketing all work together towards a singular goal, as opposed to working independently from one another.
Typically, an IMC campaign begins with an assessment of the organization's customers' needs. This includes both internal and external customers. These needs then form the primary marketing goal that all facets of the marketing communications strive for.
IBM clearly was able to bind together all forms of marketing communications into one cohesive unit, for their 'e-business on demand' campaign. No matter where the marketing communication came from, the message was consistent. Whether IBM utilized television, print, outdoor, events, sports sponsorships, or online advertising they ensured that all facets of the…
Maddox, K. (25 Oct 2004). IBM's strategy keeps it in and on demand. B to B, 89(12). Retrieved March 22, 2005, from Business Source Premier database.
Article Review: IBM's strategy keeps it in and on demand
Competitive Forces Analysis
There are a number of potential factors that increase the competitive rivalry for IBM and other competitors in the field when looking specifically at cloud computing. There are a wide variety of both large and small companies providing cloud services. In addition to major companies like Microsoft and AT&T, there are also new entrants like Amazon, ackspace, Google, and Salesforce.com (Konstantinos et al., 2009). These new entrants or offering limited cloud storage, but much cheaper prices, sometimes even free as in the case with Amazon and Google. IBM could have the choice of purchasing smaller players that were or the working within the cloud computing market. However, "acquisitions could also delay IBM's response because of the time needed for integration and coordination purposes. Going it alone would keep the bulk of value created in-house," (Konstantinos et al., 2009, 207). However, in 2008, IBM made…
Asif, F. (2013). Competitive profile matrix. Case Study IBM. Author Stream. Web. http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/asif597k-1226283-case-study-ibm/
Delta Consultants. (2010). International Business Machines IBM: Strategic Business Plan for Years 2011, 2012, and 2013. Web. http://www.docstoc.com/docs/69069683/International-Business-Machines-IBM
Grigoriou, Konstantinos, Retana, Germa, & Rothaermel, Frank T. (2009). IBM and the emerging cloud-computing industry. Case Study 16.
Nasdaq. (2014). IBM company financials. Trade Station. Web. http://www.nasdaq.com/symbol/ibm/financials?query=ratios
company International Business Machines, known around the world as IBM. IBM began in 1900, and has grown to become one of the world's largest and best-known names in computing and technology.
In 1900, George W. Fairchild formed the International Time ecording Company in New York, which began the foundations of IBM. It incorporated several other timekeeping and computerized scale companies into one, and it continued to grow and merge with other companies throughout its early history. The company began calling itself IBM in 1924, by then, it was already doing business around the world, and it paid its first stock dividends in 1925. In the beginning, the company made mechanical business machines, like timekeepers, and adding machines, later they developed technology for machines like copy machines and other machines. In 1944, they developed one of the world's first computers, and they continued to create technological products like computers throughout the…
Dunn, D.T., & Probstein, S.C. (2003). Marketing high tech services. Review of Business, 24(1), 10+.
Editors. (2009). IBM highlights, 1885-1969. Retrieved 14 Dec. 2009 from the IBM.com Web site: http://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/documents/pdf/1885-1969.pdf .
Editors. (2009). IBM highlights, 2000-2006. Retrieved 14 Dec. 2009 from the IBM.com Web site: http://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/documents/pdf/2000-2006.pdf .
The Lenovo affair: The growth of China's computer giant and its takeover of IBM-PC. (2006, August/September). African Business 62+.
Cloud Computing for Business Continuity and Disaster ecovery for IBM What are the technical, economic, and managerial implications for business continuity and disaster recovery plans in relation to cloud computing and SaaS?
The emergence of cloud computing brought about a transformation in economics of organizations' continuity and disaster recovery strategies. In view of this emergence, it's imperative that several companies review their organizational strategies and ascertain that they are fulfilling business needs. Organizations have frequently portrayed a disparity between continuance/recovery plans and business continuity needs. The reason behind this discrepancy is that corporations are unwilling to divert funds towards disaster recovery until the time managers wholly comprehend the risks they are facing -- this, often, doesn't happen. Technology experts were experiencing a tremendous rise in both complexity and expenditures in shifting from elementary disaster recovery systems to a faster, more dependable recovery strategy, until cloud computing came into the picture…
Boyd, B. Y. (2014). Cloud Control. Information Management Journal, 48(6), 20-25.
Murukutla M. (2010), Virtualization: disaster recovery for the hospitality industry?
Session Long Project
Preimesberger, C. (2014). Deploying Disaster Recovery Through a Cloud Service: 10 Best Practices. Eweek, 2.
Organization (IBM Company)
Business-to-Business is a communication theory that aims at enhancing the effectiveness of the selling process. For the past decades, the cost of hiring skilled professionals has been on the rise than the cost of media, advertising, or price index of consumers. Collaborations conducted online have the potential to change how employees in a business work with clients and their colleagues. Looking at IBM, employees are often encouraged to explore how online collaborations via social media can empower them as citizens, innovators, and global professionals. Employees of IBM interact in a way that represents a new model of business rather than a mass communication: this model is based on masses teams of communicators (Turban, Kohli, Cheung & Lai, 2006).
Through such discourse of employee-client interactions and employee-employee interactions, the company has been able to share employee expertise amongst their clients, surrounding communities and shareholders. The company has a…
Egan, J. (2007). Marketing communications. London: Thomson
Halpin, T. A et al. (2009). Enterprise, Business-Process and Information Systems Modeling: 10th
International Workshop. Proceedings. Berlin: Springer
Hutt, M.D., & Speh, T.W. (2013). Business marketing management: B2B. Australia: South-
"But if you trust your strategy, your capabilities and your people -- and if you are confident that all are grounded in a set of shared values -- then this is the kind of innovation you pursue" (IBM 2007 Annual eport).
International Business Machines Corporations understood from the beginnings the need to satisfy the needs of the customers. But to achieve this desiderate, they must first identify the demands. They do this by constantly communicating with the clientele in order to retrieve feedback. A relevant example of the strategies implemented to increased customer responsiveness is given by the close collaboration with recently privatized Telekomunikacja Polska - Poland's largest telecommunication network (about 90% of market share). The offering of specialized consultancy helped IBM better communicate with the clients. Then, the company also implemented strategies to better track the purchases of the customers and improve the quality of the counter operations, all…
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2008, IBM 2007 Annual Report, Retrieved at http://www.ibm.com/annualreport/2007/onApril 14, 2008
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For instance, architectures rivaling the IBM personal computer (based on the Intel 8080 microprocessor and the MS-DOS operating system) generally failed once the IBM standard became established. The standard was entrenched in distribution channels and the mind of the consumer; the price of IBM-compatible machines had been reduced sharply by cumulative experience; and, perhaps most significantly, the vast majority of software and peripherals were specifically engineered for compatibility with the standard.
IBM's prestige as the world's number one producer of computer hardware and software lent the company an aura of dependability that the newer companies lacked. Software and peripherals manufacturers were already accustomed to dealing with IBM. The IBM way of doing things would dominate simply because it was the most well-known, and the most well-established. Nevertheless, the IBM way of doing things became, in the case of the personal computer, an adaptation of other companies' ways of doing things,…
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CFO IBM. You successful years, concerned sources funds, cost funds. With changing business conditions, costs . At IBM, issued $100,000,000 Corporate Bonds carry a 6% interest rate, $200,000,000 Equity offers a 10% dividend, $100,000,000 etained Earnings opportunity cost 9%.
The cost of capital at IBM
IBM is one of the oldest and most prosperous companies within the technological community. The organization has led the industry through innovation, which has in turn been supported by a strong internal strategy. One crucial pillar of the organization's success has been represented by its wide access to financial resources, through which IBM was able to develop and integrate new technologies that advanced their products.
Still, in the modern day business climate, the access to funds becomes more restricted, as borrowing becomes more expensive. While the organization is in dire needs of funds, a question is being posed relative to the sources of the future…
2012, Weighted average cost of capital, Investopedia, http://www.investopedia.com/terms/w/wacc.asp#axzz1mFNGvViG last accessed on February 13, 2012
How to reduce the cost of capital, Rapport Capital Formation Strategists Inc., http://www.rapport.ca/pdf/cowboy/14_cowboy.pdf last accessed on February 13, 2012
This document considers the various points of correlation between human resources, management information systems, and supply chain management in relation to critical IBM concepts of managing an organization. It identifies how these three areas intersect and their long term value for organizations as a whole. Ultimately, they are vital aspects of operations in the contemporary business world.
There are a number of eminent facets involved in the management of contemporary organizations. Encompassing a wide range of characteristics, the most notable of these pertain to information technology, resource allocation, and varying elements of procurement. Effecting competitive advantage today no longer requires simply being able to create superior products and services. Instead, there is a growing reliance on both operations and operational efficiency which influences an organization’s overall sustainability. Some of the key facets of operations include the prudent management of human resources, information systems, and supply chain. Organizations…
Forecasting is the process of predicting the future based on the past data. Typically, forecasting uses the statistical technique employing different methods such as time series, moving average, linear regression and exponential smoothing. The study uses the 15-year dataset of IBM (International Business Machine) revenues from 1999 to 2016 fiscal years. The study collects large dataset because of the larger the dataset, the better the accuracy of the results.
The researcher collects revenue data of the IBM between 1999 and 2016 from the Statista (2016) website, and the dataset used for the analysis is as follow:
Different methods are used for the forecast. The linear regression, exponential smoothing and moving average are used for analysis.
The linear regression is the forecasting technique that assists in enhancing the relationship between dependent and independent variables. The benefits of the linear regression is that it assists in providing accurate…
To some users of personal computers, who state, never trust a computer that you cannot lift; the IBM has been viewed, more often than not, as an enemy, and according to Byte, the computer magazine, this was because of the fact that the IBM company rose to fame mainly on the basis of its mainframe computers, that were large and forbidding, and overwhelmingly bulky. This was probably why, when the rest of the world was eyeing the emerging opportunities in the minicomputer market, the IBM never paid any attention, and even though IBM did succeed in capturing a large chunk of that market, it did not happen until Digital had captured the minicomputer market and had grown into a large corporation.
In the past few years, IBM has agreed to change the ways in which it conducts its business, and adapt to the changing times when the prices of computers…
Ellett, John. "About / Best Practices Center, Results Oriented Integrated Marketing the Dell
Way" Retrieved at http://www.nfusion.com/about/best_practices/Results-Oriented_Integrated_Marketing.html . accessed 27 July, 2005
Konrad, Rachel. (10 August, 2001) "From Bits to Boom, IBM PC turns 20" Retrieved at http://ecoustics-cnet.com.com/Mixed+record+as+PC+turns+20/2009-1040_3-271422.html . accessed 27 July, 2005.
Outsourcing Law, Deal structure, Case Study." Retrieved at http://www.outsourcing-law.com/DealStructures/IBM.Lenovo.2005.01.06.htm. accessed 27 July, 2005
The website is free of hidden sales pitches. Although there are products offered for sale on the website, they are clearly offered for sale. Furthermore, the website is a business website, which gives notice to the viewer that there will be items for sale and product promotions on the site.
Website credibility can be determined by a number of things, including: advertisements on the website, how the website markets products (are there hidden sales pitches), whether links on the website are to credible sources, the target audience of the website, and whether the website gives information about the sponsoring business (especially contact information).
The site does not appear to be a scam.
The only advertisements on the website were for IBM products and services, which indicated two things to me: (1) the website did not rely on advertisers for financial support, and (2) the website would not…
IBM oken Ring. he writer explores the history of the token ring, its functions and its future. he writer also discusses some of the trouble shooting methods that are used to correct any problems.
OKEN RING SYSEM BY IBM
International Business Machines (IBM) has been on the leading edge of technology since the explosi0on began. he technological explosion that has occurred in the last four decades has taken mankind to heights it never knew was possible. IBM has been a leader in the industry since the industry was born. IBM began its journey into success in the early 1900's and has been re-inventing the wheel since then. One of the most advanced inventions in IBM's history was the invention of the token ring. he token ring created a level in the world of technology that has served as a building block for many other technological advances.
Before one can fully…
The technological explosion of the late 1900's has moved the world into realms that were previously unheard of. One of the front-runners of the explosion has always been IBM (International Business Machines). In the early 70's the company invented something called a token ring that allows a network to gather and send information around a frame.
There are many things that can go wrong in a passing system that IBM has developed its token ring system to be able to stop some possible problems before they have even begun. Because of the self-monitoring ability of the token ring many experts in the field consider system the system extremely reliable. If something goes wrong within the token ring passing system the possibilities are narrowed by virtue of its self-monitoring abilities.
The token rings have many advantages including the inability to collide, and the ability to self-monitor. Another advantage is the layering of information that it gathers and the way that information can be utilized. There are few disadvantages with the token ring system other than its dependence on the system for success. The token ring system allows the user to send information quickly to stations until all the information is gathered and used. It is one of the most important advents of the computer world and it is still used today by many companies including its inventor, IBM.
This is aggravated by the fact that companies may be fleeing the requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley act that demands certain standards of fairness and equitability from American-based corporations.
Trends in outsourcing
Outsourcing seems to be a trend that is on the increase in the U.S. To the extent that the ICA sees most opportunities and businesses by 2020 being produced from abroad (Das, 2010). Another -- and fascinating trend seems to be one of "everse Outsourcing" (Das, 2010) which is defined by ICA as the "reversal of the outsourcing pattern between two markets consisting of businesses and workforce" (p.3). This is of encouragement to people who fear loss to American economy and American jobs since here non-American companies are increasingly hiring American individuals to perpetrate certain tasks, whilst Internet employment sites connect American freelancers to specific companies often located in China, India, or Brazil to work, either via virtual or…
Das, P. (2010) A new Avatar of outsourcing. ICA Institute. http://www.icainstitute.org/opeds/reverse-outsourcing.pdf
Dobbs, L. (Jan., 31, 2005). The global outlook on outsourcing. CNN. http://articles.cnn.com/2005-01-28/us/world.outsourcing_1_global-trends-global-economy-outsourcing?_s=PM:U.S.
Kakabadse, A., & Kakabadse, N. (2005). Outsourcing: Current and future trends. Thunderbird International Business Review, Vol. 47(2) 183 -- 204
Social Machinery.Com, Ten trends for the 2020 worker. Social machinery. http://www.socialmachinery.com/2009/11/23/ten-trends-for-the-2020-worker/
The critical issues if technology like security, management of assets, system access, support and reliability must be implemented through appropriate policies and standards while ensuring that there is fairness, maintaining of corporate culture as well as legal protection. IBM must ensure that they implement their telecommuting program by ensuring a high level of communication with the telecommuters, standardization of technology, using processes that are well defined, training staff and using appropriate implementation tools. In order to reduce the cost of improving the system, the new system must be built in an open architecture so as to allow for seamless integration with the current and the future corporate network system.
In summary, the telecommuting is beneficial to the workers, employers and the society as a whole. The benefits that are highly noted are better quality of work life, improved satisfaction with work, improved productivity, minimized costs, and an environment that is…
Boyd, P.C. (1996). Telecommuting in Massachusetts, Synopsis of the Massachusetts
Telecommuting Initiative. Available: http://pw2.netcom.com/~pboyd/tcimsynp.html.
Assessed on March 28, 2011
Evan H. Offstein, EH., Morwick, JM., Larry, K (2010) "Making telework work: leading people and leveraging technology for competitive advantage," Strategic HR Review, Vol. 9 Iss: 2, pp.32 -- 37
However, it is important to note that when it comes to the return on equity ratio, the shareholders of IBM seem better-off than those of Accenture. This is particularly the case given that the former has a higher return on equity ratio than the latter. As Needles and Powers (2012) observe, this particular ratio should be viewed as an indicator of whether or not a given entity has earned a return that can be regarded favorable to its stockholders.
From the above ratio analysis, it is clear that IBM has largely been aggressive in the utilization of debt to finance its growth. While this could be a good thing if the company makes wise investments, such an aggressive utilization of debt could expose IBM to volatile earnings as it grapples with interest expenses. It should however be noted that through its utilization of more debt than Accenture,…
Accenture. (2013). Our History. Retrieved June 10, 2013 from: http://www.accenture.com/us-en/company/overview/history/Pages/index.aspx
Gallagher, T.J. & Andrew, J.D. (2007). Financial Management: Principles and Practice (4th ed.). Minnesota: Freeload Press.
Needles, B.E. & Powers, M. (2012). Financial Accounting (11th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Rich, J.S., Jones, J.P., Mowen, M.M. & Hansen, D.R. (2009). Cornerstones of Financial Accounting. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Comparing Microsoft Access, SQL, IBM DB2 and Oracle databases is presented in this analysis, taking into account the key features of ACID Compliance, Data partitioning, interface options, referential integrity, operating systems supported, and support for transactions and Unicode. Each of these factors is initially defined followed by a table comparing them across the database types.
Definition of Comparison Factors
At their most fundamental level, all databases have support for relational data models and the ability to index data through the use of a wide variety of taxonomies or organizational structures (Basumallick, Wong, 1996). elational Database Management Systems (DBMS) however all have the ability to manage transactions with the greatest efficiency given the design of these systems to support multiple transactions at once, running concurrently from each other. The characteristic of an operating system being able to manage thousands of concurrent transactions at the same time is often referred…
Basumallick, Swagato, & Wong, Johnny SK. (1996). Design and implementation of a distributed database system. The Journal of Systems and Software, 34(1), 21.
Tony Politano. (2008). Structured and Unstructured: The What, Why and How of Convergence. DM Review, 18(6), 20.
Stonebraker, M.. (2010). In Search of Database Consistency. Association for Computing Machinery. Communications of the ACM, 53(10), 8.
It seems clear that Watson does not recognize itself as an individual or independent consciousness: it does not have spontaneous thoughts or draw original conclusions, but rather responds only to direct stimulus in the form of questions posed. There is no creative spark embedded in Watson's programming that allows for the self-reflection that Watson is "thinking," and thus the computer -- sophisticated as it is and despite its skill in information retrieval -- cannot be said to have the same existence of mind as defined by Descartes. It is simply incapable of the creative self-knowledge that defines consciousness.
Other problems present themselves when it is attempted to assert that Watson is actually an artificial intelligence on par with or exceeding human intelligences, largely because of the language being employed in this analogy. Hume famously deals with analogies and the extent to which they can be used in determining reality and…
IBM is well-known for its diversified product offerings and unparalleled scale with regards to SaaS offerings. IBM is highly regarded as one of the top ten cloud offerings in the market. The H department of a small business has the ability to use and implement the extensive scale and expertise of IBM's SaaS offerings. First, IBM has unparalleled reach and expertise. By working with many small and large businesses, IBM has the ability to customize solutions to the appropriate H department. IBM offers over 100 applications that range from analytics to workforce analysis to employee engagement. Each of the applications is catered to maximizing the H potential and efficiency of any business irrespective of size. Due to its extreme depth IBM can offer catered and customized solutions for each client. Although IBM offers a much more robust product offering than competitors, it currently requires a much higher fixed cost investment.…
1. Foley, John. "Private Clouds Take Shape." InformationWeek. Retrieved2010-08-22.
2. Haff, Gordon (2009-01-27). "Just don't call them private clouds." CNET News.
3. "There's No Such Thing As A Private Cloud." InformationWeek. 2010-06-30.
International Business Machines Corporation known as IBM is an American corporation with headquarters in Armonk, New York. The firm is a computer hardware as well as software manufacturer and marketer. It also deals in information technology infrastructure and hosting. The firm also offers consulting services in fields such as mainframe as well as nanotechnology. The firm started its operations as Computing Tabulating ecording Company (CT) in 1911 after a merger bringing together Tabulating Machine Company, International Time ecording Company and Computing Scale Company (IBM, 2007). The firm adopted its name in 1924, a name that was designated to CT's overseas subsidiaries.
IBM is rated as the second largest employer in the United States in comparison with other firms with 433,362 employees; it also ranked fourth in market capitalization as well as ninth as one of the most profitable companies. Consistent with its large employment base, IBM has established a…
Aswad, E., & Meredith, S. (2005 ). Ibm In Endicott. New York: Arcadia Publishing.
Cable News Network. (2012). Top companies: Biggest. Retrieved February 27, 2013, from www.money.cnn.com: http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/fortune500/2012/performers/companies/biggest/marketvalue.html
Careersvalley. (2011, April 07). IBM Recruitment Process & Stages Explained. Retrieved February 28,
2013, from www.careersvalley.com: http://www.careersvalley.com/featured/ibm-recruitment-process-stages-explained
Every organization has limits on the resources available to it, and outsourcing career services will permit IM to redirect its resources toward activities which serve the customer. IM will be able to redirect the people that previously worked in the career services area to different value adding activities. For example, employees whose energies are currently focused internally can now be focused externally on the customer. IM's company focus can be improved through Fidelity's handling of its' career services. Fidelity is much more experienced in the career services area, and IM will stand to benefit in this area by having operational functions assumed by an outside expert. Furthermore, more quality employees can be employed or promoted through Fidelity's expertise in career services.
IM will also be able to invest funds previously spent on career services in other necessary or lacking areas. Tremendous risks are associated with the investments an organization makes.…
Johannes, L. & Armstrong, D. (2002). Fidelity wins deal to manage employee services for IBM. Wall Street Journal (July 3, 2002).
Margolis, J. (2003). The Health Plan of Tomorrow. Retrieved June 5, 2005 from the Managed Care Website: http://www.healthmgttech.com/cgi - bin/arttop.asp?Page=0104/h0104/h0104hpit.htm
National Geographic, 160 million of the Indian population is considered untouchables[footnoteRef:1]. The Untouchables are, according to the caste system in India, individuals that are deemed to be impure and, as a consequence, individuals against whom human rights violations are committed on a regular basis. These human rights abuses range from discrimination, to relegation to the lowest possible jobs and to outright violence. [1: Mayell, Hillary. 2003. India's "Untouchables" Face Violence, Discrimination. National Geographic News. On the Internet at http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2003/06/0602_030602_untouchables.html. Last retrieved on March 14, 2013]
IM hiring untouchables in India presents a complicated situation for the company, in many ways. The main dimensions that will need to be examined are the ethical and social responsibility component, as opposed to the cultural differences component. It is easier to start with the latter in order to better understand the potential dilemma in which IM is placed when recruiting untouchables in India.
1. Mayell, Hillary. 2003. India's "Untouchables" Face Violence, Discrimination. National Geographic News. On the Internet at http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2003/06/0602_030602_untouchables.html . Last retrieved on March 14, 2013
2. Associated Press. December 2007. About 1 in 5 IBM Employees Now in India. On the Internet at http://www.accessnorthga.com/detail.php?n=205230 . Last retrieved on March 14, 2013
3. Sujit, John. August 2012. If Cognizant is Indian, so are IBM and Accenture. The Times of India. On the Internet at http://blogs.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/Tech-a-tete/entry/if-cognizant-is-indian-so-are-ibm-and-accenture . Last retrieved on March 14, 2013
Specialized labor is needed to produce a specialized product for the military. As such the cost of attracting and utilizing such talent can be very expensive to IBM.
IBM's indirect costs would consist of three aspects pertaining mainly to time, fraud and unexpected occurrences. The first indirect cost of time creates large expenses with IBM. The larger each individual employee takes to complete his task, the more expensive the services rendered by IBM become. This is because the contract has a set time frame. If the time frame for the contract is exceeded, IBM will incur a bulk to the expenses related to such inefficiencies. This could potentially reduce the overall return of the project. Fraud can also occur as employees could utilize technology or knowledge of the data centers to use for their own personal use. This could include selling the information to foreign entities or IBM's direct competitors.…
1) Conway Lloyd Morgan and Chris Foges. (2004). Logos, Letterheads & Business Cards: Design for Profit. Rotovision. p. 15. ISBN 2-88046-750-0. http://books.google.com/?id=5zAW7RntiD8C&pg=PA15&lpg=PA15&dq=big+blue+ibm.
2) E. Garrison Walters. (2001). The Essential Guide to Computing: The Story of Information Technology. Publisher: Prentice Hall PTR. p. 55. ISBN 0-13-019469-7. http://books.google.com/?id=AwrQsOW5SsQC&pg=PA55&lpg=PA55&dq=big+blue+ibm .
3) Emerson W. Pugh (1996). Building IBM: Shaping an Industry. MIT Press.
4) "History of IBM." IBM Archives:. IBM, n.d. Web. 08 June 2012. .
Diversity as Strategy: IBM
There are some companies that are more committed to diversity than others. IBM is one of those companies. In 1995, IBM created task forces specifically designed to work with diverse individuals and to help the company relate to different kinds of customers - and to its own workforce. The eight IBM task forces created represented the following constituencies: Native Americans, blacks, women, white men, people with disabilities, Asian, GLBT, and Hispanics (Canas & Sondak, 2011). Each task force was asked to work together and give advice and information to IBM about what the company could do better internally and externally to retain customers and employees.
The task forces were to report back six months later (Canas & Sondak, 2011). Even though they were only required to be active for that six-month time frame, they are still in existence today because they worked so well and they…
Canas, K.A. & Sondak, H. (2011). Case study: Diversity as strategy. Chapter 3: Diversity management as systemic. Part 1: Uncovering the complexities of workplace diversity. Opportunities and Challenges of Workplace Diversity (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Prentice Hall
Walck, C.L. (1995). Editor's introduction: Diverse approaches to managing diversity. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, (31), 119-123.
Change management initiatives of HP, IBM, Kodak, and McDonald's
Although it is said that the only constant in business is change, the need for change has thwarted many potential corporate superstars of the recent past, including Hewlett Packard, IBM, Kodak, and McDonald's. Although these companies were able to deal with the changes demanded by exterior economic circumstances and internal corporate pressures with varying degrees of success, all met with roadblocks on their way to pursuing change. Kotter's model for successful change suggests that all change entails a certain amount of urgency; a period of coalition building during the pre-change process; the need to create a vision for the change; communicating that vision; removing obstacles; creating short-term wins; building on the change; and permanently anchoring that change in the corporation's culture (Kotter's 8-step change model, 2013, Mind Tools).
HP: Three significant errors
However, in the case of HP, critical…
Adamy, J. (2007). For McDonald's, it's a wrap. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved:
Kotter's 8-step change model. (2013). Mind Tools. Retrieved:
Using Kotter's 8 steps, the three most significant errors made out of all the change stories presented were: McDonald's failure to create urgency when it implemented its initial menu changes; Kodak's failure to communicate its vision for change; and Fiorina's failure to form a powerful coalition prior to the merger between HP and Compaq Computer Corp. However, it is important to keep in mind that Kotter's approach may not best describe organizational change; its popularity may be more attributable to its usable format than from any evidence that Kotter's approach to change management is superior to competing approaches (Appelbaum et al., 20120).
McDonald's made half-hearted efforts to respond to consumer demands for healthier menu options. However, at that time, it had not seen any reduction in profits because of the perceived lack of nutritional value of its offerings and was not committed to expanding beyond its traditional fast-food repertoire.…
Applebaum, S., Habashy, S., Malo, J., & Shafiq, H. (2012). Back to the future: Revisiting
Kotter's 1996 change model, Journal of Management Development, 31(8), 764-782.
Palmer, I., Dunford, R., & Akin, G. (2009). Managing organizational change: A multiple perspectives approach, 2nd Ed. McGraw-Hill.
Parker, D., Verlinden, A., Nussey, R., Ford, M., & Pathak, R.D. (2013). Critical evaluation of project-based performance management: Change intervention integration, International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 62(4), 407-419.
International Business Machines Corporation in detail. The paper is divided into three distinct parts with the corporate history constituting the beginning of the paper followed by the structure of the corporation, its shareholders, officers and the board of directors. The last part before the conclusion unfolds the precious information pertaining to the financial status of International Business Machines Corporation. The orks Cited eight sources in MLA format.
Entrepreneurs set up business ventures and assign people as well as invest heavily in order to reap massive benefits by selling their products and ideas. here investment, sound financial stability, confidence, technical know-how and other factors play a significant role, it has been observed that working on and building trust is what it takes to establish a reputable name in the industry. Over the years since its inception, International Business Machines also referred to as IBM Corporation has successfully managed to…
International Business Machines Corporation (IBM). Issued by IBM in 1969-1973. Retrieved from IBM Archives (Business Magazine) and Scripophily. com Old Stock Certificate Superstore- The Gift of History.
Black E. "IBM and the holocaust: The Strategic Alliance between Nazi Germany and America's most powerful corporation." Crown Publishers, February 12, 2001, ISBN: 0609607995.
Hirsh M. Dark Questions for IBM., Newsweek, 02-19-2001, pp. 38.
IBM Press Room. Biographies. Retrieved at http://www-916.ibm.com/press/photo.nsf/Main/
They have high standards for themselves and their employees, and it shows in how they do business and their corporate responsibility.
This corporate responsibility has continued throughout the company's history. The Corporate esponsibility Web site notes, "From the earliest days, our company staked out a territory few corporations were willing to approach in that time, the idea of the corporation as partner, citizen, neighbor and participant in the world's affairs" ("About IBM"). For example, in 2005, IBM partnered with the National Geographic Society to create a research project called the Genographic Project that will research the migration history of humans on Earth. IBM takes their corporate responsibility seriously, they also fund a series of educational, philanthropic, and community projects around the world. IBM wants the world to be a better place, and their corporate policies back up this corporate ideal.
In conclusion, IBM has maintained and improved their global…
Author not Available. "About IBM." IBM.com. 2005. http://www.ibm.com/ibm/us/
Covey, Stephen R. Principal Centered Leadership. New York, Fireside Books, 1991.
Editors. "Leading Change When Business is Good." Harvard Business Review. Dec. 2004. 1-12.
Jackson, Brad. Management Gurus and Management Fashions: A Dramatistic Inquiry. London: Routledge, 2001.
According to Liao (2006), "The companies have entered into significant, long-term agreements that give Lenovo customers preferred access to IBM's world-class customer service organization and global financing offerings. This will enable Lenovo to take advantage of IBM's powerful worldwide distribution and sales network. Lenovo's customers are able to count on the entire IBM team - including sales, services and financing - for access to IBM's legendary end-to-end it solutions" (p. 3). In addition, pursuant to IBM's five-year contractual commitment, it will also provide Lenovo with warranty services and provide Lenovo customers with leasing and financing arrangements. According to Liao, "Through this long-term relationship, customers will receive the best products with the lowest total-cost-of-ownership" (2006 p. 3). Among the company's initiatives in this final phase of the change management process were additional efforts to further support their new dual business model. To this end, Lenovo upgraded its technology to work with…
About Lenovo. 2007. Lenovo: United States. [Online]. Available: http://www.lenovo.com/lenovo/us/en/ .
Bass, Bernard M. 1997. "Does the Transactional -- Transformational Leadership Paradigm Transcend Organizational and National Boundaries?" American Psychologist, 52(2), 130.
De Angelis, a.P. 2006, Spring. Don't 'dis' Chinese science. Issues in Science and Technology, 22(3), 31.
Dessler, Gary. 2006. "Expanding into China? What Foreign Employers Should Know about Human Resource Management in China Today." SAM Advanced Management Journal, 71(4), 11.
l billion in 2007. This growth can be seen to represent the increasing interest of Chinese firms in acquiring resources, technology and brands outside of their own country (Carpenter & yman, 2009).
Lenovo was able to seal the deal essentially by acting like a estern firm. It did not approach the deal from the same perspective as say, the way that CNOOC did with its unsolicited bid and ultimately failed bid for Chevron. Lenovo had a strategic alliance with IBM prior to the deal, so that the latter's management and shareholders understood the strategic value of the deal. For Lenovo, it was able to maintain relationships with IBM, including taking some of its talent back to China with it.
Lenovo traded on the Hong Kong exchange, giving it the transparency needed by estern investors. Moreover, this also lent liquidity to Lenovo shares, allowing them to be used in the deal.…
Wong, J. & Chan, S. (2003). China's outward direct investment: Expanding worldwide. China: An International Journal. Vol. 1, 2, 273-301.
Schuller, M. & Turner, A. (2005). Global ambitions: Chinese companies spread their wings. Im Fokus. Retrieved November 23, 2009 from http://www.giga-hamburg.de/ifa/kostenlos/ca/0504/Fokus-Schueller.pdf
Hamm, S. (2005). Lenovo and IBM: East meets west, big time. Business Week. Retrieved November 23, 2009 from http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/05_19/b3932113_mz063.htm
Fuhrman, P. (2009). Private equity and strategic M&A transactions in China. China First Capital. Retrieved November 23, 2009 from http://www.chinafirstcapital.com/blog/archives/202
As a result, while Microsoft started out much behind relative to Apple in terms of evangelism, Microsoft has more than closed the gap. Software has become the focal point of the hardware platforms paradoxically, and ironically today the software applications and operating systems are orders of magnitude more critical today than the hardware itself. The revolution both the Apple Macintosh and IBM PC started is being continued and amplified with the development of the next generation of software applications, including those specifically designed for the Internet.
Today Microsoft has a market capitalization rate of $282B with annual sales of $44B and a net Income of $12B, Microsoft's dominance of five core business areas including office productivity, Internet applications, server and enterprise applications, and entertainment products continues to p[ropel the company into the largest and most profitable software company in the world. Apple Computer reported their latest annual revenue at…
Hertzfeld (2005) - Revolution In The Valley. Andy Hertzfeld. O'Reilly Media. 1 rst Edition. December 1, 2004
Kawasaki (1990) - The Macintosh Way. Harper Collins. Reprint Edition. September, 1990
Linzmeyer (2004) - Apple Confidential 2.0: The Definitive History of the World's Most Colorful Company No Starch Press; 2 edition (January 2004)
Stanford University (2005) - Stanford Report. A Ne3ws Service for Stanford University. Commencement Address for Steve Jobs, June 14, 2005. http://news-service.stanford.edu/news/2005/june15/jobs-061505.html
Diversity Employment at IBM Proposal
Diversity at IBM
Selection of Corporation to Research
Diversity, Inc. recognizes corporations with awards for workplace diversity, where diversity is defined y a numer of characteristics descriing employment for all demographics not included in the group with the highest asolute employment and highest earnings (DiversityInc, 2011a). The fifty top companies for employment, earnings, retention and seniority among other categories are compared across demographic characteristics like race and ethnicity; sex and gender; age; disaility and educational ackground, among others. This proposal selects IBM as case study ecause of the historical leadership that firm has shown implementing equal opportunity in employment, as supported y a review of the literature (elow). IBM promotes its hiring, promotion and retention diversity on its corporate We site (IBM, 2011) and the academic and usiness literature seems to support that assertion.
Building Research Methodology from Precedent
DiversityInc's We page "Methodology" descries their…
bibliography justifies selection for supporting, justifying and providing precedent for research
Culture must not simply be inclusive to an organization. Organizational internal culture must shift with the larger national cultural context in light of the needs posed by globalization.
Chapter 12: Strategic Competency and Organizational Design
IBM, showed a constructive ability to engage in organizational learning. Despite facing political obstacles such as 9-11 and prejudice against technology companies after the dot-com bust it has remained a huge, complex technological powerhouse. IBM's longer-term outlook is bright today, despite the obstacles it has faced, because the infrastructure within the organization allows growth. It has sound decision making chain of command that has stood it well over the years. Firms need to adjust to their environments and contexts as well as to influence them, and IBM has shown itself capable of doing so in terms of the firm's environment, size and…
In addition, no collaboration process can ever function efficiently if the involved parties have different ideas about the final result of their work.
Another trait that is important from a managerial point-of-view is represented by the capacity to encourage participation. From this point-of-view, it is safe to say that the manager's role is to stimulate people to use their potential. Many people have undiscovered potential and it is the manger the one who is supposed to encourage people to get involved as much as they can in their work, having initiatives and expressing their views upon the matters. An honest feedback is also essential from the part of the manager and another trait chosen from Wilson's list.
It is fair to say that there is a strong link between the concept of the twenty first century leader and the managers which IBM wishes to empower collaborative influence. The roles that…
Countering this argument of ethical responsibility is the fact that many companies mentioned in the article have intensive pricing, product development, service and support pressures on them. Yet, given the efforts placed in planning their businesses and the intensive processes in place for financial forecasting, the costs of fulfilling these financial commitments to employees must be included in all strategic plans. To not pay these benefits is comparable to not paying for a factory or production center once created, or in the case of United Airlines, reneging on paying for a new commercial jet from Boeing. If United had done that, Boeing would repossess the jet. Yet the workers promised these benefits cannot repossess years of effort and commitment; therefore it is the ethical and one could argue legal responsibility of these companies to pay the pensions and healthcare costs promised.
Relationship buyers offered Dell its "highest gross margins," (185). Transaction buyers consisted of the small-to-mid-sized businesses and individual home users who placed small and irregular PC orders. Transaction buyers called a different telephone number to order from Dell and rather than have a personalized sales representative team, they would speak with an inside representative who would encourage the buyer to investigate more advanced systems (185).
As Dell grew, the need to refine customer categories grew. To tailor to the specific needs of each market segment, Dell divided its relationship buyers into further categories such as specific governmental sectors or "global enterprise accounts," (185). Dell developed sophisticated means of direct sales, such as its Premier Pages for select relationship accounts: corporations could log onto a special website that would enable them to view their entire transaction and order history and discover when they might need to update their systems.
Rivkin, Jan W. And Porter, Michael E. "Matching Dell." 6 Jun 1999.
The lack of process orchestration shows that IBM is failing to understand and manage the bargaining power of suppliers effectively. The core requirements of the project center on a series of healthcare professionals who taken together are the stakeholders of a complex payroll processing system (Paull, 2013). The requirements from a project management standpoint is to concentrate on the bargaining power of suppliers as system integration partners and create a unified project plan that can successfully meet multiple stakeholder needs. Making this more difficult than other implementations is the bargaining power of buyers, who also are requiring that IBM construct a system they can quickly use to solve complex supply chain, procurement and strategic sourcing challenges as can be inferred from the article (Paull, 2013).
IBM has also allowed for a greater level of threat from new market entrants as well, through the ineffective management of stakeholder requirements. What's obvious…
Ball, L.D. 2000, "IT education success strategies for change management," Information Systems Management, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 74-77.
By, B.P. 2013, "Michael Dell Offered Lower Price for His Shares to Make Dell Deal Work," LBO Wire, .
Fickenscher, K. & Bakerman, M. 2011, "Change Management in Health Care it," Physician Executive, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 64-7.
Gunasekaran, a. & Ngai, E.W.T. 2005, "Build-to-order supply chain management: a literature review and framework for development," Journal of Operations Management, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 423-451.
Susan is young, earns a great income and has no dependents. The portfolio she has inherited can be used as a good starting point for a retirement portfolio. In her case, the funds will not be needed until retirement, setting the time horizon for investing at least 20-30 years in the future. Susan also does not benefit from having income from this portfolio -- she does not need the money. Thus, the portfolio is not presently constructed according to Susan's needs. It is designed for the needs of her now-deceased father and needs to be reinvested in line with Susan's time horizon, cash flow requirements, and tax requirements.
The asset allocation of this portfolio is as follows. Bonds are 46.78%, stocks are 28.67% and mutual funds are 11.78%. The mutual funds appear to be mostly geared towards income securities. This asset allocation is not consistent with the long-term, tax-reduction objectives…
Gitman, L, Joehnk, M. & Smart, S. (2011). Fundamentals of Investing, Eleventh Edition. Prentice Hall.
MSN Moneycentral: Hewlett Packard. (2012). Retrieved June 10, 2012 from http://investing.money.msn.com/investments/stock-price?symbol=HPQ&ocid=qbes
MSN Moneycentral: International Business Machines Corp. (2012). Retrieved June 10, 2012 from http://investing.money.msn.com/investments/stock-price?symbol=IBM&ocid=qbes
Yahoo! Finance. (2012). Retrieved June 10, 2012 http://finance.yahoo.com/bonds
Software quality management, compliance, and collaboration across the entire organization also need to be integrated at the process and role level with the LMA supply chain. As the LMA supply chain is very unique in that it specifically deals with prototypes often that are under covered under security guidelines and clearances, there needs to be continual focus on change management and task ownership in this area as well. For LMA supply chains is their major source of pricing competitive advantage as the company ahs been responsible for several innovations in this process area (Cheung, Myers, 2008). In conclusion as CEO of LMA the challenge of attaining and strengthening global competitiveness begins with being a transformational leader followed by concentrating on transforming compliance into a competitive advantage, and also striving to create a high level of task ownership, mastery and collaboration within and between the company's teams and outside partners including…
Appelbaum, S., J. Berke, J. Taylor, and J. Vazquez. "The Role of Leadership During Large Scale Organizational Transitions: Lessons from Six Empirical Studies." Journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge 13, no. 1
(March 1, 2008): 16-24.
Spencer Arnesen, and Jeff Thompson. "ERP merger mania." Strategic Finance 85, no. 4 (October 1, 2003): 30-36.
Mark Brenner. "It's all about people: change management's greatest lever." Business Strategy Series 9, no. 3 (May 1, 2008): 132-137.
Most well-known was obert Scoble of Microsoft.
With the 2004 U.S. Presidential elections, blogs' growth accelerated dramatically as nearly every news network, candidate in both U.S. Senate and House of epresentative races, and political pundit has their own blog competing for the publics' attention. The era of 2004 to today in fact has created a blogging industry that is pervasive in its availability of publishing platforms (USC Annenberg School of Journalism) and also in its readers for organizing and aggregating content of interest (Boeri, 2007).
Since 2004, technologies have emerged for completing text mining of blogs to find linguistic patterns in the mass of posts and also build linguistic models that represent public opinion. The use of latent semantic indexing as a technology has become prevalent as a result.
Wikis are also a form of consumer-generated media and were initially developed in 1994 with the first Wiki being introduced in…
Josh Bernoff, Charlene Li. 2008. Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. MIT Sloan Management Review 49, no. 3 (April 1): 36-42. http://www.proquest.com (Accessed March 14, 2009)
Robert Boeri. (2007, December). Content 2.0 Converges. EContent, 30(10), 22.
Retrieved March 21, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1394701741).
Eric Bonabeau. (2009). Decisions 2.0: the Power of Collective Intelligence. MIT Sloan Management Review, 50(2), 45-52. Retrieved March 20, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1625861001).
The head office of Dell is at Austin, Texas at the same place where the company was based. Dell Americas is also located in Texas, which is the regional business unit for the United States, Canada and Latin America. The regional headquarters offices of the company are in England, for Europe Middle East and Africa; in Singapore catering to Asia-Pacific; and in Kawasaki, Japan, to serve the market for Japan. The production unit for the manufacture of computers is located in Texas, Tennessee, Brazil, Ireland, Malaysia, and China. Dell Computer Corporation sells products and services meant for Information Technology and the Internet backbone. The proceeds of the company for the previous four quarters were $31.2 billion. (Stories of Entrepreneurs: Michael Dell)
Dell's product, pricing, distribution, and promotion strategies
The Dell product line-up of high performance computer systems comprises of PowerEdge servers, PowerApp server applications, PowerVault storage products,…
Bean, Michael. The Price Strategy Simulator: Anatomy of a Price War Hewlett-Packard / Compaq vs. Dell. Retrieved at http://www.forio.com/pricing20010912.htm . Accessed on 16 October, 2004
Best practice resources enabling lean manufacturing excellence. Retrieved at http://www.superfactory.com/Resources/concepts/demandflow.htm . Accessed on 16 October, 2004
Brief Description of the Product/Service. Retrieved at http://homepages.wmich.edu/~j0karnat/Dell%20Project.htm. Accessed on 16 October, 2004
Build-To-Order Model for Success (Part-II) Retrieved at http://www.themanagementor.com/kuniverse/kmailers_universe/manu_kmailers/scm_build2order2.htm. Accessed on 16 October, 2004
This method of coding is (theoretically) the type of coding that UML enforces.
The Rational Unified Process (RUP) is a standard that describes the development of a complex software solution. It is broken into four steps: inception, the phase in which profit and revenue models are constructed to generate a timeline for development; elaboration, the phase in which the project scope is more thoroughly detailed; construction, the phase in which components and features are designed; and transition, in which the product moves to the end user. This process is used in the context of iterative development, which encourages the solution to be scaled to its final state in steps; ideally, those steps result in a result reviewable by the end-user, which provides an opportunity for revising and refining of the project scope.
Rational Software." IBM. 7 Dec. 2006 http://www-306.ibm.com/software/rational.
Rational Unified Process." IBM. 7 Dec. 2006 http://www-306.ibm.com/software/awdtools/rup/.
Rational Software." IBM. 7 Dec. 2006 http://www-306.ibm.com/software/rational .
Rational Unified Process." IBM. 7 Dec. 2006 http://www-306.ibm.com/software/awdtools/rup/ .
The Object Management Group (OMG)." OMG. 23 Aug. 2006. 7 Dec. 2006 http://www.omg.com/ .
Analysis and Overview of Database ystems in the Enterprise
The pervasive adoption of databases for aggregating, analyzing, parsing, reporting and storing data continues to exponentially increase over time, as the information needs of companies continued to increase. The foundation fo nearly every enterprise-wide system and computing platform includes integration to databases of many types, from object-oriented to relational (Lungu, Velicanu, Botha, 2009). Every Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system today relies on databases for product, pricing, costing, production scheduling, service coordination and manufacturing execution task coordination as well (Bremer, Carey, 1987). Databases have become an essential component of every enterprise system in use today, from coordinating supply chains, sourcing, production and tracking customer activity and sales through Customer Relationship Management (CRM) systems (Madduri, hi, Baker, Ayachitula, 2007). Object-oriented databases are pervasively used in Computer-Aided Drawing (CAD) applications as well, given their speed and accuracy in managing geographic and graphic primitives…
Sarkar, S.S. (1989). Architecture and language for a layered relational database. The University of Texas at Dallas). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses,, 145
Toth, K.C. (1980). Distributed database architecture and query processing strategies. Carleton University (Canada)). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses,,
Worboys, M. (1989). Relational databases: A theoretical primer. Information and Software Technology, 31(3), 115-115.
This particular report is an evaluation on AIS through case analysis and presentation involving AIS failure, possible alternatives the firm may have had and just how the management should have strategized to avert the failure. In the end, the paper reveals best practices for migration from another system to AIS.
To change the Accounting Information System (AIS) best practices
Accounting info systems (AIS) has transformed business processes on a worldwide scale. When financial data is entered into the AIS, financial statements and reports are created at several business levels to make profitability certain. Steinbart and romney (2012) revealed that the accounting systems process information to offer data to users so that they can not only plan, but also manage and operate respective businesses. Given this situation, accounting info system are viewed as a method which helps management in their planning and balance processes by offering data that is both…
In the case of Lenovo, it seems extremely important (and perceptive) to appoint an American CEO and adopt English as the corporate language. Even though they are attempting to take over the global PC market, IBM is a long-standing American company, and to quickly turn it into a foreign company would alienate millions of Americans, and quite possibly doom the entire operation due to bad press and bad feelings. Keeping the American CEO and moving to New York showed they took IBM and its products seriously, and knew that IBM had much more global recognition and appreciation than Lenovo had. They knew that they could make a statement by retaining the English, American components of the business, and they did. It was simply a very wise business decision that made perfect marketing and P sense.
Swinton, Captain D.E. "The Defense of Duffer's Drift." Command and General Staff College. 2008.…
Swinton, Captain D.E. "The Defense of Duffer's Drift." Command and General Staff College. 2008. 16 Aug. 2008. http://www-cgsc.army.mil/carl/resources/csi/Swinton/Swinton.asp