Communicable Disease: Hepatitis B Essay

Length: 5 pages Sources: 3 Subject: Disease Type: Essay Paper: #39491453 Related Topics: Tuberculosis, Chronic Disease, Kidney Failure, Chronic Kidney Disease
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¶ … epidemiology nursing research a communicable disease. Communicable Disease Selection Choose communicable disease list: 1. Chickenpox 2. Tuberculosis 3. Influenza 4.

Communicable diseases according to (Copstead & Banasik, 2010) is a condition or infection that is transmissible through coming into contact with an infected person. Contact with the infected person comprises of contact with an infected person bodily fluids (blood, saliva, or mucus), droplets, and/or air or food (Copstead & Banasik, 2010). Coming into contact in any of the above ways contributes to individual's illness. The pathogens transmitted through the body fluids and air encroaches upon the body compromising the normal functioning of body cells. This compromise may have differing impacts upon an individual's health ranging from a terminal illness to death.

Hepatitis BCommunicable Disease: Hepatitis B

Communicable diseases are diseases that can be transmitted via contact, droplet, air/food borne, blood, bodily fluids or congenital infection and cause individuals to become ill. The pathogens invade the body and damage normal cell functions, which could potentially cause death. Hepatitis B has infected over 200 billion people worldwide and killed over one million individuals per year (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2013). The hepatitis B virus (HBV) can be prevented through education, spreading awareness and getting vaccinated which provides a lifetime of protection.

Over 200 billion people since the first case have been diagnosed with Hepatitis B in the world over. The number of individuals said to have suffered the demise following Hepatitis B infections stand at over one million per year (World Health Organization, 2013). Through awareness creation, education and vaccination spread of Hepatitis B is preventable. Vaccination is the ultimate measure of protection since it offers a lifetime protection from accusations...

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It attacks the liver and can cause both acute and chronic disease. Acute HBV lasts less than six months and ones immune system is able to fight and clear the infection. Chronic HBV lasts longer than six months and the immune system is unable to fight the infection leading to liver failure, cancer or cirrhosis. Occasionally chronic HBV can go undetected for years due to a person being asymptomatic (Mayo Clinic, 2011).

Mode of Hepatitis B is a virus-caused the infection that attacks an individual's Liver and causing illness ranging from acute to chronic levels. The virus causing Hepatitis B is the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and once in the body system on individual it can go undetected for a lengthy period of years. The two types of illnesses (acute and chronic) differ considering the length of time a normal body immune system takes to fight and clear the infection. In the case of Acute HBV, the body's immune system is capable of fighting and clearing the infection in less than six months. For the case of Chronic HBV, the body immune system is unable to fight the condition in less than six months. The resulting situation from the body system failure to fight the infection is cancer, liver failure or cirrhosis. In occasional cases, HBV will likely go undetected for a number of years following an individual being an asymptomatic person (Mayo Clinic, 2011)

Transmission Mode

In highly infected areas of the world, HBV is most commonly spread from mother to her baby at birth or from person to person in early childhood (World Health Organization [WHO], 2013). The HBV is also spread via parenteral contact with infected blood or blood products, sharing of or accidental needle sticks and having unprotected sex with someone who's blood, saliva, semen or vaginal secretions are infected and enter your body (Copstead and Banasik, 2010).

Signs and Symptoms

Signs and symptoms of HBV may never appear or appear over a two to six-month period. Signs and symptoms include abdominal pain, dark urine, fever, joint pain, loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, weakness, fatigue and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and/or sclera) (Mayo Clinic, 2011).

The most prevalent mode of transmission of HBV is from the mother to child at childbirth or from one person to the other in early (World Health Organization, 2013). Exposure to infected blood following parenteral procedure, bodily fluid exchange, sharing syringe and accidental needle sticks serve as…

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Demographics

Approximately 60,000 people die every year from HBV (WHO, 2013). There are about 200 billion people living around the world with HBV with an estimated 1.2 million living in the United States (CDC, 2013). In 2011, the United States was estimated to have 18,800 actual new cases of the HBV (CDC, 2013). Those who are at greatest risk for developing HBV are Asian and Pacific Islanders, African-Americans, gay and bisexual individuals, those who have multiple sex partners and do not practice safe sex or are intravenous drug users. Gay and bisexual men make up 20% of new HBV cases and 50% Asian and Pacific Islanders are living with HBV (CDC, 2013). Most Asian and Pacific Islanders were infected with HBV as infants or children and 1 in 12 are living with it and are not even aware.

According to 2013 World Health Organization's publication, approximately sixty thousand people die every year due to HBV infections. In the globe, an estimate of about two billion persons are infected with 1.2 million of this [persons living in the United States (World Health Organization, 2013). Individual at the greatest risk of acquiring HBV infections include; African-Americans, Asian, Pacific Islanders, bisexual and gay individuals. Additional to the persons


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