Cleft Palate And Cleft Lip Research Paper

Length: 8 pages Sources: 8 Subject: Children Type: Research Paper Paper: #15691615 Related Topics: Breastfeeding, Plastic Surgery, Aesthetics, Respiratory Therapy
Excerpt from Research Paper :

Cleft lip / Cleft palate

Introduction to the disorder

When the upper lip and top of the mouth do not join successfully early in the pregnancy, a strange condition known as cleft lip/palate is said to have occurred. The lip and palate grow independently, so it is feasible for an infant to be conceived with just a cleft lip, or just a cleft palate, or a blend of both. When there is a gap or opening reaching out from the lip as far as up as the nose then it is a complete cleft lip. In some cases, some tissue stays underneath the nose, leaving a piece of the lip joined beneath the nose - this is referred to as an incomplete cleft lip. The roof of the mouth is comprised of two principle parts - a bony segment called the hard palate and a soft tissue / muscular part known as the soft palate. The separation of the lip can be on the soft palate only or on both. When it does occur on both parts of the body it is known as bilateral cleft, while if occurs only on one of the two it is called a unilateral cleft (Royal Children's Hospital, 2010).

CLP occurrence cuts across a wide range of medical conditions that involve teratogenicity or Mendelian syndromes. In the past, there has been some positive advancement in identifying the nature of the environment that accelerates the development of CLP; however, the larger part of what characterizes this condition is yet to be isolated. CLP etiological nature is heterogeneous making it crucial to come up with accurate studies for both genetic environment characteristics that led to this condition. It is through this heterogeneity that various mutations have been identified through genomics (Dixon, Marazita, Beaty & Murray, 2011).

Orthodontic view of CLP aspect creates a picture that this condition is extremely severe because the location of the cleft segments makes the process of surgical exploration difficult without causing oronasal fistula. The immediate effect of development of CLP is defects in the feeding mechanism and speech. It therefore becomes necessary to develop surgical criteria to help children with cleft palate and lip (Nyberg, Peterson & Lohmander, 2014). This means that there should be intensive research to come up with perfect medical strategies to address the condition of children with this condition before the medical state becomes challenging to reverse.

Cleft lips and palates are some of the most broadly known innate orofacial irregularities. They happen in roughly 700 babies conceived daily somewhere on earth, and the numbers are always on the rise. Its origin has not been fully fathomed notwithstanding the way that the heredity assumes a pivotal part in its occurrence. Clefts are acquired in a semi-perpetual hereditary model with a unique expressiveness. Cleft palate happens in around one in 700 live births around the world. It is imagined that an expansive crevice in kids with this sort of cleft results in problem of building so much negative pressure within the mouth due to the presence of a huge oro-nasal contact (Radojicic, Tanic, Jovic, Cutovic & Papadopoulos, 2014). Such a contact hinders the usual blood circulation.

Cleft lip/palate and infancy

When the baby is breastfeeding and milk goes into the uncovered upper respiratory routes, this may bring about exceptionally disturbing circumstances such as inhaling inordinate amounts of air, gulping excessive milk, and nasal expulsion, after which gagging, coughing, vomiting, choking and possibly cyanosis might occur. Those children, regardless of whether they are just halfway breastfed, are constantly drained and languid. All that can adversely affect their development. The parents' anxiety when nursing their infants and also their expanded strain and stress on account of their babies' deficient milk intake ought not to be disregarded since it has real outcomes such as the child's not picking up weight. The baby-mother relationship shifts as well (Radojicic et al., 2014). This relationship and its growth is a very important aspect for the development of speech and language characteristics in the child who is suffering from cleft lip and palate issues. In the next section, we will thus discuss the general speech and language characteristics as well as the effect that having a cleft lip or palate has on its development.

Speech-language characteristics

As aforementioned, the speech and


Hence, the roof of the mouth is crucial in spoken discourse or speech. In the closed position the palate ordinarily shuts firmly against the throat on the side as well as the back of the throat in order to disect a seal which prevents air from entering the nostrils. This is imperative for a substantial number of consonants (p, b, t, d, k, g, f, v, s, z, sh, ch) and for the structure of discourse. In the event that the palate does not carry out its function, air goes into the nose and may hinder improvement of consonants and additionally causing a hypernasal speech. Some kids additionally build up a scope of sounds not generally heard in their local dialect or language. This makes what they are saying hard to comprehend and is baffling to the child. Language training is normally useful in doing away with these sounds and instilling the sounds found in the kid's local dialect (Royal Children's Hospital, 2010).

Kids with repaired cleft lip may have a linked condition called Velopharyngeal Incompetence (VPI). This implies that a lot of air comes out through the nostrils amid talking, bringing about nasal speech. This happens on the grounds that the reconstructed muscular part of the palate is excessively short or does not move satisfactorily. Only through the trained ears of a speech pathologist can one get to know for sure that they have this condition. Nonetheless symptomatic methodology such as nasoendoscopy and videofluoroscopy of speech may be necessary to directly observe the palate during spoken discourse. This aids in knowing the kind of therapy that is best suited for the condition (Revesz, Newman & Holtsberry, n.d.).

Sound-related perceptual appraisal is the primary strategy for recognizing detectable shifts in speech nasality, and gives information on the behavior of velopharyngeal structures when speaking. That is, this assessment system makes it probable to identify particular manifestations of cleft palate that might be linked with VPD. Since sound-related perceptual appraisal is effortlessly done, it is the most ordinarily utilized assessment (Paniagua, Signorini, Selaimen & Collares, 2013).

Treatment: surgical and speech

With the objective of effective communication for the child with cleft lip and palate (CLP), the speech pathologist consistently assesses the improvement in the utilization and comprehension of dialect and the advancement of speech capacities including utterance of words (articulation), how the voice sounds and the measure of nasality amid discourse (Revesz et al. n.d). When it is important, suggestions for speech cure are determined in view of the kid's particular needs. Surgeries to enhance the capacity of the palate are the "pharyngeal fold" or "pharyngoplasty" operations (Revesz et al. n.d). In these oro-nasal surgeries, a portion of the tissue from the muscular segment of the palate and at the rear end of the throat are relocated to assist in blocking air from escaping through the nostrils. Language instruction or speech instruction is ordinarily still needed after the operation to help the kid learn how to talk with his reconstructed oral parts (Revesz et al. n.d).

Learning to talk and how surgery helps

Clefts of the lip are instantly conspicuous interruptions of a typical facial structure. Albeit not being a top cause of death in industrialized nations, it still does cause extensive suffering to kids with the condition and forces huge medical costs for families, with a corresponding communal burden. People with CLP may encounter issues with eating, talking, listening and blending or integration into the community, these issues can be rectified to using different numbers of operations, dental treatment, language instruction and psychosocial intercession (Dixon, Marazita, Beaty & Murray, 2011).

Various surgeries are needed to reconstruct CLP. A medical surgeon who has practical experience in cleft therapy ought to do the surgery. Preceding CLP reconstructive operation, your surgeon may need to reshape the gap into a better angle for the operation. There are a few approaches to accomplish this and your specialist will talk about this with you on the off chance that it is applicable. Clefts of the lip are by and large operated in the first three to six months of life, subject to the favored method of your plastic surgeon, and how fit the child is (Royal Children's Hospital, 2010). A lip reconstruction operation usually takes around 2-5 hours (depending on the method) and by and large requires at any rate an overnight stay in clinic. One parent is urged to stay with the kid through the night in the hospital.

Dissolving or disappearing stitches are generally utilized, and there may be some tape covering the lip. At the point when your kid is eating quite…

Sources Used in Documents:


Dixon, M., Marazita, M., Beaty, T., & Murray, J. (2011). Cleft lip and palate: understanding genetic and environmental influences. Nature Revies Genetics, 12, 167-175.

Mendoza, M., & Perez, A. (2013). Anatomical closure technique of the nasal floor for patients with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate. J Plast Surg Hand Surg, 47, 196-199.

Nyberg, J., Peterson, P., & Lohmander, A. (2014). Speech outcomes at age 5 and 10 years in unilateral cleft lip and palate after one-stage palatal repair with minimal incision technique - A longitudinal perspective. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 1663-1668.

Paniagua, L., Signorini, A., Selaimen, S., & Collares, M. (2013). Velopharyngeal dysfunction: a systematic review of major instrumental and auditory-perceptual assessments. Int. Arch. Otorhinolaryngol, 17(3), 251-256.

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