Hepatitis B Essays (Examples)

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Hepatitis of the Liver and How They

Words: 2567 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42229767

hepatitis of the liver and how they are transmitted to how we can find a remedy to slow down the deterioration process if not cure it completely.

Hepatitis

Hepatitis A

Hepatitis B

Causes of hepatitis B

Transmission of hepatitis B

Symptoms

Tests for hepatitis B

Self-protection

Hepatitis C

isk Factors for HCV Infection

Consequences of HCV Infection

Diagnosis

Hepatitis is the disease connected with the inflammation of the liver. This disease was not discovered too long ago, however doctors and researchers have been able to find out the causes of hepatitis. There are several causes such as, viral, parasitic, infiltrative, drug or alcohol induced, or non-specific. Before a person is even diagnosed with this disease some of the prominent indications of the acute phase can be ranging from a symptomatic, where we may not even be able to notice we have hepatitis to feeling extremely tired, jaundice- where our skin…… [Read More]

References

A Commitment to Global Health - Text version, available at:

http://www.niaid.nih.gov/director/usmed/1999/usmed99text.htm, accessed on:

February 9, 2004

BioE: News and Press Releases, available at: http://www.bioe.com/news.html, accessed on: February 9, 2004
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Hepatitis C

Words: 511 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49458689

Hepatitis C: New CDC Screening Recommendations

The objective of this study is to review the article written by Doug Campos-Outcalt entitled "Hepatitis C: New CDC Screening Recommendations" published in the Journal of Family Practice, Volume 61, Number 12 in December 2012.

Campos-Outcalt (2012) writes that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) released new recommendations for Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection screening including a one-time screening for all individuals in the United States that were born between the year of 1945 and 1965 "regardless of risk." The new recommendations are reported to be rather than a replacement to be instead an enhancement of "the recommendations for HCV screening" stated in 1998 calling for those who were considered high-risk to be screened.

HCV results in a high level of morbidity and mortality in the United States. There are reported to be 17,000 new infections to have occurred in 2010 with…… [Read More]

It is reported that the two groups at the highest risk for HCV are those who are users of illegal drugs, which they injected, and those who received blood transfusions prior to 1992 when HCV blood screening began. There are other risk factors, which include having been incarcerated, having sex with someone infected with HCV, and the acquisition of a tattoo at an establishment that was unregulated, among others risk factors for contracting HCV. According to Campos-Outcalt, sustained virological response following treatment was demonstrated in individuals exhibiting a "reduction in all-cause mortality >50% compared with nonresponders." (Campos-Outcalt, 2012) Individuals born between 1988 and 1994 are much more likely to have contracted HCV than those born between 1999 and 2002.

Observational Studies and Reported Outcomes

Twelve observational studies are reported that examined treatment effects on the incidence of HCC and are reported to have shown a "75% reduction in HCC rates in those who achieved viral clearance compared with those who did not." (Campos-Outcalt, 2012) Physicians are advised that if there is a positive on a confirmatory test that the patient should be assumed to have HCV infection. The patient must decide if treatment is to be initiated and must undergo additional assessment to check for chronic liver disease. Measures should be taken to protect their liver from receiving additional damage including alcohol consumption reduction, medication avoidance and use of herbal products that result in liver damage. Patients infected with HCV should focus on the maintenance of an optimal weight and should receive vaccines against hepatitis A and B. AS well, patients should be instructed on how to avoid spreading the HCV infection to other people. There is noted by Campos-Outcalt (2012) to be controversies on HCV screening in regards to improvements in outcomes. For this reason the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force is presently conducting a revisement of the HCV recommendations for screening.
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Hepc Hepatitis C Is a

Words: 950 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39154804

Thus, a diagnosis of Hepatitis C might not warrant any treatment intervention other than close monitoring of liver function. hen the virus remains in the body, the disease progresses to its chronic phase. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "chronic HCV infection develops in 70% -- 85% of HCV-infected persons." Of chronically infected individuals, 60% -- 70% "have evidence of active liver disease," (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). About 17% of chronically infected individuals will develop cirrhosis and about 2% will develop liver cancer (United States Department of Veteran's Affairs).

Treating chronic Hepatitis C usually entails pharmaceutical intervention. A combination of two antiviral drugs, peginterferon and ribavirin, is currently the most effective treatment intervention. Other methods include administering long-acting (pegylated) interferon by itself; or administering a short-acting version of interferon with ribarvirin (United States Department of Veteran's Affairs). Using these two drugs, peginterferon and ribavirin, the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Viral Hepatitis." Retrieved June 17, 2010 from   http://www.cdc.gov /hepatitis/ 

MayoClinic. "Hepatitis C" September 12, 2009. Retrieved June 17, 2010 from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/hepatitis-c/ds00097

MedLinePlus. "Hepatitis C" Retrieved June 17, 2010 from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/hepatitisc.html

National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NDDIC). "What I Need to Know about Hepatitis C" 2009. Retrieved June 17, 2010 from http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/hepc_ez/
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Enbrel Safe for Hepatitis C

Words: 432 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74880213

embrel.com) it was deemed safe to use in patients who had Hepatitis C Lab tests were ordered and conducted on the 60-year-old patient's liver, and the results indicated normal enzyme production in the liver. In August 2004, the patient was started on Enbrel 50 MG twice a week, and some immediate improvement was noted; but after 18 weeks, the patient, who was inconsistent in making appointments, showed a worsened psoriasis condition. The dosage was cut to 50 MG once a week, and patient was urged to visit his liver doctor to have PCR for his Hepatitis C titers (concentration), to repeat CBC and Liver Function Test (LFT) titers (which was normal in Aug. 2002). A mild elevation of LFTs was discovered, so the patient was worked up further with ultrasound and a liver biopsy. The patient was then started in IFN treatment and Enbrel was discontinued. By June, 2006, the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Enbrel. "Important Product Information: What do I need to know about Enbrel?" Retrieved 12 November, 2006, at http://www.enbrel.com/important-product-information.jsp.
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Stick Injury Means That the

Words: 2478 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27188220

The results revealed that this route did not lead to any needle stick injuries. The ESA worked as efficaciously as it would have if needles were used and this was proved by the maintenance of the hemoglobin levels. It was observed that 91% of the nursing staff was in favor of the needle free administration of ESA. This study therefore concluded that drugs with detached needles present further routes to prevent needle stick injuries in the future. (Chow et. al, 2009)

Seeing how needle stick injuries can lead to emotional, health related and financial dilemma, experts are working on ways to reduce their occurrence. The study by Chow et al. (2009) shows one way in which these incidences can be reduced. Molen et al. (2011) stated that education reduces the occurrence of needle stick injury. He conducted a study in which one group was educated in a workshop and given…… [Read More]

References

Adams, D. 2012 Needle stick and sharps injuries: implications for practice. Nursing Standard. 26 (37), pp. 49-57.

Aziz, A.M., Ashton, H., Pagett, A., Mathieson, K., Jones, S., and Mullin, B 2009 Sharps

management in hospital: an audit of equipment, practice and awareness. Br J. Nurs 18(2), pp. 92 -- 8

Blenkharn, J. 2009. Sharps management and the disposal of clincal waste. British Journal of Nursing, 18 (14).
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Transgenic Plants and Oral Vaccine Development

Words: 616 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2460099

Kumar, G.B.S., Ganapathi, TR. Bapat, V.A. Revathi, C.J. & K.S.N. Prasad. (2002). Expression

of Hepatitis B surface antigen in transgenic banana plants and NT- I cell line of tobacco. BARC. Retrieved from: http://barc.gov.in/publications/nl/2003/200310-12.pdf

ne of the most difficult and intractable health issues worldwide is that of Hepatitis B The disease is difficult to treat and potentially deadly. "There are about 350 million chronic carriers in the world and it is estimated that 75- 100 million of them will die of liver cirrhosis and/or hepatocellular carcinoma" (Kumar, Ganapathi, Bapat, Revathi, Prasad 2002:85). Although vaccinations do exist, the injectable form of the vaccine is expensive and has been difficult to distribute throughout the developing world where Hepatitis B is most prevalent. Injectable vaccines also require trained healthcare professionals to disseminate. There is also the risk of needle contamination in unsanitary conditions, again, making vaccines in the developing world potentially more dangerous. Cold…… [Read More]

One possible solution is the development of oral vaccines. This proved to be a great advantage in the treatment of polio. Unlike injectable vaccines, "they can activate the mucosal immune system against many pathogens by oral delivery" and also because they do not contain whole pathogens, there is no risk of actually transmitting the disease by accident through the vaccination process (Kumar et al. 2002: 86). Plant-based vaccines have proven to be particularly effective in the developing world through the use of transgenic banana plants. At present, the surface antigen of Hepatitis B (HBsAg) has been successfully found to be expressed in transgenic tobacco plants as well. "The HBsAg derived from transgenic tobacco plants is physically, biochemically and immunologically similar to yeast derived rHBsAg" but is cheaper to produce (Kumar et al. 2002: 87). Both transgenic tobacco and banana plants, it is hoped, hold the potential to develop an effective oral vaccine.

The series of experiments conducted by the study's authors to support their exploratory research to find plant-based vaccines were promising. For the transgenic tobacco plants, "Western analysis confirmed the presence of HBsAg specific band corresponding to yeast derived rHBsAg in pHBs100 and pHER100 transformed tobacco cells whereas in the control non-transformed cells the same was absent…the denatured HBsAg expressed in plant cells showed 4 kDa peptides similar to yeast derived rHBsAg" (Kumar et al. 2002: 91). This antigen is not naturally occurring in tobacco plants, it should be noted: transgenic manipulation would be required for the vaccine to be generated, thus there still would be considerable expense in generating the vaccine initially. The hope would be, however, that once it was developed, it would be useful in the context of the developing world to provide treatment.

The most desirable and promising potential vaccine source, however, would still be to derive the vaccine from a banana plant, given the proliferation of the fruit in the tropics and also its palatability. "Expression of HBsAg in bananas may be advantageous as they are grown in most of the tropical and subtropical countries, where cost effective vaccines are required and their digestibility and palatability by infants makes it an attractive choice" (Kumar et al. 2002: 93). It must be noted that the development of the vaccine in any plant form is still very much in its nascent stages. At present, the closest to an oral vaccine that has been derived in a lab is an HBsAg prototype from a transgenic potato plant tested in mice. Still, the research indicates potentially promising developments in this area which should not be ignored.
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Health Immunizing Your Baby Protecting or Harming

Words: 1600 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99685893

Health

Immunizing Your Baby, Protecting or Harming?

Positives for Vaccinations

Recommended and Minimum Ages for Early Childhood Vaccinations

Negatives for Vaccinations

Ethical Issues

Vaccines against diphtheria, polio, pertussis, measles, mumps and rubella, hepatitis B and chicken pox, have given humans powerful immune guards to ward off unwelcome disease and sickness. Because of this the CDC works closely with public health agencies and private partners in order to improve and sustain immunization coverage and to monitor the safety of vaccines so that public health can be maintained and expanded in the future. Despite the good that vaccines appear to do there is a debate stirring in regards to the safety of vaccines and whether or not they are link to disorders such as autism. There are some studies that appear to link childhood vaccinations to autism but the evidence is very weak at best. But because of these types of studies…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Carolyn Drews-Botsch, et al. "Timeliness of Childhood Immunizations: A State-

Specific

Analysis." American Journal Of Public Health 95.8 (2005): 1367-1374. Business

Source
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Video Crossing the Line the

Words: 1599 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96395088

In some countries, bed numbers began to drop before the introduction of the drugs. In others, bed numbers actually increased despite this introduction. The drugs also have been used on a variety of populations that were not deemed to be mentally ill (such as people with learning difficulties and older people). The drugs were only relevant in giving psychiatric staff more confidence in dealing with community-based patients; they do not explain the policy of deinstitutionalization. At the end of the twentieth century deinstitutionalization has become a dominant mental health policy goal in most Western democracies (Sax, 1984).

Conclusion

However, this formal goal has become clouded by evidence that the gradual reduction of large institutions has been replaced by a scattering of smaller ones 'in the community' (Roe, 1976). Also, most countries still have legal statutes to coercively remove madness from community set- tings. The extent of this continued coercive control…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Gale, F. 2007 A changing Aboriginal population. In F. Gale and G. Lawton (eds), Settlement and Encounter: Geographical studies presented to Sir Grenfell Price, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, 65-88.

Smith, L. 2006 The Aboriginal Population, The Australian National University Press, Canberra.

CDHHS 2004, The National Aboriginal Health Strategy: an evaluation, Commonwealth Department of Health and Human Services, Canberra.

Roe, M 1976, 'The establishment of the Australian Department of Health: its background and significance', Australian Historical Studies 17(67):176-92.
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Sexual Risk Assessment Mary Jane

Words: 1222 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88389946



Mary Jane's laboratory results show there is an elevated white blood count, with CBC with differential within normal limits. Proton and INR were normal. Pregnancy was negative. UA showed occasional bacteria, but normal otherwise. Drug screen was normal, and EKG showed sinus bradycardia, rate of 59 beats per minute. Renal and hepatic functions were within normal limits.

There are four sexual response cycles, marked by physiological and psychological changes. The first stages is excitement, which Mary Jane is not getting with her partners, which is triggered by psychological or physical stimulation, and is marked by emotional changes, and increased heart rate, and vaginal swelling. Second stage is plateau, Mary Jane states she doesn't have this stimulation. The third stage is orgasm, which Mary Jane doesn't getting during intercourse, or she doesn't remember because she in under the influence of alcohol. The final phase, resolution, involves a rush of blood away…… [Read More]

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Nursing Nurses' Risk for Occupational

Words: 1018 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42863317

Moreover, recent legislation such as the Affordable Care Act is expected to create an even greater need for nurses who can take on more advanced responsibilities. As one nurse stated on National Public adio: "…with the passage of the Affordable Care Act, which was passed in March, we're going to see 32 million new patients accessing the health care delivery system which previously weren't accessing this system. And currently, we don't have the capacity to provide high-quality, patient-centered care for this new expanded population" (NP, 2010)

Careers in nursing have become vast and varied, particularly for the highly educated, and pay for many of these careers is above $60,000 annually. While a nurse with a BSN who becomes an N can still advance in her career, enter management, or become a nursing professor, an MSN is necessary for nurses to enter one of the more prestigious and specialized subfields (Sacks,…… [Read More]

References

AACN. (2010, 10). The Impact of Education on Nursing Practice. Retrieved 02-14, 2011, from AACN: http://www.aacn.nche.edu/media/factsheets/impactednp.htm

Allen, J. (1988). Health Care Workers and the Risk of HIV Transmission. The Hastings Center Report, 18 (2), 2+.

NPR. (2010). Talk of the Nation: Role of Nurses in Primary Care May Expand. Retrieved 02-14, 2011, from NPR: http://www.npr.org/2010/11/16/131361359/role-of-nurses-in-primary-care-may-expand

OSHA. (2011). Bloodborne Pathogens and Needlestick Prevention. Retrieved 02-14, 2011, from OSHA.gov: http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/bloodbornepathogens/index.html
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Injections of Phosphatidylcholine Solubilized With

Words: 4199 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89968927

Therefore, Hexsel's study will not be included in this analysis for failure to meet the study protocol.

Another human study involved a case study of a single patient. This Brazilian study represented a case study and does not meet the protocol for inclusion in this analysis either (Rittes, 2001). As there have been no human studies in the United States to date, we must rely on studies published in other countries for our meta-analysis. A study conducted in Vienna by Karl Heinrich will be used as one of the studies to be analyzed. This was the only study that could be located involving an actual population of human subjects, as this type of research is prohibited in the U.S. At this time.

The sample population used by Heinrich consisted of 86 individuals who received a standardized series of treatments. This study suffered from significant flaws that make the results questionable.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Atoba MA, Ayoola EA, Ogunseyinde O. Effects of essential phospholipid choline on the course of acute hepatitis-B infection. Trop Gastroenterol. 1985; 6:96-9.

Bechara FG, Sand M, Altmeyer P. et al. Intralesional lipolysis with phosphatidylcholine for the treatment of lipomas: pilot study. Arch Dermatol. 2006 Aug;142(8):1069-70. Retrieved March 24, 2007 at  http://www.hubmed.org/display.cgi?uids=16924064 .

Hanin I, Ansell GB, eds. Lecithin. Technological, Biological and Therapeutic Aspects. New York and London: Plenum Press; 1987.

Doris Hexsel "
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Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

Words: 1642 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97294962

Abnormal Uterine Bleeding and Issues

Reproductive Tract Diseases for human females are typically focused in the upper reproductive tract or the lower reproductive tract. The upper tract includes the fallopian tubes, ovary and uterus, while the lower reproductive tract focuses on the vagina, cervix and vulva. There are three major types of infections: endogenous, iatrogenic and sexually transmitted diseases. Endogenous diseases arise from internal cellular structures and may be bacterial, viral or genetic, usually the most common and arise from an overgrowth of organisms that are already present in the vagina; iatrogenic diseases are the result of medical or surgical treatment, and sexually transmitted diseases occur between humans as a result of sexual behavior. In addition to infections, there are congenital abnormalities, cancers and functional problems. Each infection has its own specific cause and symptoms; caused by bacteria, virus, fungi or other organisms. Indeed, some are easily treatable and cured,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Azim, P., et al. (2011). Evaluation of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding. Isra Medical Journal, 3(3). Retrieved November 2013, from http://121.52.154.227/Isra%20Medical%20Journal%20Volume-III%20Issue-III.pdf#page=6

Davidson, B., et al. (2012). Abnormal Uterine Bleeding During the Reproductive Years. Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health, 57(3), 248-54.

Fraser, I., et al. (2011). The FIGO Recommendations on Terminologies and Definitions for Normal and Abnormal Uterine Bleeding. Seminars in Reproductive Medicine, 29(5), 383-90.

Gray, S. (2013). Menstural Disorders. Pediatrics in Review, 34(1), 6-18.
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Immunization of Children in the United States

Words: 1029 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68898787

Immunization of children in the United States [...] full detail why the immunization rate of children in the U.S. is high, and the validity of the reasons why some parents choose not to immunize their children. It will also explain if those children will be protected by "herd immunity." Most children in the United States receive immunization from a variety of diseases when they are toddlers. Yet, some parents choose not to immunize their children for a variety of reasons. The question remains, are these children protected adequately, and do they pose a danger to other, already immunized children?

IMMUNIZATION IN THE U.S.

Most people take immunization of children in the United States for granted. Everyone immunizes his or her children, right? Well, not exactly. In the United States, laws in all 50 states require child immunization before a child can enter school. Vaccinations may include:

vaccination against diphtheria, pertussis…… [Read More]

References

Editors. "Immunization Laws." Center for Disease Control. 2003. 3 April 2003.  http://www.cdc.gov /od/nvpo/law.htm

Horner, Sharon D., and Linda Murphy. "Creating Alternative Immunization Clinics to Maintain and Improve Community Immunization Rates." Journal of Community Health Nursing 16.2 (1999): 121-132.

James, Walene. Immunization: The Reality behind the Myth. 2nd ed. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey, 1995.
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Gene Technology

Words: 976 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72972058

Genetically Modified Foods: ational for Topic Selection

Genetically modified foods are frequently in the mainstream media, making them a highly relevant topic of discussion in the areas of genetic science and gene technologies. As with most technologies and techniques related to genetic science, genetically modified foods are controversial and thus politically charged issues. It is important to be armed with facts before forming an opinion about whether or not genetically modified foods are acceptable, feasible, or ethical.

Biological Basis

Genetically modified foods refers to organic foodstuffs -- plants and animals -- "whose genetic material (DNA) has been modified in a way that does not occur naturally," (World Health Organization, 2013). However, genetically modified organisms (GMOs) can also include medicines and vaccines (United States Department of Energy: Office of Science, 2013). The primary process used to modify the genes of organisms is called recombitant DNA technology; as the term suggests, recombitant…… [Read More]

References

Damery, P., D'Adamo, N., Graham, M., Hoffman, M. & Riedl, J. (n.d.). The debate on labeling genetically modified food. Retrieved online:  http://www.public.iastate.edu/~ethics/LabelGMFood.pdf 

"Genetically modified crops gaining ground in China: Report," (2013). The Times of India. 7 March, 2013. Retrieved online:  http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/home/environment/developmental-issues/Genetically-modified-crops-gaining-ground-in-China-Report/articleshow/18847379.cms 

Hiatt, S. & Park, S. (2012). Influence and regulatory approval of genetically modified organisms. Academy of Management Journal. Nov 26, 2012.

United States Department of Energy: Office of Science (2013). Human genome project. Retrieved online: http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/gmfood.shtml
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Patient Who Walks Into the

Words: 596 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99013790



Common risk factors for chronic liver problems include: intravenous drug use, overdosing on acetaminophen, engaging in risky sexual behaviors like having multiple sexual partners and unprotected intercourse, eating contaminated foods, traveling to an area where certain diseases are common, living in a nursing home or rehabilitation center, having a family member who recently had hepatitis a, using or abusing alcohol, being an organ transplant recipient, having HIV or AIDS, having received a blood transfusion before 1990, being a newborn of a mother with hepatitis B or C, being a health care worker, including dentist and dental hygienist, because of blood contact and receiving a tattoo (Hepatitis Health Article, 2010).

Eighty percent of those people who have Hepatitis C go on to develop chronic liver disease, liver failure or liver cancer. Hepatitis C is the number one reason that people received liver transplants in the United States. Permanent liver damage, liver…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Hepatitis Health Article." 2010. Healthline. Web. 24 May 2010.
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Technology Evolution Many of the Electric Gadgets

Words: 1461 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93582067

Technology Evolution

Many of the electric gadgets we use today like the cell phones and the home computers were invented in the 80s. Many multinational corporations came into existence in the 80s this spur the growth to a record 3.2% per year (Bellis, 2012). This was the highest nine-year rate in American history. This was occasioned by a number of factors some of which were economic, financial, legislative, and regulatory frameworks. This unprecedented growth led to failure of a number of banking institutions. From these failures, a term "corporate greed" was coined. This essay seeks to enumerate how technology advanced in the 80s (Coppens, 2012).

In 1980, Hepatitis B Vaccine was invented by Baruch Blumberg. This research physician discovered an antigen that provoked antibody response against Hepatitis B Other took queue from this discovery to develop a vaccine against this viral hepatitis. Baruch together with Irving Millman invented a vaccine…… [Read More]

References

Bellis, M. (2012). The 80s -- the technology, science, and innovations. Retrieved October 3, 2012 from http://inventors.about.com/od/timelines/a/modern_4.htm

Coppens, T. (2012). Major Inventions Timelines: 20th Century. Retrieved October 3, 2012 from http://teresacoppens.hubpages.com/hub/Major-Inventions-Timeline-20th-and-21st-

Centuries

Kotelinkova, S. (2012). History of Genetic Engineering. Retrieved October 3, 2012 from http://sgugenetics.pbworks.com/w/page/47775520/The%20History%20of%20Genetic%2
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Improving the Quality of Medical

Words: 4818 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29120759

This is particularly the case in sub-Saharan Africa where clinicians have often come to rely on signs and symptoms alone to make diagnoses." (Nicoll, Walraven, Kigadye, Klokke, 1995)

The laboratory environment is critical to administering testing to determine population rates of HIV / AIDS throughout nations and perhaps continents where the lacking of resources facilitates a substandard environment for care. In the case of the African nation of Mozambique, which perhaps can be understood as a case indicative of the environmental assessment one would find throughout Africa and therefore, can be labelled to be a median statistical nation. A nation representing the median would indicate that half of the population nations that are categorized as resourced deficient, half would be above Mozambique in terms of resource allocation and half would fall below.

esearch into the quality of HIV / AIDS case-detection and case-reporting system in Mozambique was conducted by (Chilundo,…… [Read More]

References

Chappuis, F., Loutan, L., Simarro, P., Lejon, V., and Buscher, P. Options for Field Diagnosis of Human African Trypanosomiasis. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, January 2005, p. 133-146, Vol. 18, No.1

Chilundo, B., Sundeep S., Sundby J. The Quality of HIV / AIDS case-detection and case reporting systems in Mozambique. African Journal of AIDS Research 2004, 145-155. Copyright NISC Pty Ltd.

Clark. Blood Safety PPT. CDC, WHO

Loefler, I. Surgical wound infection in the Third World: the African experience. Journal of Medical Microbiology. Volume 47, 471-473. 1998. The Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland
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Managing Occupational Exposure to Blood Borne Pathogens

Words: 649 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42656941

Management of Occupational Exposures to Bloodborne Pathogens:

Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus, and Human Immunodeficiency Virus

his paper is written specifically for health care professionals who may, at some point during the course of their workday, be exposed to certain bloodborne pathogens, potentially resulting in serious illness. herefore, it is important that these professionals create and maintain a plan to address key issues that may arise during the testing and care of potentially infected patients. By writing this article, the authors hope to establish a standard procedure for dealing with occupational exposure to the pathogens for healthcare workers while also reviewing much of the current information available.

he authors note that there have been many studied performed over the years that deal with exposure to bloodborne pathogens, but this article attempts to combine them into one coherent plan for all healthcare workers to follow. hey reference several studies that…… [Read More]

The authors do not present many controversial findings in this article, but the demand for zidovudine is growing as an immediate treatment after exposure. The authors find no evidence to support its efficacy and, therefore, do not condone its use. They also question the efficacy of using other antibodies in the wake of exposure since there is little evidence suggesting they have any effect at all. The authors have clearly been working with bloodborne pathogens for some time and have grown concerned about the exposure rate of many professional healthcare workers. They view the immediate influence of counseling as essential in helping a worker to overcome the emotional aspect of exposure and believe that every precaution must be taken to avoid such risks. While most people would readily agree with this position on the risks associated with treating infected patients, some would argue that these risks should not supersede the patient's privacy, a contention that the authors seem to find ineffectual. For them, the risks facing healthcare workers are far more important than any privacy issues that may present themselves.

Gerberding, Julie L. And David K. Henderson. "Management of Occupational Exposures to Bloodborne Pathogens: Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus, and Human Immuno-

Deficiency Virus." Clinical Infectious Diseases 14.6 (1992): 1179-1185. Print.
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Premarital Screening Program in Saudi Arabia

Words: 5506 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71851874

Edit Research Premarital Screening

Evaluating Premarital Screening Knowledge in Saudi Students

The purpose of this research was to investigate the impact of premarital screening (PMS) in Saudi Arabia. The use of PMS as a means to identify and approach both and infectious and hereditary disease was investigated in order to determine the impact of this practical approach.

A cross-sectional study was conducted at Jazan University from January to June 2014 to perform this research. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 1000 Jazan University Students, both males and females. The questionnaire consisted of 3 main parts. The first part was based on socio-demographic data, the second part dealt with the students' knowledge about the premarital screening program while the third part explored their attitudes towards the screening program.

Results

The vast majority of the participants (922; 94%) believed that a PMS program was a preventive measure. More than two thirds of…… [Read More]

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Nurse's Knowledge Migrating Catheters Washing

Words: 2079 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62610661



As to catheter straps, if fastened too tightly they can act as tourniquets, cutting off the needed flow of blood and presenting. And at least theoretically, use of straps brings about a risk of increasing the complications such as "…deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism" in those patients with "impaired lower extremity circulation" (Billington 504). Research presented in this article shows that the problem of infection due to poorly attached catheters can be reduced significantly through the use of a product called "Bard StatLock" -- which, the authors insist, is an effective stabilization device because it allows movement (through a swivel clip), because it is a "sterile latex-free, tug-resistant product" (Billington 504). An article in the journal RN, incidentally, states that treating "hemodialysis catheter-related bacteremia" can cost a hospital up to $45,000.

ashing "Bloody Hands": An article in the Australian Nursing Journal asserts, "…hand hygiene is the single most effective…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aziz, a.M., Ashton, H., Pagett, a., Mathieson, K., Jones, S., & Mullin, B. (2009).

Sharps management in hospital: an audit of equipment, practice and awareness.

British Journal of Nursing, 18(2), 92-98.

Billington, a., Crane, C., Jownally, S., Kirkwood, L., & Roodhouse, a. (2008).
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Aramco Health Center Is a

Words: 2752 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50685287



Emergency Action Plan

As a strict requirement of OSHA, the clinical laboratory science department must comply to this standard that is used in describing all the appropriate actions that must be taken by the facility in order to ensure that there is proper safety in case of any accidents such as fire outbreak.

Fire Safety

As a strict requirement of OSHA, the facility must ensure that there is a proper Fire Prevention Plan that is necessary to avert any kind of loss of either life or property.

Medical and First Aid

All the employees who work in this department must have the necessary component of both medical and first-aid providers. This is in order to ensure that any emergency situation that arises can be met with the appropriate solution.

Personal Protective Equipment

Due to the high risk of infection that is associated with the samples in the laboratory, it is…… [Read More]

Bibliography

AIUM, (2009).Standards and Guidelines for the Accreditation of Ultrasound Practices

ARDMS (2010) Introducing...MY ARDMS

http://www.ardms.org/default.asp?ContentID=30

ASCP (2010).Certification
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Chronic Liver Disease With a Number of

Words: 1056 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10612941

Chronic Liver Disease

With a number of functions -- including detoxification, protein synthesis, and the production of chemicals that are necessary for digestion -- the human liver is vital.

It is reddish brown and has four unequal sized lobes; usually weighs about 3.5 pounds and is the largest gland in the human body. It is located just below the diaphragm in the body's right upper abdominal quadrant.

The liver plays a major role in the body's metabolic processes as well -- glycogen storage, decomposition of red blood cells, some hormone production.

The liver produces bile -- which is an alkaline compound that helps in digestion by changing fat (lipid) molecules to a more digestible format.

The liver's detoxification and synthesis of micronutrients are vital -- short-term liver dialysis is possible, but a person cannot exist without a functioning liver (Virtual Liver, 2008).

Cirrhosis of the Liver

Cirrhosis is the result…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Nutrition and Cirrhosis. (2010). HepCNet. Retrieved from:

Greenlee, H., et.al. (2007). "Clinical Applications of Silybum Marianum." Integrative

Cancer Therapies. 6(1): 158-65.

Huseini, H., et.al. (2006). "The Effects of Sulybum Marianum in the Treatment of Type II Diabetes." Phytotherapeutic Research. 20(1): 1036-39.
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Workplace Environment Regardless of the

Words: 1137 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47103140

Courses are available and arranged through the employer's local area chapter.

According to the Red Cross' brochure on emergency training in an office setting, the training program will enable one to: care for conscious and unconscious choking victims, perform CPR, use an automated external defibrillator on a victim of cardiac arrest, give first aid and treat sudden illnesses. Part of all standard training is to include information on blood borne pathogens.

OSHA

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration, or OSHA, is an agency under the United States Department of Labor, established in 1970. According to its mission statement, OSHA is to work to prevent work-related injuries, illnesses and deaths by issuing and enforcing rules and standards for workplace safety and health. One of OSHA's most recent standards was released in 1990 and was related to preventing workers from being exposes to blood borne pathogens such as hepatitis and HIV.

OSHA…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

American Red Cross. Homepage. www.redcross.org.

OSHA. (2006): Best Practices Guide: Fundamentals of Workplace First-Aid Programs. Washington, D.C.: Department of Labor.

U.S. Department of Labor. (2007) Safety and Health Topics: Medical and First Aid. www.osha.gov/SLTC/meicalfirstaid/index.html.
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Mental Patients' Physical Health Who Use Antipsychotic Medication

Words: 13284 Length: 32 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44641264

Antipsychotic Medication and the Physical Health Problems of the Patient With Mental Illness

More and more attention is now being given to the mental disorders especially in U.S. And due to this increase in attention an increase has also been noticed in the treatment of these mental health issues (Zuvekas, 2005). About 30% of the total U.S. population that is between the ages of 18-52 is being affected by mental health issues which make up a large part of the public health problem (Kessler et al., 2005; Narrow et al., 2002). The risk of morbidity and smaller life expectancy is very high in the patients who suffer from the mental health issues (Millar, 2008; Skodol, 2008). It has been observed from numerous researches that the chances of suffering from various health issues such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease and hypertension are a lot more for the patients suffering from schizophrenia (Millar,…… [Read More]

References

Robson, D. And Haddad, M. (2012). Mental health nurses' attitudes towards the physical health care of people with severe and enduring mental illness: The development of a measurement tool. International Journal of Nursing Studies 49; 72 -- 83

Rosenberg, S., Goodman, L.A., Osher, F.C., 2001. Prevalence of HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C in people with sever mental illness. American Journal of Public Health 91, 31 -- 37.

Ruigomez, A., Rodriguez, L.A.G., Dev, V.J., Arellano, F., Raniwala, J., 2000. Are schizophrenia or antipsychotic drugs a risk factor for cataracts? Epidemiology 11, 620 -- 623.

Ryan, M.C., Thakore, J.H., 2001. Physical consequences of schizophrenia and its treatment: the metabolic syndrome. Life Sciences 71 (3), 239 -- 257.
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Cirrohsis Liver Disease Cirrhosis When

Words: 1409 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10116018

Based on etiologic differences, male-to-female ratio is 1.5-3:1. Primary biliary cirrhosis accounting for only 1.5% of deaths from cirrhosis is mostly found in females and ethanol-related cirrhosis is greatly found in males. Age-specific death rates in the United States tend to be greatest in the older age groups, topping at 49 per 100,000 males aged from 65-74 years and at 26.7 per 100,000 women of the age group from 75-84 years. (Cirrhosis: (www.emedicine.com)

Diagnosis and Imaging Modalities:

Ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and angiography are suggested as imaging modalities for the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis. In cases of patients doubtful for diffuse liver disease, ultrasound of the liver is being used as a screening-imaging tool and it is useful in for follow-up examinations. In order to make the presence of liver disease to be clear, computed tomography is usually carried out and it is detected by ultrasound. Against this…… [Read More]

References

Cirrhosis. Retrieved October 7, 2005, from the World Wide Web http://www.gutdoc.org/Cirrohis.htm

Cirrhosis. Retrieved October 7, 2005, from the World Wide Web http://www.healthcentral.com/ency/408/000255.html

Cirrhosis Treatment. Retrieved October 7, 2005, from the World Wide Web http://health.allrefer.com/health/cirrhosis-treatment.html

Digestive System Organs. Retrieved October 7, 2005, from the World Wide Web http://www.healthcentral.com/ency/408/ImagePages/8710.html
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Harm Reduction and Substance Abuse

Words: 4571 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48858447

This allows the client to place their level of behavior on the continuum and assess the levels of risk associated with their behaviors. The continuum also allows the client to assess the ways in which their behaviors over time, by examining the ways in which their behaviors are now different to past behaviors. This may allow clients to recognize that they have already made some progress toward less harmful behaviors, or may allow them to identify specific events which led to developing more risky behaviors. The harm reduction model allows the client to assess their current situation and plan the actions which they wish to take to change their future behaviors.

Applications of the model

The harm reduction model has been applied predominantly to drug misuse issues, however it is also appropriate to apply the model for a wide range of social and health behavior changes. The model has been…… [Read More]

References

Amato, L., Davoli, M.A., Perucci, C., Ferri, M., Faggiano, F.P. And Mattick, R. (2005) an overview of systematic reviews of the effectiveness of opiate maintenance therapies: Available evidence to inform clinical practice and research. Journal Substitutes Abuse Treatment, 28, 321-329.

Bluthenthal, R.N., Kral, a.H., Erringer, E.A. And Edlin, B.R. (1998) Use of an illegal syringe exchange and injection-related risk behaviors among street-recruited injection drug users in Oakland, California, 1992 to 1995. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Human Retrovirology, 18, 505-511.

Bradley-Springer, L. (1996) Patient education for behavior change: Help from the transtheoretical and harm reduction models. JANAC, 7(1), 23-33.

Des Jarlais, D.C. (1995) Harm reduction: A framework for incorporating science into drug policy. American Journal of Public Health, 85, 10-12.
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Child Immunization in First Nation Population

Words: 1056 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75509897

Diversity in Nursing: Synopsis of Multiple Perspectives

Tarrant & Gregory (2003) in their article "Exploring childhood immunization uptake with First Nations mothers in north-western Ontario, Canada" discusses childhood immunizations and preventive care. Specifically the researchers aimed to explore beliefs First Nations parents hold regarding childhood immunizations, and what factors may influence immunization uptake. Studies suggest that Native American children generally receive lower immunization coverage than children in Canada according to the study.

Using a qualitative descriptive design the researchers interviewed twenty-eight mothers within Native Indian communities in Canada regarding vaccine preventable illnesses. The results of the study suggests that First Nations parental beliefs regarding immunizations may positively or negatively influence a child's immunization uptake. The research also suggests that education may enable families to make better decisions regarding their child's health care and immunization uptake.

The researchers do point out in their work that other studies support that immunization uptake…… [Read More]

References:

Hutchison, R.R. & Quartaro, E.G. (1993). "Training imperatives for volunteers caring for high-risk, vulnerable populations." Journal of Community Health Nursing, 10(2): 88-92.

Pulido, M.J., Alvarado, E.A., Berger, W., Nelson, A., Todoroff, C. (2001 - Summer).

"Vaccinating Asian Pacific Islander children against hepatitis B: ethnic-specific influences and barriers." Asian-American Pacific Islander Journal Health, 9(2): 211-20.

Purden, M. (2005 - May). "Cultural considerations in interprofessional education and practice." Journal of Interprofessional Care, 19(1): 224-34
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NYS Scope of Practice for Registered Nurses

Words: 931 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70939818

Standing Orders, Computerized Order Entry, & Admission Pressure Ulcers

Standing orders are non-patient specific orders written by a physician or a nurse practitioner (Primer on standing orders for immunizations and emergency treatment of anaphylaxis, n.d.). New York RNs can administer certain immunizations with a standing order and protocols. Implications have come from designing workflows in the computerized order entry systems if not properly fitted with the existing information systems. Physicians are now responsible to assess, document, and treat present on admission pressure ulcers.

In the state of New York, RNs must be CPR certified with American Red Cross, American Heart Association, or other equivalent organization to administer immunization agents with a standing order and protocol. For adults, 18 or older, authorized agents include Hepatitis A, Hepatitis , Influenza, Pneumococcus, Meningococcus, Diphtheria, Tetanus, Measles, Mumps, Rubella, Varicella, Inactivated Polio, and any additional approved by the oard of Regents. For children, under…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Campbell, E. e. (2009). Computerized Provider Order Entry Adoption: Implications of Clinical Workflow. J Gen Intern Med, 24(1) doi:10.1007/s11606-008-0857-9, 21-26.

Lyder, C. & . (Oct 2009). Annual Checkup: The CMS Pressure Ulcer Present-on Admission Indicator. Advances in Skin and Wound Care, 22(10) doi:10.1097/01.ASW.0000361385.97489.51, 476-484.

Primer on standing orders for immunizations and emergency treatment of anaphylaxis. (n.d.). Retrieved from NYSNA: http://www.nysna.org/practice/scope/primer.htm

(2001). The BRN Report, 14(1). California Board of Nursing.
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Lesson Plan Appropriate for the

Words: 740 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 286328

Give at least 3 examples of workers who are at risk of exposure to bloodborne pathogens.

2. List the three ways exposure to bloodborne pathogens commonly occurs.

3. Describe at least 5 key aspects of a Bloodborne Pathogen Exposure Control

Plan

4. Explain how properly used PPE and appropriate housekeeping methods protect against exposure to bloodborne pathogens.

5. List three important steps to take if exposed to a bloodborne pathogen

These are all very specific and measurable goals, which according to Bradshaw and Lowenstein is a vital part of a good lesson plan. The authors of the lesson plan could have stated much vaguer goals, such "the student will become more familiear with exposure to bloodborne pathogens." However, vague objectives like that cannot be accurately measured. So it is good that this lesson plan states exactly what the student should be able to learn.

What is expected of the learner?…… [Read More]

References

Bradshaw, M.J. & Lowenstein, a.J. (2007) Innovative teaching strategies in nursing & related health professions. 4th ed. Jones & Bartlett Publishers
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Fiscal Impact of the Maryland Budgetary Crisis

Words: 5056 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79562335

Maryland Prison System

Crime is expensive. But so too is punishment. The state of Maryland, like the majority of states across the nation at the moment, is facing a period of slow economic growth and shrinking economic resources even as it continues to have to meet the needs of its citizens. This paper examines the effect on the state's overall budget of the cost of incarcerating prisoners.

The treatment of prisoners causes few legal problems for the government of a dictatorship. A government that refuses to acknowledge the human rights of even its law-abiding citizens is not likely to show too many qualms about shoving its criminals into overcrowded and unsafe prisons - or even to worry about whether the niceties of due process were considered in getting the person to prison to begin with. But the rule of constitutional law changes all that. Because we live in a country…… [Read More]

References

Feely, M. And Edward, R. (1998). Judicial policy making and the modern state: How courts reformed. Cambridge: Cambridge University.

Hafetz, J. (1995). Tough justice. New York Empire State Report. http://216.239.57.104/search?q=cache:5haT4coRUqgJ:www.mdgreens.org/montgomery/pdf/schoolsnotprisons.pdf+maryland+state+budget+prison&hl=en&ie=UTF-8

 http://biotech.law.lsu.edu/cases/prisons/Estelle_v_Gamble.htm 

http://www.caps.ucsf.edu/inmaterev.html
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HIV AIDS on American Society What

Words: 3463 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33384543

HIV / AIDS on American Society

hat is HIV and where did it come from? The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (a primary source) explains that HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus, and once a person acquires this virus, "…you have it for life" (CDC). There is no effective cure, that is the bad news; but the better news according to the CDC is that HIV "…can be controlled" because there is a treatment called antiretroviral therapy (ART) (CDC). In fact while just a few years ago a person with HIV could expect to have full-blown AIDS within a few years, but with the ART treatment, many HIV sufferers can expect to have "…a nearly normal life…" (CDC).

The source of HIV is believed to be chimpanzees in est Africa, and how this came about related to the fact that Africans hunted the chimpanzees for food and at…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Administration on Aging. (2011). Older Adults and HIV / AIDS. Retrieved August 26, 2013, from  http://www.aoa.gov .

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010). What is HIV? Retrieved August 26, 2013,

From http://www.ced.gov/hiv/basics/whatishiv.html.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011). What Persons Aged 50 and Older Can Do.
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Tattoo and Body Piercing Shops

Words: 808 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4063187

Regulating Tattoo and ody Piercing Shops

In the United States, only 11 states have regulations and laws governing tattoo and body piercing licenses and training, while South Carolina and Oklahoma have banned tattooing in their states. Regulations help promote professionalism, and discourage "scratchers." This is important when considering disease transmission - HIV and Hepatitis in particular (Westbrook, 2003). States that have regulations promote not only professionalism but can guarantee to consumers that when they go into a tattoo or body piercing parlor that they are going to receive professional, and safe service. They can be assured that if buildings are not safe, clean and have adequate lighting that they are supported by their state and that particular parlor would be shut down.

More importantly they will know that a licensed tattoo artist has gone through proper training and an apprenticeship and all equipment and procedures in tattooing and body piercing…… [Read More]

Bibliography

DeLio M. The Darkside of Tattooing www.faqs.org/faqs/bodyart/tattoo-faq/part8/section-11.html

Investigates some of the harmful cases of tattooing, including sex-crimes and body disfigurement. Regulation and proper licensing measures would allow for law enforcement to be able to take action against these crimes as well as lower their occurrence.

Westbrook, B.U.S. Laws Regulating Tattooing www.faqs.org/faqs/bodyart/tattoo-faq/part8/section-12.html

Article outlines the states that have laws regulating tattooing and tattoo licensing, as well as laws in Florida that make it a unique state. The 11 states that have regulations on tattoo parlors have guidelines that would be beneficial to the other states to incorporate in their laws. They are simple and pretty much common sense that will supplement my argument.
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Analyzing Ethical Dilemma AIDS and Needles Case

Words: 3082 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95716426

Ethical Dilemma: AIDS and Needles Case

Ethical dilemmas, also considered as moral dilemmas, are circumstances that require a decision to be made between two choices, a moral and an immoral act. According to ethical dilemmas' assumption, the chooser will follow the societal norms i.e. the procedures of law or religious teachings, while making his choice that is ethically impossible (Your Dictionary 1996-2016). Employees have to choose between the company's success, as they have strong pressures to perform and their personal attractions for an easy way out. Thus, as employees face many dilemmas throughout their career, the company should arrange for their training and should assist them in taking the right decision. (Mann n.d.) People can take ethical decisions only when they recognize an issue or situation as ethical, therefore developing this ethical issue awareness should be the first step in the direction of business ethics. (Ferrell, Fraedrich & Ferrell 2011,…… [Read More]

Reference List

Ferrell, OC, Fraedrich J & Ferrell, L 2011, Business Ethics: Ethical Decision Making and Cases, 9th edn, Cengage Learning, p. 6.

Holzhey, H & Mudroch, V 2005, The A to Z of Kant and Kantianism. Scarecrow Press, Inc., United Kingdom, p. 180.

Mann, T (Demand Media) n.d., What Causes an Ethical Dilemma in Conducting Business?, Small Business, viewed 23 May 2016,

Roemer, JE 1996, Theories of Distributive Justice, Harvard University Press, United States of America, p. 5.
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International Relations and Biology

Words: 7088 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58334919

Scientific and Political Aspects

of Genetically Modified Foods

While there is little controversy over many aspects of biotechnology and its application, genetically modified (GM) foods have become the target of intense controversy. This controversy in the marketplace has resulted in a firestorm of public debate, scientific discussion, and media coverage. The countries most affected by this debate are Middle Eastern and third world countries, who stand to reap the benefits of solving widespread starvation, and countries such as the United States, as strong suppliers of genetically modified foods. The world's population is predicted to double in the next 50 years and ensuring an adequate food supply for this booming population is already a challenge. Scientists hope to meet that challenge through the production of genetically modified food plants that can help in warding off starvation as the world's population grows.

Although "biotechnology" and "genetic modification" commonly are used interchangeably, GM…… [Read More]

Bibliography

"A Rice Dilemma." Social Issues Research Center. 2002. Social Issues Research. 13 Dec. 2004



Bredahl, Lone. "Attitudes and Decision Making With Regard to Genetically Engineered Food

Products -- A Review of Literature and a Prescription of Models for Future Research." Journal
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How Medical Care Decisions Are Made

Words: 1072 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32642911

medical care sector, the decisions of what services should be produced, how they should be produced, how they should be distributed, and how to allow for growth and innovation must be made.

What combination of non-medical and medical goods and services should be produced in the macro-economy? In terms of guns or butter, the optimal balance of the production of non-medical and medical goods and services in the macro-economy would also include adequate provisions for defense. In sum, to the extent that this combination favored non-medical and medical goods and services in the macro-economy would be the extent to which defense spending would be diminished in the production-possibility frontier (Bandyopadhyay & Sandler, 2014).

What particular medical goods and services should be produced in the health economy? There is a growing recognition that preventive health care services are far more cost effective than reactive approaches that only intervene when people develop…… [Read More]

References

Bandyopadhyay, S. & Sandler, T. (2014). The effects of terrorism on trade: A factor supply approach. Review - Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, 96(3), 229-233.

Brown, C.E. & Ecoff, L. (2011, Winter). A systematic approach to the inclusion of evidence in healthcare design. Health Environments Research & Design Journal, 4(2), 7-10.

Chronology of events. (2015). National Institutes of Health. Retrieved from http://www.nih. gov/about/almanac/historical/chronology_of_events.htm.

Heller, B.R. & Nichols, M.A. (2001, March/April). Workforce development in nursing: Priming the pipeline. Nursing and Health Care Perspectives, 22(2), 70-73.
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Pattern of Heroine Use

Words: 2415 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38208844

Heroin

Drug addiction has been the scourge of our times. Heroin and cocaine especially are the leading cause of imprisonment in the civilized world. (Johnson, 1973) The anti-drug lobbies aver with statistics that show that marijuana users often fall prey to more potent narcotics -- especially those that are seeking that perennial "high."

This essay will present a comprehensive picture of the factors -- physical, pharmacological, societal and epidemiological -- that surround heroin in Australia. (Hirst, 1979)

Heroin (Hulburd, 1952). Pharmacologically, heroin belongs to a class of drugs called depressants. This is because heroin use slows down the brain and central nervous system.

Heroin usually comes in powder form. In its pure form, heroin is white. ut depending on how it is "cut" or diluted, it can have different colors. In some third world countries, users are familiar with "brown sugar" (severely cut heroin, occasionally even with rat poison). (Charles,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ashbrook, D.L., & Solley, L.C. (1979). Women and heroin abuse: a survey of sexism in drug abuse administration. Palo Alto, Calif.: R & E. Research Associates.

Bucknall, A.B.V., & Robertson, J.R. (1986). Deaths of heroin users in a general practice. Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners, 36, 120-122.

Burgess, M. (1998). Smack (1st American ed.). New York: Holt.

Charles, M., Nair, K.S., Britto, G., & National Addiction Research Centre (Bombay India). (1999). Drug culture in India: a street ethnographic study of heroin addiction in Bombay. Jaipur: Rawat Publications.
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Genetically Modified Crops Foods and Hormones

Words: 1866 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2795548

This is only in the case whereby protein introduced possesses allergenic properties and is introduced to the edible part of the particular plant. Due to the difficulty of predicting allergens, there should be careful selection in gene donors so as to avoid widespread consequences.

Bacteria in the digestive tracts can pick up antibiotic resistant genes present in genetically modified foods and it may bring about an increase in the problem of bacteria adapting to antibiotics. It is believed that the dispersal of pollen and seeds from genetically modified crops to other crops and the surrounding environment might result in genetic and biological pollution bringing about a new breed of genetically engineered organisms which will lead to unknown problems. This pollution will eventually spread to the soil and eventually make every plant genetically modified.

Conclusion

Genetically modified foods are seen as a means of solving the problem of food security and…… [Read More]

References

GM foods. (2002). Retrieved on April 9, 2010 from http://www.princeton.edu/~chm333/2002/spring/GMFoods/impactshumanco sumptionpros.html

Halford, N.G., & Shewry, P.R. (2000). Genetically modified crops: methodology, benefits, regulation and public concerns. Retrieved on April 11, 2010, from  http://bmb.oxfordjournals.org 

Jefferson, V. (2006). The Ethical Dilemma of Genetically Modified Food.

Retrieved on April 10, 2010, from  http://www.thefreelibrary.com/The+ethical+dilemma+of+genetically+modified+food-a0148957139
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Purnell Model the Book the

Words: 2241 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79212776

A dominant healthcare practice for many Mexican-Americans is the hot and cold theory of food selection, where illness or trauma may require adjustments in the hot and cold balance of foods to restore body equilibrium. In lower socioeconomic groups is a wide-scale deficiency of vitamin a and iron, as well as lactose intolerance.

Mexican-American birth rates are 3.45 per household compared to 2.6 per household among other minority groups (Chapa & Valencia, 1993 as cited in Purnell & Paulanka, 1998). Multiple births are common, particularly in the economically disadvantaged groups. Men see a larger number of children as evidence of their virility. If a woman does not conceive by the age of 24, it may be considered too late. Given their predominant Catholic beliefs, the tendency is only to use acceptable forms of birth control, although many will use other unacceptable forms. Abortion is morally wrong. Family planning is an…… [Read More]

References Cited:

Lopez, P. (2003) Mexican-American Health Issues for the 21st Century. Californian Journal of National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (2000) Health Disparities: Bridging the Gap. Washington: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Purnell, L, & Paulanka, B. (1998). Transcultural Healthcare. Philadelphia: Davis Company.

Purnell, L. & Paulanka, B. (1998a) Purnell Model for Cultural Competence. in

Nava, G. (director) Quintanilla, a. (executive producer) (1997) Selena. Q Productions.
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Patients With Relevant Information Required

Words: 6307 Length: 23 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62180402

Merrill, in the UK. Following his experience with heart surgery using innovating surgical techniques, the physician noted the problems he experienced in understanding all of his alternatives compared to a simpler earlier procedure, and finally trusted to the advice of his cardiologist to surgically intervene. In response to the experience, Dr. Merrill emphasized that, "As a physician talking to colleagues, I had the best information possible under the circumstances. But it wasn't the same as my hernia repair. The experience brought home to me the realization that the progress of medicine has made informed consent impossible -- even for me" (Merrill 1999: 190).

ationale of Study

Taken together, the foregoing issues indicate that there is an ongoing need for an assessment of knowledge levels of informed consent among perioperative nurses and operating department practitioners. Perioperative nurses and operating department practitioners, though, are frequently subjected to an enormous amount of stress…… [Read More]

References

Calloway, S.J. (2009) 'The Effect of Culture on Beliefs Related to Autonomy and Informed

Consent.' Journal of Cultural Diversity 16(2): 68-69.

Cobb, W.G. (2005) 'Defending the Informed Consent Case.' Defense Counsel Journal 72(4):

330-331.
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People Fear DNA Because Criminals

Words: 2851 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35999004

This can contribute directly to human health and development (Agio). orlaug (1999), who won the Nobel Prize in 1970 for his work in developing high-yield wheat and other grains in third-world countries, stresses that genetic engineering is essential due to the worldwide population growth. Other organizations supporting genetically modified foods are the American Medical Association, the International Association of African Scientists, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, and the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.

Of course, there are always two sides to every coin, and individuals such as Ronnie Cummins, national director of the ioDemocracy Campaign, a grassroots organization that promotes organic food and opposes genetic engineering in agriculture, states that genetically modified foods can result in production of items that are toxic, carcinogenic, and allergenic. She warns that widespread planting of GM crops could cause unexpected harm to the environment; as crops are engineered to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

AgBio World, Scientists in support of agricultural biotechnology. February 27, 2008  http://www.agbioworld.org/declaration/index.html 

BioDemocracy. Hazards of genetically engineered food and crops. Ronnie Cummins. http://www.organicconsumers.org/ge-free.cfm

N. Borlaug, (1999) Biotech can feed eight billion in the next century. New perspectives quarterly 25(1): 129-132

D.A. Christopher. (2000). The Gene genie's progeny. In the World & I. Washington, DC: Washington Times Corporation.
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Acupuncture Is an Ancient Practice of the

Words: 2903 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9218894

Acupuncture is an ancient practice of the East with a long history, which has been incorporated into modern Western use, and has been met with mixed reviews by the public and scientific communities.

The History of Acupuncture

The Origins of Acupuncture

Early tools and methods

Early texts

Evolution of Acupuncture

Moxabustion

F. Development of schools and comprehensive Texts

Eastern Medicine Meets the Modern West

Medical Missionaries to China

Adoption of Western Practice

The Decline of Acupuncture

Communist Support for Acupuncture

Regrowth and new methods

Acupuncture in Use Today

FDA Approved Needles

Growing Popularity

Universities and Physicians

New variations on Acupuncture

E. Why Western Medicine Fails

Arguments Against Acupuncture

A. The skeptics

. Risks

C. How to avoid Risks

Scientific Proof and Conclusion

A. Studies have varying conclusions

. Remains widely used by prestigious medical institutions and private practitioners

C. Acupuncture makes people feel better, therefore it works

Acupuncture

Although there…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Carroll, Robert Todd. "Acupuncture." The Skeptic's Dictionary. 2003.  http://www.skepdic.com/acupunc.html 

Dold, Catherine. "Needles & Nerves - Evidence of the Effectiveness of Acupuncture." Discover. September 1998.

Ellis, Andrew, Wiseman, Nigel, and Boss, Ken. Fundamentals of Chinese Acupuncture. Boston: Paradigm Publications, 1991.

Findlay, Steven; Podlosky, Doug; and Silberner, Joanne. "Acupuncture." U.S. News & World Report. 23 September 1991.
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Nursing Rules and Regulations

Words: 1258 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73250059

Read the following scenario and then answer the questions that follow

You are on your hospital's Peer Review Committee (PRC). You are reviewing Nurse A's practice. She works on the pediatric unit. In the past, Nurse A has practiced safely without incidents. However, four months ago, Nurse A gave immunizations to five pediatric patients (3 months, 9 months, 2 years, 4 years, and 5 years of age). She used a vial of Hepatitis B vaccine that had been expired for 30 days but still was being stored in the unit refrigerator. She gave the five immunizations within a few minutes of each other, and she got the vial from the refrigerator only once (i.e., She did not take it out and replace it five times). She took responsibility for the errors when she was informed by her unit manager.

Should Nurse A be reported to the BON?

Apply the Minor…… [Read More]

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What defines minor incident in Texas

Words: 1063 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56155528

Hospital: Peer Review

Applying Rule 217.16 Minor Incidents

Read the following scenario and then answer the questions that follow

You are on your hospital's Peer Review Committee (PRC). You are reviewing Nurse A's practice. She works on the pediatric unit. In the past, Nurse A has practiced safely without incidents. However, four months ago, Nurse A gave immunizations to five pediatric patients (3 months, 9 months, 2 years, 4 years, and 5 years of age). She used a vial of Hepatitis B vaccine that had been expired for 30 days but still was being stored in the unit refrigerator. She gave the five immunizations within a few minutes of each other, and she got the vial from the refrigerator only once (i.e., She did not take it out and replace it five times). She took responsibility for the errors when she was informed by her unit manager.

Should Nurse A…… [Read More]

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Healthcare Issue in Culturally Diverse Situation

Words: 2191 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90191911

Healthcare Case Study Schuylkill County, PA

County Overview - Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania is located in the heart of the anthracite Coal region of Pennsylvania where the Schuylkill iver originates. Pottsville is the county seat, and the county showed a population of just under 150,000 as of 2010 with a density of 190 persons per square mile. The total area of the county is 782 square miles, almost all land, less than 1/2 a per cent water. The county's history, likely due to large coal deposits, focused on the railroad and industrialization (Schuylkill Chamber of Commerce, 2011).

The county experienced the high point of its population during the 1920s and 1930s, and has been losing people ever since, most between 1950 and 1970, with about a 1-2% population loss since the turn of the century. This is likely due to the lack of appropriate jobs and opportunities within the county. Schuylkill…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

County Health Statistics - Healthcare 2010. (2009, March). Retrieved from Pennsylvania Department of Health: http://www.portal.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt-in_hi_groupoperator_1=or&in_hi_req_objtype=18&in_hi_req_objtype=17&in_hi_req_objtype=512&in_hi_req_objtype=514&in_hi_req_objtype=43&in_hi_req_objtype=1&in_hi_req_apps=7&in_hi_req_page=10&in_ra_topoperator=or&

Comprehensive Plan. (2010, March). Retrieved from City of Pottsville, PA:  http://www.city.pottsville.pa.us/html/cp1.htm 

Election Statistics. (2010, June). Retrieved from Pennsylvania Department of State: http://www.dos.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/community/running_for_office/12704

Schuylkill County. (2010, June). Retrieved from Sperling's Best Places USA:  http://www.bestplaces.net/economy/county/pennsylvania/schuylkill
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Clinical Risk Management Hospitals Are One of

Words: 1817 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67417286

Clinical isk Management

Hospitals are one of the top listed high-risk places of work. Just like any high-risk workplaces, Clinical isk Management (CM) procedures are formulated to enable hospitals in identifying, containing, as well as manage work related risks such as injuries, which are bound within the facilities. Implementation of element contained in risk management procedures in any hospital setting should be effected in order to ensure for the safety of both patients and workers accommodated in the facility.

isk Management

isk management is highly prioritized in most high-risk organizations. Technological advances have been realized in modern medicine progressively resulting to more complex care and treatment processes. Despite the positive result of leveraging care opportunities, such advancements may result in adversities that might in turn affect patients and staff working in hospital environments. Since it is far from possible to eradicate such risks completely, clinical risk management procedures are there…… [Read More]

References

Elizabeth, A. H and Betty, J.H. (1976). The American Journal of Nursing, Vol. 76, No. 6, pp. 924 -- 927: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins Publishers.

Stanbury, M. S and Anderson, H.A. (2000). Guidelines; Minimum and Comprehensive State-Based Activities in Occupational Safety and Health: DHHS (NIOSH) publication No. 95 -- 107.

Stanbury, M.J. And Goldoft, M. Use of OSHA Inspection Data for Fatal Occupational Injury Surveillance in New Jersey. Am J. Public Health 1990; 80: 200-202.

Tepper, A. (2000). Surveillance of Occupational Illnesses, Injuries, and Hazards in New Jersey. NJDOH.
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American Policing as One Would Expect the

Words: 1722 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39335274

American Policing

As one would expect, the police are aggressive, noticeable and thespian. It is easy for them to happen to be the objects and representatives of order, jeopardy, and inscrutability. They not only mark the boundaries of an urbane organization and regulation but also are the boundary markers themselves. They have vast authority over the legal resources including lethal and nonlethal weapons, specialized vehicles, adequate personnel etc. (Manning, 2008). In American society, the most significant revolution taking place in policing today is possibly associated with information technology. A majority of the police agencies are using the Internet to transmit information to the public. They are also making use of cell phones to be in touch with others while in the field. Moreover, mobile computers are also being used in order to retrieve information straight away. Nevertheless, it is crystal clear that this is just the beginning. The information technology…… [Read More]

References

Grant, H.B., & Terry, K.J. (2008). Law Enforcement in the 21st Century. (2 ed.). Allyn & Bacon. Print.

Johns, C. (n.d.). Police Use of Less-Than-Lethal Weapons. Retrieved May 24, 2012 from  http://www.cjjohns.com/lawpowerandjustice/commentaries/llethal.html 

Johnson, C.P. (2000). Crime Mapping and Analysis Using GIS. Retrieved May 23, 2012 from http://www.cdac.in/html/pdf/geom4.pdf

Manning, P.K. (2008). The Technology of Policing: Crime Mapping, Information Technology, and the Rationality of Crime Control. New York: New York University Press. Retrieved May 23, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=118077707
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Occupational Health Safety Risks and Hazards Identified in a Student Workplace in UK

Words: 8588 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57045885

NEBOSH Unit D

According to the Health and Safety Executive (HSE), the cost of workplace injuries and disease is in excess of $20 billion dollars per year. Obviously, these figures are alarming and would suggest that Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) should be a top priority for management. However, a survey from 2011 revealed that many companies have no written OHS policy and nearly half have no formalized occupational health and safety program. A relatively high number of risks and hazards exist in the workplace, particularly within the retail industry. These include gas, fire and electrical dangers, personal security and violence, biological hazards, dangers from improper equipment handling, and exposure to hazardous substances.

Organisations can avoid falling into the trap of mere reactive approaches to OHS through proper education and personal responsibility. Employers have a responsibility to provide a safe and healthy workplace, properly train workers, comply with legal requirements…… [Read More]

Reference

HSE. Workplace health, safety and welfare. HSE Books, ISBN 978 0 7176 6277 7. Available online:  http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/indg244.pdf  .
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Opium in China With That

Words: 3088 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84650441

mericas Coalition Puts Marijuana Legalization Up for Discussion. Retrieved from the New York Times: http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/18/world/americas/nations-in-americas-urged-to-consider-legalizing-pot.html?_r=0

Bakalar, N. (2006). Marijuana as Medicine: Consider the Pros and Cons,. The Mayo Clinic .

Lawrence Genen, M.M. (2012). Cannabis Compound buse. Medscape Reference .

National Instritute of Health. (2012, December). DrugFacts: Marijuana. Retrieved from National Institute on Drug buse: http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/marijuana

Considering the magnitude of the worldwide illicit drug trade and its impact on the United States, take a position on merican enforcement policy in the world. nalyze the impact that merican drug enforcement has had on the international drug trade. Has it been effective?

bstract

The countries in which drug plants such as poppy (for opium and heroin) and cannabis (for marijuana), such drugs are smuggled into them. International drug trafficking is a billion-dollar business that grows each year.

Review

Drugs trafficked on an international scale include heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine etc. It has been…… [Read More]

Abuse, N.I. (2009, September). DrugFacts: Treatment Approaches for Drug Addiction. Retrieved from National Institute on Drug Abuse: http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/treatment-approaches-drug-addiction ic, T.M. (2011, August 23). Intervention: Help a loved one overcome addiction. Retrieved from the Mayo Clinic: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/intervention/MH00127/METHOD=print

Preidt, R. (2013, May 16). Adult Children of Substance Abusers More Prone to Depression. Retrieved from Mediline Plus- U.S. National Library for Medicine: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_136922.html

Services, U.D. (n.d.). Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. Retrieved from SAMHSA:  http://store.samhsa.gov/shin/content/SMA07-4292/SMA07-4292.pdf