Hepatitis B Essays Examples

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Hepatitis C Virus

Words: 3154 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39518130

Hepatitis C

What is the leading cause of liver disease? What could cause so many people to require liver transplants? Most people on the street today would think that the answer to those questions would be alcoholism. And, although alcohol does do its fair share of damage to livers around the world, there is a greater source causing chronic liver disease out there.

This term paper will attempt to shed light on the hepatitis virus. The correct pronunciation would be: (h-p ? t? t-s). There are several strains of the hepatitis virus with some being non-issues and others being incurable killers. This report focuses specifically on the Hepatitis C virus which falls under the incurable killer header. This strain of the viruses can never be taken lightly.

There are many ways for an individual to acquire the hepatitis C virus into their system; however, there is currently no cure once it has been introduced into the system. When someone contracts the disease associated to the hepatitis virus, consider that 75 to 85% of those infected individuals will develop chronic liver disease and of that percentage 1 to 5% of the infected individuals may die from liver related complications. This report…… [Read More]

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Hepatitis General Health Overview Hepatitis

Words: 817 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19169061

It is primarily transmitted from patients to healthcare workers through exposure to infected blood by mistakes in procedures involving sharp instruments and needles. For this reason, healthcare workers are routinely vaccinated against blood-borne

Hepatitis (Taylor, 2005).

It is also possible to acquire HBV infection through sexual intercourse and especially through injection of intravenous drugs because IV drug users often share needles. While there is no cure for HBV infection, diagnosis is crucial because antiviral agents are capable of managing its symptoms and minimizing its damaging effect on the liver compared to untreated HBV infection (CDC, 2006).

Hepatitis C:

Hepatitis C is very similar to Hepatitis B, except that it is caused by a different virus, HCV. While it is possible to transmit HVC infection through sexual activity, it is much more often transmitted by blood-to-blood contact in medical settings where universal blood precautions are violated. The most common specific mode of HVC transmission is through IV drug use, but recipients of blood products such as plasma are also at an increased risk, as are long-term dialysis patients.

Essentially, any procedure that involves blood work carries the potential for HCV infection, because the virus may live for extended periods of time,…… [Read More]

Sources:
The Bantam Medical Dictionary. (2003) New York: Bantam

U.S.D.H.H.S. (2006) Centers for Disease Control: Viral Hepatitis.
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Hepatitis C Treatments Their Link to Depression

Words: 3450 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96863283

Hepatitis C Treatments: Their Link to Depression and Implications for the Social Worker

The most commonly used treatment for patients suffering from Hepatitis C, a deadly liver disease, is the drug interferon combined with ribavirin. This treatment offers the most promise for a long-term positive prognosis. However, it has a known high rate for negative psychological side effects such as depression and other anxiety disorders. Clinical psychology can offer some solutions to this problem, both in assessing those patients who have increased risk factors for depression such as substance abuse or a history of depression, and in offering treatments to help ease the occurrence and severity of depression. This study will assess the risk for depression among the general population of Hepatitis C patients on interferon therapy.

Introduction

Hepatitis C virus is the most common liver disease in the United States. Approximately 1.8% of the U.S. population are infected, with approximately 74% of those persons chronically infected. Approximately 8-10 thousand people die each year from this disease (Darko, et. al., 2000). Although clinical trials indicate that Interferon/Ribavirin treatments produce significantly better clinical results in the long-term for hepatitis C patients, it is not recommended for those who have a history…… [Read More]

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Hepatitis D

Words: 1020 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63987638

Hepatitis D, HDV is a subviral satellite that is not classified in a viral family. Dr. Mario Rizzeto identified in 1977 a nuclear antigen that was subsequently established to derive form what was named Hepatitis Delta Virus ()This is the only virus under the genus deltavirus (Hepatitis D Virus, 2005). The history of this interesting unique satellite small virus is short and therefore researches are still searching for possible new genotypes and prevention and treatment methods.

The new satellite virus was established to depend entirely on the Hepatitis B Virus for its production and transmission. HDV depends on the Hepatitis B surface antigen provided by the HBV that the former uses to form its envelope of particles (Handa, Yamaguchi, 2006). Although HDV is considered as a satellite virus of HBV, it does not present the same sequence as the later and it its replication is not dependent on the HBV (Hepatitis D Virus, Classification).

The disease may be transmitted through infected blood and blood products, infected needles, through birth (from mother to new born) and through sexual relations, with increased risks of infection in male homosexual relations in males infected with HBV (World Health Organization, 2009; Stanford University Website, 2005).…… [Read More]

Resources:
Background on HDV Replication. Retrieved: Nov. 5, 2009. Available at: http://www.stanford.edu/group/virus/delta/2005/newresearcha.html

Hepatitis D Foundation. Retrieved: Nov 5, 2009. Available at: http://www.hepb.org/hepb/hepdconinfection.htm

Viral Zone. Retrieved: Nov 5, 2009. Available at: http://www.expasy.org/viralzone/all_by_species/175.html
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Hepatitis of the Liver and How They

Words: 2567 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42229767

hepatitis of the liver and how they are transmitted to how we can find a remedy to slow down the deterioration process if not cure it completely.

Hepatitis

Hepatitis A

Hepatitis B

Causes of hepatitis B

Transmission of hepatitis B

Symptoms

Tests for hepatitis B

Self-protection

Hepatitis C

Risk Factors for HCV Infection

Consequences of HCV Infection

Diagnosis

Hepatitis is the disease connected with the inflammation of the liver. This disease was not discovered too long ago, however doctors and researchers have been able to find out the causes of hepatitis. There are several causes such as, viral, parasitic, infiltrative, drug or alcohol induced, or non-specific. Before a person is even diagnosed with this disease some of the prominent indications of the acute phase can be ranging from a symptomatic, where we may not even be able to notice we have hepatitis to feeling extremely tired, jaundice- where our skin or our eyes become yellow, nausea, vomiting, or even diarrhea.

When the concerned patients undergo proper laboratory tests and they are monitored, one of the first things the doctor will tell you is that there is definitely an increase in the level of the liver enzymes.

Before dive into what…… [Read More]

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Hepatitis a Causative Agent Virus Affects the

Words: 1038 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51903246

Hepatitis A

Causative agent

Virus

Affects the liver

Symptomatic 2-6 weeks after exposure

Speaker notes: Hepatitis A is caused by a virus. Symptoms of hepatitis A include dark-colored urine, pale stools, chronic fatigue (with no other explanation), itching, anorexia (loss of appetite) and nausea, fever, vomiting, and jaundice. The symptoms usually present manifest 2-6 weeks after the initial exposure (Zieve 2011). To test for the disease, the doctor may test for raised IgM and IgG antibodies to hepatitis A and elevated liver enzymes through liver function tests (Zieve 2011). Persons in high-risk occupations may wish to be periodically tested.

Reservoir

Food and water

Stool and blood

Sexual contact

Speaker notes: Disease reservoirs for hepatitis A include food that has been contaminated by the feces of carriers of the disease; contaminated water or ice; direct contact with stool or blood of persons with the disease; and sexual contact. To protect against food-borne transmission requires careful hand-washing, and the use of clean, sanitary water when growing or washing food or storing food in ice. Careful hand-washing is also required to ensure contact does not occur through touching other contaminated objects. To prevent sexual transmission, condoms are required. Because the disease can be…… [Read More]

Sources:
http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs328/en/ 

Zieve, David. (2011). Hepatitis A PubMed Health. A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia.

Retrieved http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001323/
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Hepatitis C And Cellular Biology Hepatitis C

Words: 884 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54148400

Hepatitis C and Cellular Biology

Hepatitis C is a virus that affects over 2% of the global population (Belon & Frick, 2009). It is a virus that leads to chronic liver disease, and has many complications, including cirrhosis, fibrosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (Belon & Frick, 2009), and it is the leading cause of liver transplantation among countries in the developed world (Whidby et al., 2009). Hepatitis C establishes and maintains a life-long infection in individuals despite the fact that the virus is detected and targeted by immune mechanisms of the host (Sharma, 2010). The virus survives and persists due to rapid mutations that allow the virus to escape surveillance by immune mechanisms (Sharma, 2010). The hepatitis C virus itself is a very small hepatotropic RNA virus that is enveloped and spherical (Sharma, 2010). The only available treatment option for Hepatitis C is administration of a long-acting pegylated-interferon-alpha in combination with nucleoside analog ribavirin (Sharma, 2010). This treatment has been demonstrated as only moderately successful at best (Sharma, 2010). Currently there are no selective antiviral therapies or vaccines for prevention available (Sharma, 2010). The discovery of new therapies for the treatment of Hepatitis C is complicated by the complex lifecycle of…… [Read More]

References:
Belon, C.A. & Frick, D.N. (2009). Helicase inhibitors as spciefically targeted antiviral therapy for hepatitis C Future Virology, 4(3), 277-93.

Sharma, S.D. (2010). Hepatitis C virus: Molecular biology and current therapeutic options. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 131, 17-34.
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Hepatitis the Liver Is One

Words: 587 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70353926

Antiviral treatment is used in some cases, especially for treating Hepatitis C, but many of the side effects of this treatment are similar to the symptoms of hepatitis itself, and can become so life threatening that such treatments must be discontinued in some cases. In cases where treatment is absolutely needed but antiviral treatments either will not adequately address the cause of the disease or is deemed too dangerous, the only real option for treatment is a liver transplant -- when symptoms are bad enough to cause immediate concerns for health and quality of life, the liver is often too damaged for the body to repair it. It is for this reason that hepatitis often goes untreated; the complications of a liver transplant can themselves be life-threatening and lead to ongoing health problems, making it hardly preferable to most mild cases of hepatitis despite the chronic nature of the disease.

The prevention of hepatitis is, for reasons outlined above, far easier than treating the disease once it develops. The use of intravenous drugs is a common way for the transfer of viral forms of the disease -- not using these drugs or ever sharing needles with others is a solid…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Mayo Clinic. (2010). http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/hepatitis-c/DS00097

Medline Plus. (2010). http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001154.htm
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Hepatitis C

Words: 511 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49458689

Hepatitis C: New CDC Screening Recommendations

The objective of this study is to review the article written by Doug Campos-Outcalt entitled "Hepatitis C: New CDC Screening Recommendations" published in the Journal of Family Practice, Volume 61, Number 12 in December 2012.

Campos-Outcalt (2012) writes that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) released new recommendations for Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection screening including a one-time screening for all individuals in the United States that were born between the year of 1945 and 1965 "regardless of risk." The new recommendations are reported to be rather than a replacement to be instead an enhancement of "the recommendations for HCV screening" stated in 1998 calling for those who were considered high-risk to be screened.

HCV results in a high level of morbidity and mortality in the United States. There are reported to be 17,000 new infections to have occurred in 2010 with approximately 2.7 to 3.9 million individuals in the United States living with HCV infection that is chronic in nature. It is important to note that many individuals with chronic HCV do not even know that they are infected with HCV since physicians fail to screen for HCV and patients fail…… [Read More]

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Hepc Hepatitis C Is a

Words: 950 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39154804

Thus, a diagnosis of Hepatitis C might not warrant any treatment intervention other than close monitoring of liver function. When the virus remains in the body, the disease progresses to its chronic phase. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "chronic HCV infection develops in 70% -- 85% of HCV-infected persons." Of chronically infected individuals, 60% -- 70% "have evidence of active liver disease," (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). About 17% of chronically infected individuals will develop cirrhosis and about 2% will develop liver cancer (United States Department of Veteran's Affairs).

Treating chronic Hepatitis C usually entails pharmaceutical intervention. A combination of two antiviral drugs, peginterferon and ribavirin, is currently the most effective treatment intervention. Other methods include administering long-acting (pegylated) interferon by itself; or administering a short-acting version of interferon with ribarvirin (United States Department of Veteran's Affairs). Using these two drugs, peginterferon and ribavirin, the treatment program usually lasts between 24 and 48 weeks (NDDIC). After one round of treatment, the doctor tests for HCV and if the virus is still present the second round of drugs is administered (Mayo Clinic). "The peginterferon is taken through weekly shots and ribavirin is taken daily by mouth,"…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Viral Hepatitis." Retrieved June 17, 2010 from  http://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/ 

MayoClinic. "Hepatitis C" September 12, 2009. Retrieved June 17, 2010 from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/hepatitis-c/ds00097
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Enbrel Safe for Hepatitis C

Words: 432 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74880213

embrel.com) it was deemed safe to use in patients who had Hepatitis C Lab tests were ordered and conducted on the 60-year-old patient's liver, and the results indicated normal enzyme production in the liver. In August 2004, the patient was started on Enbrel 50 MG twice a week, and some immediate improvement was noted; but after 18 weeks, the patient, who was inconsistent in making appointments, showed a worsened psoriasis condition. The dosage was cut to 50 MG once a week, and patient was urged to visit his liver doctor to have PCR for his Hepatitis C titers (concentration), to repeat CBC and Liver Function Test (LFT) titers (which was normal in Aug. 2002). A mild elevation of LFTs was discovered, so the patient was worked up further with ultrasound and a liver biopsy. The patient was then started in IFN treatment and Enbrel was discontinued. By June, 2006, the patient's LFT had returned to normal.

The bottom line with reference to this case is that this office believes Enbrel did indeed play a role in the reactivation of the patient's Hepatitis C, which suggests that Enbrel does not meet the claims of safety in the manufacturer's literature.

Works Cited…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Enbrel. "Important Product Information: What do I need to know about Enbrel?" Retrieved 12 November, 2006, at http://www.enbrel.com/important-product-information.jsp.
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Stick Injury Means That the

Words: 2478 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27188220

The results revealed that this route did not lead to any needle stick injuries. The ESA worked as efficaciously as it would have if needles were used and this was proved by the maintenance of the hemoglobin levels. It was observed that 91% of the nursing staff was in favor of the needle free administration of ESA. This study therefore concluded that drugs with detached needles present further routes to prevent needle stick injuries in the future. (Chow et. al, 2009)

Seeing how needle stick injuries can lead to emotional, health related and financial dilemma, experts are working on ways to reduce their occurrence. The study by Chow et al. (2009) shows one way in which these incidences can be reduced. Molen et al. (2011) stated that education reduces the occurrence of needle stick injury. He conducted a study in which one group was educated in a workshop and given needle safety device. One group was only given the safety device and was not educated on how to use it. All the groups were observed after 6 and 12 months of the intervention. The results revealed that the people who received the intervention had a more positive attitude towards needle…… [Read More]

Resources:
Adams, D. 2012 Needle stick and sharps injuries: implications for practice. Nursing Standard. 26 (37), pp. 49-57.

Aziz, A.M., Ashton, H., Pagett, A., Mathieson, K., Jones, S., and Mullin, B 2009 Sharps
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Transgenic Plants and Oral Vaccine Development

Words: 616 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2460099

Kumar, G.B.S., Ganapathi, TR. Bapat, V.A. Revathi, C.J. & K.S.N. Prasad. (2002). Expression

of Hepatitis B surface antigen in transgenic banana plants and NT- I cell line of tobacco. BARC. Retrieved from: http://barc.gov.in/publications/nl/2003/200310-12.pdf

One of the most difficult and intractable health issues worldwide is that of Hepatitis B The disease is difficult to treat and potentially deadly. "There are about 350 million chronic carriers in the world and it is estimated that 75- 100 million of them will die of liver cirrhosis and/or hepatocellular carcinoma" (Kumar, Ganapathi, Bapat, Revathi, Prasad 2002:85). Although vaccinations do exist, the injectable form of the vaccine is expensive and has been difficult to distribute throughout the developing world where Hepatitis B is most prevalent. Injectable vaccines also require trained healthcare professionals to disseminate. There is also the risk of needle contamination in unsanitary conditions, again, making vaccines in the developing world potentially more dangerous. Cold storage is required. Also, in areas with low health literacy, individuals may be highly resistant to getting vaccines via injection given that the injection causes instant pain for what seems to be a potentially far-off risk.

One possible solution is the development of oral vaccines. This proved to be a…… [Read More]

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Health Immunizing Your Baby Protecting or Harming

Words: 1600 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99685893

Health

Immunizing Your Baby, Protecting or Harming?

Positives for Vaccinations

Recommended and Minimum Ages for Early Childhood Vaccinations

Negatives for Vaccinations

Ethical Issues

Vaccines against diphtheria, polio, pertussis, measles, mumps and rubella, hepatitis B and chicken pox, have given humans powerful immune guards to ward off unwelcome disease and sickness. Because of this the CDC works closely with public health agencies and private partners in order to improve and sustain immunization coverage and to monitor the safety of vaccines so that public health can be maintained and expanded in the future. Despite the good that vaccines appear to do there is a debate stirring in regards to the safety of vaccines and whether or not they are link to disorders such as autism. There are some studies that appear to link childhood vaccinations to autism but the evidence is very weak at best. But because of these types of studies there are a number of parents rethinking vaccinating their children.

Introduction

Vaccines against diphtheria, polio, pertussis, measles, mumps and rubella, and more recent additions of hepatitis B and chicken pox, have given humans powerful immune guards to ward off unwelcome sickness. And thanks to state laws that require vaccinations for…… [Read More]

Sources:
Carolyn Drews-Botsch, et al. "Timeliness of Childhood Immunizations: A State-

Specific
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Video Crossing the Line the

Words: 1599 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96395088

In some countries, bed numbers began to drop before the introduction of the drugs. In others, bed numbers actually increased despite this introduction. The drugs also have been used on a variety of populations that were not deemed to be mentally ill (such as people with learning difficulties and older people). The drugs were only relevant in giving psychiatric staff more confidence in dealing with community-based patients; they do not explain the policy of deinstitutionalization. At the end of the twentieth century deinstitutionalization has become a dominant mental health policy goal in most Western democracies (Sax, 1984).

Conclusion

However, this formal goal has become clouded by evidence that the gradual reduction of large institutions has been replaced by a scattering of smaller ones 'in the community' (Roe, 1976). Also, most countries still have legal statutes to coercively remove madness from community set- tings. The extent of this continued coercive control varies from one country to another. For example, more conformist or authoritarian cultures such as Japan or Russia have higher rates of involuntary detention in psychiatric facilities. What is clear at the time of writing is that a policy of deinstitutionalization and one of genuine community care are not the…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Gale, F. 2007 A changing Aboriginal population. In F. Gale and G. Lawton (eds), Settlement and Encounter: Geographical studies presented to Sir Grenfell Price, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, 65-88.

Smith, L. 2006 The Aboriginal Population, The Australian National University Press, Canberra.
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Sexual Risk Assessment Mary Jane

Words: 1222 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88389946



Mary Jane's laboratory results show there is an elevated white blood count, with CBC with differential within normal limits. Proton and INR were normal. Pregnancy was negative. UA showed occasional bacteria, but normal otherwise. Drug screen was normal, and EKG showed sinus bradycardia, rate of 59 beats per minute. Renal and hepatic functions were within normal limits.

There are four sexual response cycles, marked by physiological and psychological changes. The first stages is excitement, which Mary Jane is not getting with her partners, which is triggered by psychological or physical stimulation, and is marked by emotional changes, and increased heart rate, and vaginal swelling. Second stage is plateau, Mary Jane states she doesn't have this stimulation. The third stage is orgasm, which Mary Jane doesn't getting during intercourse, or she doesn't remember because she in under the influence of alcohol. The final phase, resolution, involves a rush of blood away from the vagina, and shrinking of breasts and nipples, and a reduction in heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure. She claims not to have this last phase. However, it differs depending on who much alcohol she has consumed before sexual intercourse.

Mary Jane, doesn't understand why alcohol is the cause…… [Read More]

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Nursing Nurses' Risk for Occupational

Words: 1018 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42863317

Moreover, recent legislation such as the Affordable Care Act is expected to create an even greater need for nurses who can take on more advanced responsibilities. As one nurse stated on National Public Radio: "…with the passage of the Affordable Care Act, which was passed in March, we're going to see 32 million new patients accessing the health care delivery system which previously weren't accessing this system. And currently, we don't have the capacity to provide high-quality, patient-centered care for this new expanded population" (NPR, 2010)

Careers in nursing have become vast and varied, particularly for the highly educated, and pay for many of these careers is above $60,000 annually. While a nurse with a BSN who becomes an RN can still advance in her career, enter management, or become a nursing professor, an MSN is necessary for nurses to enter one of the more prestigious and specialized subfields (Sacks, 2003). In addition, nurses who wish to conduct research, earn their doctorate, and possibly become a tenured nursing professor must first earn their master's degree (Sacks, 2003).

Nurses who have earned their MSN have many exciting and challenging opportunities open to them, now and in the future. Some of these…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
AACN. (2010, 10). The Impact of Education on Nursing Practice. Retrieved 02-14, 2011, from AACN: http://www.aacn.nche.edu/media/factsheets/impactednp.htm

Allen, J. (1988). Health Care Workers and the Risk of HIV Transmission. The Hastings Center Report, 18 (2), 2+.
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Vaccines and Autism the Work

Words: 2097 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32727212



V. ANALYSIS

The work of Maxwell McCombs entitled: "The Agenda-Setting Function of the Press" relates the fact that the press plays a primary role in the life of the public and influences the focus of attention of individuals and makes provision of the "facts and opinions that shape perspectives on topics of the day." (2005) McCombs explains that 'agenda-setting' of the press works to influence the issues in the news and provides that news to the public proactively. Variation is noted by McCombs to exist "among individuals and across issues" and states that "issue salience on the press agenda may transfer very quickly to the public agenda." (2005) the variations in the way that individuals respond to the news provided by the press and the agenda of the press "are explained by the need for orientation, the idea that individuals have an innate curiosity about the world around them. For a wide variety of public affairs topics, the news media provide this orientation." (McCombs, 2005)

This view is clearly evidenced in the four news reports reviewed for analysis in this research study. The first and second of the four reports reviewed were in the nature of fact-reporting and the third…… [Read More]

Sources:
Morgan, Kim (2008) Health Officials Encourage Immunizations. Chron.com 14 Apr 2008. Online available at http://www.chron.com/disp/story.mpl/nb/katy/news/5698780.html

Harris, Gardner (2008) Public Forum to Address Safety Issues on Vaccines. 11 Apr 2008. The New York Times. Online available at http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/11/health/policy/11vaccine.html?_r=1&oref=slogin
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Injections of Phosphatidylcholine Solubilized With

Words: 4199 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89968927

Therefore, Hexsel's study will not be included in this analysis for failure to meet the study protocol.

Another human study involved a case study of a single patient. This Brazilian study represented a case study and does not meet the protocol for inclusion in this analysis either (Rittes, 2001). As there have been no human studies in the United States to date, we must rely on studies published in other countries for our meta-analysis. A study conducted in Vienna by Karl Heinrich will be used as one of the studies to be analyzed. This was the only study that could be located involving an actual population of human subjects, as this type of research is prohibited in the U.S. At this time.

The sample population used by Heinrich consisted of 86 individuals who received a standardized series of treatments. This study suffered from significant flaws that make the results questionable. For instance, the patients received between 1-3 injections, but no analysis between these groups was reported. Heinrich reports a reduction in 100% of the test subjects. However, there was no control group. To be considered valid according to FDA protocols, the study must be double-blind with one group receiving a…… [Read More]

References:
Atoba MA, Ayoola EA, Ogunseyinde O. Effects of essential phospholipid choline on the course of acute hepatitis-B infection. Trop Gastroenterol. 1985; 6:96-9.

Bechara FG, Sand M, Altmeyer P. et al. Intralesional lipolysis with phosphatidylcholine for the treatment of lipomas: pilot study. Arch Dermatol. 2006 Aug;142(8):1069-70. Retrieved March 24, 2007 at  http://www.hubmed.org/display.cgi?uids=16924064 .
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Language Vocabulary and the Overall

Words: 1078 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77844218

Indeed, AIDS is nowadays a global concern and it reaches the entire public. No one can actually feel secure from the illness. However, we may also notice that the article is pretty basic, giving out primary information, which may induce us to believe that it is rather directed towards teenagers or people with lesser knowledge on AIDS.

3. "Identification of Herpesvirus-Like DNA Sequences in AIDS-Associated Kaposi's Sarcoma" from Science (16 December 1994

The first observation that needs to be made here is that the language used is very technical: many terms from chemistry, biology and anatomy. This is quite clear from the very beginning, when the author mentions among the agents suspect of causing Kaposi's sarcoma things like "cytomegalovirus, hepatitis B virus or human herpes virus 6."

Further more, the tone used throughout the paper is extremely precise and scientific, as it describes chemical reactions used to identify certain DNA sequences and mechanisms such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The author uses several figures throughout the article to make his point clear and these include some of the sequences obtained. The figures are extensively commented in sideline textboxes (see Figures 1 and 2).

Additionally, the author does not hold back…… [Read More]

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Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

Words: 1642 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97294962

Abnormal Uterine Bleeding and Issues

Reproductive Tract Diseases for human females are typically focused in the upper reproductive tract or the lower reproductive tract. The upper tract includes the fallopian tubes, ovary and uterus, while the lower reproductive tract focuses on the vagina, cervix and vulva. There are three major types of infections: endogenous, iatrogenic and sexually transmitted diseases. Endogenous diseases arise from internal cellular structures and may be bacterial, viral or genetic, usually the most common and arise from an overgrowth of organisms that are already present in the vagina; iatrogenic diseases are the result of medical or surgical treatment, and sexually transmitted diseases occur between humans as a result of sexual behavior. In addition to infections, there are congenital abnormalities, cancers and functional problems. Each infection has its own specific cause and symptoms; caused by bacteria, virus, fungi or other organisms. Indeed, some are easily treatable and cured, others are more difficult, and some are non-curable at this time (e.g. Herpes and HIV) (Population Council, 2012).

Cancers of the reproductive system may include breast, ovarian, uterine or cervical. Congenital abnormalities of the female reproductive system are varied, and functional problems may interfere with reproduction or urination or cause…… [Read More]

References:
Azim, P., et al. (2011). Evaluation of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding. Isra Medical Journal, 3(3). Retrieved November 2013, from http://121.52.154.227/Isra%20Medical%20Journal%20Volume-III%20Issue-III.pdf#page=6

Davidson, B., et al. (2012). Abnormal Uterine Bleeding During the Reproductive Years. Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health, 57(3), 248-54.
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HIV Vaccine it Takes a Village Advances

Words: 2365 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44414429

HIV Vaccine

It Takes a Village

Advances in medical treatment follow two paths more or less simultaneously. The first of these is the basic and directed scientific research that is needed to provide the concepts and solutions that may be channeled into particular treatments or cures. The second is equally important in terms of the ways in which medicine is conducted in the current age: The infrastructure to fund medical developments, to guide them through the approval process, and to distribute them to the medical professionals and patients who will be able to use them is a complicated and extremely expensive process. This paper examines the current state and possible future directions of the process of developing a vaccine for AIDS, focusing on the latter of these two pathways while touching on the current state of the science of such a vaccine (Shilts, 1987).

The quest for a vaccine for AIDS (that is, for the human immune-deficiency virus that causes AIDS) began not long after the disease was recognized. While the disease is now believed to have origins in the late 19th century (a date based on genetic techniques), AIDS was not recognized by Western medical authorities until 1981, when…… [Read More]

Sources:
Bentwich, Z., Kalinkovich, A., & Weisman, Z. (1995). Immune activation is a dominant factor in the pathogenesis of African AIDS. Immunology Today 16(4): 187 -- 191.

Cowley, P. (1993, May). Preliminary cost-effectiveness analysis of an AIDS vaccine in Abidjan, Ivory Coast. Health Policy 24(2): 15-53.
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Immunization of Children in the United States

Words: 1029 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68898787

Immunization of children in the United States [...] full detail why the immunization rate of children in the U.S. is high, and the validity of the reasons why some parents choose not to immunize their children. It will also explain if those children will be protected by "herd immunity." Most children in the United States receive immunization from a variety of diseases when they are toddlers. Yet, some parents choose not to immunize their children for a variety of reasons. The question remains, are these children protected adequately, and do they pose a danger to other, already immunized children?

IMMUNIZATION IN THE U.S.

Most people take immunization of children in the United States for granted. Everyone immunizes his or her children, right? Well, not exactly. In the United States, laws in all 50 states require child immunization before a child can enter school. Vaccinations may include:

vaccination against diphtheria, pertussis (whooping cough), tetanus (lockjaw), Haemophilus influenzae type b, measles, mumps, rubella, polio, and hepatitis B Some states have added varicella (chicken pox) vaccination to the list of required vaccines. Smallpox vaccination was once required, but the disease has been so successfully eradicated that this vaccination is no longer needed (Editors).…… [Read More]

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Gene Technology

Words: 976 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72972058

Genetically Modified Foods: Rational for Topic Selection

Genetically modified foods are frequently in the mainstream media, making them a highly relevant topic of discussion in the areas of genetic science and gene technologies. As with most technologies and techniques related to genetic science, genetically modified foods are controversial and thus politically charged issues. It is important to be armed with facts before forming an opinion about whether or not genetically modified foods are acceptable, feasible, or ethical.

Biological Basis

Genetically modified foods refers to organic foodstuffs -- plants and animals -- "whose genetic material (DNA) has been modified in a way that does not occur naturally," (World Health Organization, 2013). However, genetically modified organisms (GMOs) can also include medicines and vaccines (United States Department of Energy: Office of Science, 2013). The primary process used to modify the genes of organisms is called recombitant DNA technology; as the term suggests, recombitant DNA technology involves recombining DNA molecules in ways pre-determined by the scientists. Using recombitant DNA technology, select genetic traits from various different organisms can be actively selected. Locating those traits on the DNA is the most challenging step in the process of genetic engineering of foods, but gene sequencing technologies…… [Read More]

Resources:
Damery, P., D'Adamo, N., Graham, M., Hoffman, M. & Riedl, J. (n.d.). The debate on labeling genetically modified food. Retrieved online:  http://www.public.iastate.edu/~ethics/LabelGMFood.pdf 

"Genetically modified crops gaining ground in China: Report," (2013). The Times of India. 7 March, 2013. Retrieved online: http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/home/environment/developmental-issues/Genetically-modified-crops-gaining-ground-in-China-Report/articleshow/18847379.cms
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Beauty Pageant Is Accompanied by a Public

Words: 651 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30076921

beauty pageant is accompanied by a public outcry: "How dare you objectify women." For me however, participation in a recent Asian-American beauty contest was life-affirming. The social-awareness programs that the contestants contributed towards cemented my career goals. I feel today, that I am on the cusp of making significant contributions to a failing and defeatist health care industry. And, I bring to the table educational and work experience, industriousness, motivation and talent. Graduate work leading to a Master's degree in Public Health (MPH) will help fulfill my avocation of making a difference.

I have a Bachelor's degree in legal studies from the University of California at Berkeley, and work experience as a regional account manager at a health-care management institution. I also have experience in dispute resolution, financial and budget management, and marketing, all in health-care and biotechnology. I am very proud of my work with senior citizens for whom I organized typing classes and other social service activities. My sense of community-service was strengthened when I organized outreach programs for the Asian-American community -- a community typically underrepresented and ignored. I recently participated in a Jade-ribbon campaign where I discovered first hand the higher incidence of Hepatitis B and…… [Read More]

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Human Digestive System Is Composed of Multiple

Words: 2207 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89776646

Human digestive system is composed of multiple parts, including the mouth (pharynx, throat, palate, tongue, teeth), stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, pancreas, salivary glands, bowels, and many more. The sole purpose of the digestive system is to break down foods that are eaten, so that the food might be absorbed into the bloodstream. The existence of a digestive system sets animals apart from plants. Digestion consists of a physical and chemical breakdown of food. Because of the complexity and large size of the digestive system, diseases that can interfere this body system are numerous and varied in their modes of transmission, their symptoms, their treatments, and their possible short-term and long-term effects. This paper will focus on three such diseases: Cirrhosis of the liver (caused by viral Hepatitis), hookworm disease (caused by hookworms), and cholera (caused by Vibrio cholerae).

The large size of the digestive system, along with the diverse group of organs associated with it; prevent the presentation of one specific defense mechanism against diseases. Depending on which organ the disease tends to focus on, the body reacts uniquely for that organ. However, the most definitive action taken against digestive system diseases are regulations and standards for living…… [Read More]

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Patient Who Walks Into the

Words: 596 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99013790



Common risk factors for chronic liver problems include: intravenous drug use, overdosing on acetaminophen, engaging in risky sexual behaviors like having multiple sexual partners and unprotected intercourse, eating contaminated foods, traveling to an area where certain diseases are common, living in a nursing home or rehabilitation center, having a family member who recently had hepatitis a, using or abusing alcohol, being an organ transplant recipient, having HIV or AIDS, having received a blood transfusion before 1990, being a newborn of a mother with hepatitis B or C, being a health care worker, including dentist and dental hygienist, because of blood contact and receiving a tattoo (Hepatitis Health Article, 2010).

Eighty percent of those people who have Hepatitis C go on to develop chronic liver disease, liver failure or liver cancer. Hepatitis C is the number one reason that people received liver transplants in the United States. Permanent liver damage, liver failure, or liver cancer can happen (Hepatitis Health Article, 2010).

There are several things that a person should avoid because doing these things can cause one to get hepatitis. A person should avoid contact with blood or blood products. They should stay away from sexual contact with a person infected…… [Read More]

References:
"Hepatitis Health Article." 2010. Healthline. Web. 24 May 2010.
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Technology Evolution Many of the Electric Gadgets

Words: 1461 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93582067

Technology Evolution

Many of the electric gadgets we use today like the cell phones and the home computers were invented in the 80s. Many multinational corporations came into existence in the 80s this spur the growth to a record 3.2% per year (Bellis, 2012). This was the highest nine-year rate in American history. This was occasioned by a number of factors some of which were economic, financial, legislative, and regulatory frameworks. This unprecedented growth led to failure of a number of banking institutions. From these failures, a term "corporate greed" was coined. This essay seeks to enumerate how technology advanced in the 80s (Coppens, 2012).

In 1980, Hepatitis B Vaccine was invented by Baruch Blumberg. This research physician discovered an antigen that provoked antibody response against Hepatitis B Other took queue from this discovery to develop a vaccine against this viral hepatitis. Baruch together with Irving Millman invented a vaccine against viral hepatitis. Hepatitis A virus is the etiologic agent for Hepatitis A which is a liver disease. Hepatitis B attacks the liver. At secondary stages it causes liver cirrhosis which is a fatal lifelong liver infection. Hepatitis C on the other hand is caused by Hepatitis C virus. Hepatitis…… [Read More]

Resources:
Bellis, M. (2012). The 80s -- the technology, science, and innovations. Retrieved October 3, 2012 from http://inventors.about.com/od/timelines/a/modern_4.htm

Coppens, T. (2012). Major Inventions Timelines: 20th Century. Retrieved October 3, 2012 from http://teresacoppens.hubpages.com/hub/Major-Inventions-Timeline-20th-and-21st-
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Improving the Quality of Medical

Words: 4818 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29120759

This is particularly the case in sub-Saharan Africa where clinicians have often come to rely on signs and symptoms alone to make diagnoses." (Nicoll, Walraven, Kigadye, Klokke, 1995)

The laboratory environment is critical to administering testing to determine population rates of HIV / AIDS throughout nations and perhaps continents where the lacking of resources facilitates a substandard environment for care. In the case of the African nation of Mozambique, which perhaps can be understood as a case indicative of the environmental assessment one would find throughout Africa and therefore, can be labelled to be a median statistical nation. A nation representing the median would indicate that half of the population nations that are categorized as resourced deficient, half would be above Mozambique in terms of resource allocation and half would fall below.

Research into the quality of HIV / AIDS case-detection and case-reporting system in Mozambique was conducted by (Chilundo, Sahay, Sundby, 2004). The preliminary argument in the research proposes a fundamental lack of management systems necessary to do the basic work of hematology including medical laboratory procedures and analysis. These facilities, certainly at the mobile level, are lacking throughout Mozambique, from the "peripheral facilities through to those at the…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Chappuis, F., Loutan, L., Simarro, P., Lejon, V., and Buscher, P. Options for Field Diagnosis of Human African Trypanosomiasis. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, January 2005, p. 133-146, Vol. 18, No.1

Chilundo, B., Sundeep S., Sundby J. The Quality of HIV / AIDS case-detection and case reporting systems in Mozambique. African Journal of AIDS Research 2004, 145-155. Copyright NISC Pty Ltd.
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Managing Occupational Exposure to Blood Borne Pathogens

Words: 649 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42656941

Management of Occupational Exposures to Bloodborne Pathogens:

Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus, and Human Immunodeficiency Virus

This paper is written specifically for health care professionals who may, at some point during the course of their workday, be exposed to certain bloodborne pathogens, potentially resulting in serious illness. Therefore, it is important that these professionals create and maintain a plan to address key issues that may arise during the testing and care of potentially infected patients. By writing this article, the authors hope to establish a standard procedure for dealing with occupational exposure to the pathogens for healthcare workers while also reviewing much of the current information available.

The authors note that there have been many studied performed over the years that deal with exposure to bloodborne pathogens, but this article attempts to combine them into one coherent plan for all healthcare workers to follow. They reference several studies that each deal with a different aspect of exposure. For instance, a 1988 trial conducted by Burroughs and Wellcome is cited as a treatment failure while several studies are cited that attempt to determine the risk associated with needle sticks (Gerberding and Henderson 1181). All of these studies are considered when…… [Read More]

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Premarital Screening Program in Saudi Arabia

Words: 5506 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71851874

Edit Research Premarital Screening

Evaluating Premarital Screening Knowledge in Saudi Students

The purpose of this research was to investigate the impact of premarital screening (PMS) in Saudi Arabia. The use of PMS as a means to identify and approach both and infectious and hereditary disease was investigated in order to determine the impact of this practical approach.

A cross-sectional study was conducted at Jazan University from January to June 2014 to perform this research. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 1000 Jazan University Students, both males and females. The questionnaire consisted of 3 main parts. The first part was based on socio-demographic data, the second part dealt with the students' knowledge about the premarital screening program while the third part explored their attitudes towards the screening program.

Results

The vast majority of the participants (922; 94%) believed that a PMS program was a preventive measure. More than two thirds of the participants (613; 72.5%) favored having regulation & law for premarital screening and most of the students (891; 90.8%) believed PMS programs limited the spread of hereditary (HD) and infectious diseases (ID). Most of the participants (756; 77.1%) reported that PMS tests should be done before engagement.

Conclusions

A large…… [Read More]

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Aramco Health Center Is a

Words: 2752 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50685287



Emergency Action Plan

As a strict requirement of OSHA, the clinical laboratory science department must comply to this standard that is used in describing all the appropriate actions that must be taken by the facility in order to ensure that there is proper safety in case of any accidents such as fire outbreak.

Fire Safety

As a strict requirement of OSHA, the facility must ensure that there is a proper Fire Prevention Plan that is necessary to avert any kind of loss of either life or property.

Medical and First Aid

All the employees who work in this department must have the necessary component of both medical and first-aid providers. This is in order to ensure that any emergency situation that arises can be met with the appropriate solution.

Personal Protective Equipment

Due to the high risk of infection that is associated with the samples in the laboratory, it is essential that the clinical laboratory department ensure that each operation in the department is thoroughly assessed in order to ensure that no employee handle potentially infectious samples without wearing the appropriate Personal Protective Equipment. It is therefore a MUST as it falls under one of the OSHA requirements.

Hepatitis B…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
AIUM, (2009).Standards and Guidelines for the Accreditation of Ultrasound Practices

ARDMS (2010) Introducing...MY ARDMS
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Nurse's Knowledge Migrating Catheters Washing

Words: 2079 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62610661



As to catheter straps, if fastened too tightly they can act as tourniquets, cutting off the needed flow of blood and presenting. And at least theoretically, use of straps brings about a risk of increasing the complications such as "…deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism" in those patients with "impaired lower extremity circulation" (Billington 504). Research presented in this article shows that the problem of infection due to poorly attached catheters can be reduced significantly through the use of a product called "Bard StatLock" -- which, the authors insist, is an effective stabilization device because it allows movement (through a swivel clip), because it is a "sterile latex-free, tug-resistant product" (Billington 504). An article in the journal RN, incidentally, states that treating "hemodialysis catheter-related bacteremia" can cost a hospital up to $45,000.

Washing "Bloody Hands": An article in the Australian Nursing Journal asserts, "…hand hygiene is the single most effective method of reducing the spread of infections" (Dempsey 2008). The NSW Health Department has a policy called "Directive for Infection Control" which urges healthcare professionals to "practise hand hygiene" (Dempsey 34). Even Florence Nightingale understood how critically important it was "all those years ago," Dempsey writes; hence, it is hard…… [Read More]

References:
Aziz, a.M., Ashton, H., Pagett, a., Mathieson, K., Jones, S., & Mullin, B. (2009).

Sharps management in hospital: an audit of equipment, practice and awareness.
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Chronic Liver Disease With a Number of

Words: 1056 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10612941

Chronic Liver Disease

With a number of functions -- including detoxification, protein synthesis, and the production of chemicals that are necessary for digestion -- the human liver is vital.

It is reddish brown and has four unequal sized lobes; usually weighs about 3.5 pounds and is the largest gland in the human body. It is located just below the diaphragm in the body's right upper abdominal quadrant.

The liver plays a major role in the body's metabolic processes as well -- glycogen storage, decomposition of red blood cells, some hormone production.

The liver produces bile -- which is an alkaline compound that helps in digestion by changing fat (lipid) molecules to a more digestible format.

The liver's detoxification and synthesis of micronutrients are vital -- short-term liver dialysis is possible, but a person cannot exist without a functioning liver (Virtual Liver, 2008).

Cirrhosis of the Liver

Cirrhosis is the result of chronic liver disease in which liver tissue is replaced by care tissue of fibrosis.

The most common causes of cirrhosis are alcoholism, hepatitis B and C, and fatty liver disease (Mayo Clinic, 2010).

Symptoms of Cirrhosis

Ascites -- Fluid retention in the abdominal cavity, one of the most common…… [Read More]

Sources:
http://www.mayoclinic.com/print/cirrhosis/DS00373/DSECTION=all&METHOD=print

WebMD. (2011). Cirrhosis -- Treatment Overview. Retrieved from:

http://www.webmd.com/digestive-disorders/tc/cirrhosis-treatment-overview
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Workplace Environment Regardless of the

Words: 1137 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47103140

Courses are available and arranged through the employer's local area chapter.

According to the Red Cross' brochure on emergency training in an office setting, the training program will enable one to: care for conscious and unconscious choking victims, perform CPR, use an automated external defibrillator on a victim of cardiac arrest, give first aid and treat sudden illnesses. Part of all standard training is to include information on blood borne pathogens.

OSHA

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration, or OSHA, is an agency under the United States Department of Labor, established in 1970. According to its mission statement, OSHA is to work to prevent work-related injuries, illnesses and deaths by issuing and enforcing rules and standards for workplace safety and health. One of OSHA's most recent standards was released in 1990 and was related to preventing workers from being exposes to blood borne pathogens such as hepatitis B and HIV.

OSHA issues regular reports outlining standard procedures for workplace safety and first aid. For example, according to the publication entitled Best Practices Guide: Fundamentals of Workplace First-Aid Program, (which is not a standard regulation but only a recommendation) it is advised that all workplace environments assess the risks associated with…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
American Red Cross. Homepage. www.redcross.org.

OSHA. (2006): Best Practices Guide: Fundamentals of Workplace First-Aid Programs. Washington, D.C.: Department of Labor.
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Mental Patients' Physical Health Who Use Antipsychotic Medication

Words: 13284 Length: 32 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44641264

Antipsychotic Medication and the Physical Health Problems of the Patient With Mental Illness

More and more attention is now being given to the mental disorders especially in U.S. And due to this increase in attention an increase has also been noticed in the treatment of these mental health issues (Zuvekas, 2005). About 30% of the total U.S. population that is between the ages of 18-52 is being affected by mental health issues which make up a large part of the public health problem (Kessler et al., 2005; Narrow et al., 2002). The risk of morbidity and smaller life expectancy is very high in the patients who suffer from the mental health issues (Millar, 2008; Skodol, 2008). It has been observed from numerous researches that the chances of suffering from various health issues such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease and hypertension are a lot more for the patients suffering from schizophrenia (Millar, 2008; Sharif, 2008). 4 and 6 Also, the patients who have mental disabilities live a low quality life and the social and personal burden of their disease increases even more due to a lot of functional impairments (Cotter, 2007; Ostacher et al., 2008).

The main method of treating the mental…… [Read More]

Resources:
Robson, D. And Haddad, M. (2012). Mental health nurses' attitudes towards the physical health care of people with severe and enduring mental illness: The development of a measurement tool. International Journal of Nursing Studies 49; 72 -- 83

Rosenberg, S., Goodman, L.A., Osher, F.C., 2001. Prevalence of HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C in people with sever mental illness. American Journal of Public Health 91, 31 -- 37.
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Cirrohsis Liver Disease Cirrhosis When

Words: 1409 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10116018

Based on etiologic differences, male-to-female ratio is 1.5-3:1. Primary biliary cirrhosis accounting for only 1.5% of deaths from cirrhosis is mostly found in females and ethanol-related cirrhosis is greatly found in males. Age-specific death rates in the United States tend to be greatest in the older age groups, topping at 49 per 100,000 males aged from 65-74 years and at 26.7 per 100,000 women of the age group from 75-84 years. (Cirrhosis: (www.emedicine.com)

Diagnosis and Imaging Modalities:

Ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and angiography are suggested as imaging modalities for the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis. In cases of patients doubtful for diffuse liver disease, ultrasound of the liver is being used as a screening-imaging tool and it is useful in for follow-up examinations. In order to make the presence of liver disease to be clear, computed tomography is usually carried out and it is detected by ultrasound. Against this background, extrahepatic situation and precise assessment of the vascular structures of the liver are necessary. Making use of contrast-enhanced MR imaging along with liver specific contrast media, the diagnosis of diffuse liver disease and categorization of morphologic variations is being enhanced. Complete assessment of cirrhosis is possible with combined magnetic…… [Read More]

References:
Cirrhosis. Retrieved October 7, 2005, from the World Wide Web http://www.gutdoc.org/Cirrohis.htm

Cirrhosis. Retrieved October 7, 2005, from the World Wide Web http://www.healthcentral.com/ency/408/000255.html
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Harm Reduction and Substance Abuse

Words: 4571 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48858447

This allows the client to place their level of behavior on the continuum and assess the levels of risk associated with their behaviors. The continuum also allows the client to assess the ways in which their behaviors over time, by examining the ways in which their behaviors are now different to past behaviors. This may allow clients to recognize that they have already made some progress toward less harmful behaviors, or may allow them to identify specific events which led to developing more risky behaviors. The harm reduction model allows the client to assess their current situation and plan the actions which they wish to take to change their future behaviors.

Applications of the model

The harm reduction model has been applied predominantly to drug misuse issues, however it is also appropriate to apply the model for a wide range of social and health behavior changes. The model has been successfully used in many areas including weight loss, tobacco addiction and alcohol addiction. From the principals it is possible to develop appropriate, situation-specific continua for almost any client who wishes to change behavior and decrease potential harms.

Harm reduction has been found to be an effective tool in the treatment…… [Read More]

Sources:
Amato, L., Davoli, M.A., Perucci, C., Ferri, M., Faggiano, F.P. And Mattick, R. (2005) an overview of systematic reviews of the effectiveness of opiate maintenance therapies: Available evidence to inform clinical practice and research. Journal Substitutes Abuse Treatment, 28, 321-329.

Bluthenthal, R.N., Kral, a.H., Erringer, E.A. And Edlin, B.R. (1998) Use of an illegal syringe exchange and injection-related risk behaviors among street-recruited injection drug users in Oakland, California, 1992 to 1995. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Human Retrovirology, 18, 505-511.
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Child Immunization in First Nation Population

Words: 1056 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75509897

Diversity in Nursing: Synopsis of Multiple Perspectives

Tarrant & Gregory (2003) in their article "Exploring childhood immunization uptake with First Nations mothers in north-western Ontario, Canada" discusses childhood immunizations and preventive care. Specifically the researchers aimed to explore beliefs First Nations parents hold regarding childhood immunizations, and what factors may influence immunization uptake. Studies suggest that Native American children generally receive lower immunization coverage than children in Canada according to the study.

Using a qualitative descriptive design the researchers interviewed twenty-eight mothers within Native Indian communities in Canada regarding vaccine preventable illnesses. The results of the study suggests that First Nations parental beliefs regarding immunizations may positively or negatively influence a child's immunization uptake. The research also suggests that education may enable families to make better decisions regarding their child's health care and immunization uptake.

The researchers do point out in their work that other studies support that immunization uptake may be negatively impacted by "parental misperceptions, vaccine side-effects and negative outcomes from vaccinations" among other related factors (Tarrant & Gregory, 63). The study confirms that despite increasing exposure to preventable illnesses First Nations mothers did not necessarily change their misperceptions or attitudes regarding vaccination. As a result more first…… [Read More]

References:
Hutchison, R.R. & Quartaro, E.G. (1993). "Training imperatives for volunteers caring for high-risk, vulnerable populations." Journal of Community Health Nursing, 10(2): 88-92.

Pulido, M.J., Alvarado, E.A., Berger, W., Nelson, A., Todoroff, C. (2001 - Summer).