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The doctor said that I'm pretty healthy now, although I was bedridden for about two weeks during which time I changed my diet substantially to eat more fruits and vegetables and less red meat per the advice of the physician. I have also substantially increased my fluids intake -- I now drink eight glasses of water a day. The physician told me that for someone with my degree of health, the main thing is to attempt to prevent any further inflammations or flare up of this virus. He said that as long as I continue to maintain my health, the only things we have to do is carefully monitor my liver, primarily with blood tests, and to stay cognizant of any other potential hazardous effects to related bodily functions (Dugdale, 2010). That way I can avoid anything drastic, such as the need for a liver transplant.
Although the acute stage…
Dugdale, D.C. (2010). "Hepatitis B" PubMed Health. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001324/
World Health Organization. (2012). "Hepatitis B" Global Response Alert. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/csr/disease/hepatitis/whocdscsrlyo20022/en/index1.html#who
(Kanwal et al.) However, it has been found that in many cases alternative strategies to medication are often more effective. The following are a list of commonly prescribed drugs as approved by the FDA and their wholesale prices as of 2005.
Lamivudine (100 mg) - monthly cost $204- annual cost $2,482
Adefovir (10 mg) - monthly cost $546 - annual cost $6,647
Entecavir (0.5 mg) - monthly cost $715 - annual cost $8,694
Peginterferon alfa-2a (180 mcg) - monthly cost -$1,540 - annual cost $18,480
Emtricitabine (200 mg) - monthly cost $318 - annual cost $3,872
Tenofovir (300 mg) - monthly cost $478 - annual cost $5,811
( Hepatitis B Foundation, B Informed Newsletter, No. 46, Summer 2006)
Approved Drugs for Adults. July 17, 2009.
Kanwal et al. Treatment Alternatives for Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection: A Cost-
Effectiveness Analysis. Annals of Internal Medicine. Vol. 142, 10. July 17,…
Approved Drugs for Adults. July 17, 2009.
Kanwal et al. Treatment Alternatives for Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection: A Cost-
Effectiveness Analysis. Annals of Internal Medicine. Vol. 142, 10. July 17, 2009.
The Causative Agent
Hepatitis is a viral infection of the liver. The primary microbe responsible for the manifestation of the disease is the Hepatitis B virus (HBV), which is a member of the hepadnavirus family. Other members of the hepadnavirus family affect both birds and small mammals including squirrels and woodchucks, but humans are the only known mammals to be susceptible to Hepatitis B in particular (Hepatitis B; McLachlan, 1991). Hepadnaviruses are double-stranded and double-shelled DNA. The Hepatitis B virus itself is only 42-nm with an electron-dense core of 27 nm (Zuckerman, 1996). It has a small genome but also has many antigenic compounds including HBsAg, HBcAg, and HBeAg. It is therefore highly resilient and can remain without a host for up to one week (Hepatitis B). Moreover, the hepatitis B virus replicates with reverse transcription, which is unusual (Zuckerman 1996).
Demographics, Morbidity and Mortality
About 2 billion…
Blumberg, BS. 2002. The hunt for a killer virus. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Hepatitis B In: Green Book Chapter 18, v. 2. Available online: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/263311/Green_Book_Chapter_18_v2_0.pdf
Hepatitis B In: Pink Book. CDC. Available online: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/pinkbook/downloads/hepb.pdf
McLachlan, A. 1991. Molecular biology of the hepatitis virus. CRC Press.
7. The limitations of the study are minimal, including only the fact that the study demonstrates only minimal literature review and would be strengthened by such review, specific to Uganda and not only inclusive of the whole of the region or the whole of Africa. This may be in part due the severely limited set of research information from which to pull from, but if so this is not explained in the work but must then be assumed by the reader.
8. This work is generalizable but it could be challenging to develop the behavior review aspect of the study among different populations due to compliance and privacy issues. Yet, with the assurance of anonymity the study could be repeated and would be helpful elsewhere, where HBV is endemic. The research study might also be better served if it is conducted among other medical and medical support professionals in the…
Pido, Bongomin & Kagimu, Magid Prevelence of Hepatitus B virus (HBV) Infection Among Makerere University Medical Students. African Health Sciences, 5(2) June 2005, 93-98.
There are a couple of different concerns for public health pertaining to Hepatitis B. Probably the most salient of these relates to the fact that this condition can be transferred amongst people via unprotected sexual activity. In this respect, this condition is just one of the many that people can incur through unsafe sex. Additionally, public health concerns related to Hepatitis B revolve around the fact that contact with an infected person's blood can infect others. Thus, health care practitioners must be extremely careful when treating people with this condition. Finally, sharing items for personal hygiene and needles is a point of concern for patients with Hepatits B, because such sharing is another way in which this disease is transferable.
The chain of this infection can be interrupted in a couple of different ways. Perhaps one of the most important of these is to treat this condition and…
Hepmag. (2010). Hepatitis B: the basics. www.hepmag.com Retrieved from http://www.hepmag.com/articles/2511_18747.shtml
Ma, G., Gao, W., Tan, Y., Chae, W., Rhee, J. (2012). A community-based participatory approach to a hepatitis B intervention for Korean-Americans. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov / Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22643783
World Health Organization. (2015). WHO issues its first hepatitis B treatment guidelines. www.who.int / Retrieved from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2015/hepatitis-b-guideline/en/
This implies a crisis for the Asian community in proportion to the AIDS epidemic. The medical community erroneously has been the typical Caucasian model for the diagnosis and treatment which entails that Asians are the same make up as Caucasians. The hepatitis B virus has been rampant in Asia and a large percentage of mothers pass it on to their children during birth. Although the virus infects males and females equally, it usually kills Asian males more often through the inherent cancer or liver disease. Asian children grow up healthy because the dormant virus hides in the liver and unleashes its destructive power during young adulthood. Therefore, Asian men in their 20's or 30's are at a high risk for liver cancer. Unfortunately, being born in the United States as opposed to Asia has not made a difference in the Asian population.
The serological results presented help to provide insights…
Epidemiological Aspects of Hepatitis B in Community-Based Health
Educating About Hepatitis B
Overview of Hepatitis B Epidemiology
Hepatitis B is caused by infection with the Hepatitis B virus (HBV) ("CDC," 2012). The highest concentrations of HBV are found in blood, while other body fluid, such as semen, vaginal secretions, and wound exudates, show lower concentrations ("CDC," 2012). HBV infection can be either chronic or self-limited ("CDC," 2012). The incubation period can range from 6 weeks to 6 months from the time of initial exposure to the onset of symptoms ("CDC," 2012).
oughly half of newly acquired HBV infections in adults are symptomatic. Acute liver failure and eventual death occurs in 1% of all reported cases ("CDC," 2012). The age of infection shows an inverse relationship to chronic infection. Accordingly, 2 to 6% of adults suffer from chronic infection, while 30% of children five years and under and 90% of infants…
epidemiology nursing research a communicable disease. Communicable isease Selection Choose communicable disease list: 1. Chickenpox 2. Tuberculosis 3. Influenza 4.
Communicable diseases according to (Copstead & Banasik, 2010) is a condition or infection that is transmissible through coming into contact with an infected person. Contact with the infected person comprises of contact with an infected person bodily fluids (blood, saliva, or mucus), droplets, and/or air or food (Copstead & Banasik, 2010). Coming into contact in any of the above ways contributes to individual's illness. The pathogens transmitted through the body fluids and air encroaches upon the body compromising the normal functioning of body cells. This compromise may have differing impacts upon an individual's health ranging from a terminal illness to death.
Hepatitis BCommunicable isease: Hepatitis B
Communicable diseases are diseases that can be transmitted via contact, droplet, air/food borne, blood, bodily fluids or congenital infection and cause individuals to become…
Approximately 60,000 people die every year from HBV (WHO, 2013). There are about 200 billion people living around the world with HBV with an estimated 1.2 million living in the United States (CDC, 2013). In 2011, the United States was estimated to have 18,800 actual new cases of the HBV (CDC, 2013). Those who are at greatest risk for developing HBV are Asian and Pacific Islanders, African-Americans, gay and bisexual individuals, those who have multiple sex partners and do not practice safe sex or are intravenous drug users. Gay and bisexual men make up 20% of new HBV cases and 50% Asian and Pacific Islanders are living with HBV (CDC, 2013). Most Asian and Pacific Islanders were infected with HBV as infants or children and 1 in 12 are living with it and are not even aware.
According to 2013 World Health Organization's publication, approximately sixty thousand people die every year due to HBV infections. In the globe, an estimate of about two billion persons are infected with 1.2 million of this [persons living in the United States (World Health Organization, 2013). Individual at the greatest risk of acquiring HBV infections include; African-Americans, Asian, Pacific Islanders, bisexual and gay individuals. Additional to the persons
The surgeon had admitted to applying hemostatic material to sternal incisions without the use of sponges, which is not recommended due to the possibility of glove tears and percutaneous contact. Therefore, there is atleast some evidence for 'inadequate infection control'. However, it must be added that the rare percutaneous exposure does not account for the high rate of infection as identified in this study.
Since it is well-known that H infections tend to be asymptomatic in almost 70% of the cases, it increases the risk factor of the physician transmitting the virus unknowingly.  Health care workers (HCW) who perform invasive procedures are obligated to know their serological status for HIV, H and other chronic infectious conditions. Medical practice of HeAg-positive health care worker should be carefully monitored and restricted as the health Canada panel recommended recently.  latant or negligent violations in this respect, on the part of the…
1) Gerlich WH, 'Hepatitis B and C. Risk of transmission from infected health care workers to patients' Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz., 2004 Apr;47(4):369-78
2) Rafael Harpaz MD & Lorenz Von Seidlein et.al, 'TRANSMISSION OF
HEPATITIS B VIRUS TO MULTIPLE PATIENTS FROM A SURGEON
WITHOUT EVIDENCE OF INADEQUATE INFECTION CONTROL',
Hepatitis B screening for health care workers in primary health care
The cause for Hepatitis B is a DNA virus and the complete virus has the name 'Dane particle'. The virus contains three major antigens in structure: The surface antigen, the core antigen and e antigen. Hepatitis B is more prevalent among certain population groups and this group contains the health care workers also. (Hepatitis B Seronegative Commonalties in Health Care Workers. Seronegative Commonalties). The susceptibility for health care workers exists for a variety of infections due to the nature of their work. All workers for health care like physicians, nurses, emergency medical personnel, dental professionals and students, medical and nursing students, laboratory technicians, hospital volunteers and even administrative staff are at risk due to their regular contact with patients and their infected material. These diseases are preventable with suitable vaccines. It is thus very important to maintain immunity for…
Duties of Care" (1998) Retrieved at http://www.safetyline.wa.gov.au/institute/level2/course20/lecture81/l81_07.asp (Accessed: 2004, 16 August)
General Health Encyclopedia: Hepatitis B" Retrieved at http://www.healthcentral.com/mhc/top/000279.cfm (Accessed: 2004, 16 August)
Hepatitis B" Retrieved at http://cancer-symptoms.org/hepatitis-b.htm (Accessed: 2004, 16 August)
Hepatitis B" Retrieved at http://www.cpmc.org/advanced/liver/patients/topics/hepb.html (Accessed: 2004, 16 August)
infection prevention and control theory, critically discuss the challenges of managing Hepatitis in the community
One of the key public health issues that impacts innumerable individuals worldwide is viral hepatitis. This virus leads to substantial human mortality and morbidity from severe infection as well as chronic sequelae (including cirrhosis and chronic active hepatitis (with regard to hepatitis , C & D). One among the ten commonest cancers that emerges across the globe -- hepatocellular carcinoma -- has been found to be linked closely to hepatitis as well as, in some areas across the globe, to hepatitis C (Zuckerman., 2003).
HV or Hepatitis virus which belongs to the hepadna virus cluster is a double-stranded DNA virus that, atypically, gets reproduced via reverse transcription. HV is endemic among humans and even hyper-endemic in several areas across the globe. Researchers have delineated various variants of the HV virus. Natural infections by the hepadna…
Beltrami, E., Williams, I., Shapiro, C., & Chamberland, M. (2000). Risk and Management of Blood-Borne Infections in Health Care Workers. Clin Microbiol Rev., 385 -- 407.
Baumert TF, Blum HE. (2000). Hepatitis B virus mutations: molecular biology and clinical relevance. Vir Hep Rev.6:177 -- 192
Baumert TF, Barth H, Blum HE. (2005) Genetic variants of hepatitis B virus and their clinical relevance. Minerva Gastroenteroldietol. 51:95 -- 108.
Baumert TF, Rogers SA, Hasegawa K, Liang TJ. (1996). Two core promotor mutations identified in a hepatitis B virus strain associated with fulminant hepatitis result in enhanced viral replication. J Clin Invest. 98:2268 -- 2276.
Bastani, R., Glenn, B. A. et al. (2014, May 1). Developing theoretically based and culturally appropriate interventions to promote hepatitis B testing in 4 Asian-American populations, 2006-2011, Preventing Chronic Disease, 11. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5888 / pcd11.130245.
Identify the health behavior theory used in this article
According to Maxwell et al. (2014), this study used a health behavior framework that was a synthesis of several major theories concerning health behavior.
Identify the level of intervention targeted by the intervention (individual, interpersonal, community)
he intervention of this study was at the community level for selected Vietnamese, Cambodian and Hmong populations.
Identify the intervention strategy used in this article and provide your assessment of its appropriateness
o their credit, Maxwell and her associates (2014) used intervention strategies that were specifically designed to ensure maximum coverage of the targeted populations in an effort to promote hepatitis B testing in community settings rather than clinical settings…
The novel health behavior framework developed by Maxwell et al. (2014) was comprised of the constructs that were most relevant for hepatitis B testing that were identified through a systematic review of the literature. In this regard, Maxwell et al. (2014) report that, "We reviewed intervention programs that had been implemented successfully in the population in the past. These factors guided the overall intervention approach in each group (e.g., mass media, home visits by lay health workers)" (p. 2). Based on these findings, Maxwell and her associates (2014) incorporated feedback from community advisory boards to promote cultural appropriateness for their intervention.
5. Provide your assessment of why this theory would or would not be a good fit for the program you are proposing for your Health Promotion Program Proposal
The overarching factor that emerged from the Maxwell et al. (2014) study was that there is rarely a one-size-fits-all approach to developing the most efficacious interventions for different populations and a good fit for a specific program must be carefully created. The fact that these researchers invested significant amounts of time and effort in crafting the custom health behavior framework, including soliciting feedback from community advisory groups concerning the cultural appropriateness of their model indicates that this same approach would be useful for the envisioned health promotion program.
Vaccine # 1
Name of Vaccine
Type of vaccination
· The previous dose of the Rotavirus vaccine was suspected of having a life-threatening allergic reaction.
· Any component of the rotavirus vaccine was suspected of having a severe allergic effect.
· Rotavirus vaccine was suspected of having Severe immunodeficiency (SCID).
Anyone taking the Rotavirus vaccine should take several precautions, which include: pre-existing acute gastrointestinal conditions such as short gut syndrome or Hirschsprung’s disease and congenital malabsorption syndrome. Another precaution to take is
chronic gastroenteritis. (Salvadori & Saux, 2010).
Adverse Drug Reactions
Some of the reactions that might be triggered by the vaccine include swelling on both throat and face, increased heartbeat, drowsiness, and breathing complications (CDC, 2019).
Minimum Age to Receive Vaccine
All Rotavirus vaccine doses should be given to children between 15 weeks and 8 months. (CDC, 2019).
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Routine vaccine recommendations. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vpd/rotavirus/hcp/recommendations.html
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Special situations. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/
Mayo Clinic. (2020). Hepatitis B vaccine (Intramuscular route). Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/
Otsuka-Ono, H., Hori, N., Ohta, H., Uemura, Y., & Kamibeppu, K. (2019). A childhood immunization education program for parents delivered during late pregnancy and one-month postpartum: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Health Services Research, 19. Retrieved from https://bmchealthservres.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12913-019-4622-z
Rogers, K. (2019). Immunization noncompliance: Gauging the cause, effect, and management in the school setting. NASN School Nurse, 34(3). https://doi.org/10.1177/1942602X18799868
Salvadori, M., & Saux, N. (2010). Recommendations for the use of rotavirus vaccines in infants. Paediatr Child Health, 15(8), 519-523. DOI: 10.1093/pch/15.8.519.
Sjogren, E., Ask, L., Ortqvist, A., & Asp, M. (2017). Parental conceptions of the rotavirus vaccine during implementation in Stockholm: A phenomenographic study. Journal of Child Health Care, 21(4). https://doi.org/10.1177/1367493517734390
VAERS. (2020). Report an adverse event to VAERS. Retrieved from https://vaers.hhs.gov/
hepatitis of the liver and how they are transmitted to how we can find a remedy to slow down the deterioration process if not cure it completely.
Causes of hepatitis B
Transmission of hepatitis B
Tests for hepatitis B
isk Factors for HCV Infection
Consequences of HCV Infection
Hepatitis is the disease connected with the inflammation of the liver. This disease was not discovered too long ago, however doctors and researchers have been able to find out the causes of hepatitis. There are several causes such as, viral, parasitic, infiltrative, drug or alcohol induced, or non-specific. Before a person is even diagnosed with this disease some of the prominent indications of the acute phase can be ranging from a symptomatic, where we may not even be able to notice we have hepatitis to feeling extremely tired, jaundice- where our skin…
A Commitment to Global Health - Text version, available at:
http://www.niaid.nih.gov/director/usmed/1999/usmed99text.htm , accessed on:
February 9, 2004
BioE: News and Press Releases, available at: http://www.bioe.com/news.html, accessed on: February 9, 2004
Hepatitis C: New CDC Screening Recommendations
The objective of this study is to review the article written by Doug Campos-Outcalt entitled "Hepatitis C: New CDC Screening Recommendations" published in the Journal of Family Practice, Volume 61, Number 12 in December 2012.
Campos-Outcalt (2012) writes that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) released new recommendations for Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection screening including a one-time screening for all individuals in the United States that were born between the year of 1945 and 1965 "regardless of risk." The new recommendations are reported to be rather than a replacement to be instead an enhancement of "the recommendations for HCV screening" stated in 1998 calling for those who were considered high-risk to be screened.
HCV results in a high level of morbidity and mortality in the United States. There are reported to be 17,000 new infections to have occurred in 2010 with…
It is reported that the two groups at the highest risk for HCV are those who are users of illegal drugs, which they injected, and those who received blood transfusions prior to 1992 when HCV blood screening began. There are other risk factors, which include having been incarcerated, having sex with someone infected with HCV, and the acquisition of a tattoo at an establishment that was unregulated, among others risk factors for contracting HCV. According to Campos-Outcalt, sustained virological response following treatment was demonstrated in individuals exhibiting a "reduction in all-cause mortality >50% compared with nonresponders." (Campos-Outcalt, 2012) Individuals born between 1988 and 1994 are much more likely to have contracted HCV than those born between 1999 and 2002.
Observational Studies and Reported Outcomes
Twelve observational studies are reported that examined treatment effects on the incidence of HCC and are reported to have shown a "75% reduction in HCC rates in those who achieved viral clearance compared with those who did not." (Campos-Outcalt, 2012) Physicians are advised that if there is a positive on a confirmatory test that the patient should be assumed to have HCV infection. The patient must decide if treatment is to be initiated and must undergo additional assessment to check for chronic liver disease. Measures should be taken to protect their liver from receiving additional damage including alcohol consumption reduction, medication avoidance and use of herbal products that result in liver damage. Patients infected with HCV should focus on the maintenance of an optimal weight and should receive vaccines against hepatitis A and B. AS well, patients should be instructed on how to avoid spreading the HCV infection to other people. There is noted by Campos-Outcalt (2012) to be controversies on HCV screening in regards to improvements in outcomes. For this reason the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force is presently conducting a revisement of the HCV recommendations for screening.
Thus, a diagnosis of Hepatitis C might not warrant any treatment intervention other than close monitoring of liver function. hen the virus remains in the body, the disease progresses to its chronic phase. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "chronic HCV infection develops in 70% -- 85% of HCV-infected persons." Of chronically infected individuals, 60% -- 70% "have evidence of active liver disease," (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). About 17% of chronically infected individuals will develop cirrhosis and about 2% will develop liver cancer (United States Department of Veteran's Affairs).
Treating chronic Hepatitis C usually entails pharmaceutical intervention. A combination of two antiviral drugs, peginterferon and ribavirin, is currently the most effective treatment intervention. Other methods include administering long-acting (pegylated) interferon by itself; or administering a short-acting version of interferon with ribarvirin (United States Department of Veteran's Affairs). Using these two drugs, peginterferon and ribavirin, the…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Viral Hepatitis." Retrieved June 17, 2010 from http://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/
MayoClinic. "Hepatitis C" September 12, 2009. Retrieved June 17, 2010 from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/hepatitis-c/ds00097
MedLinePlus. "Hepatitis C" Retrieved June 17, 2010 from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/hepatitisc.html
National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NDDIC). "What I Need to Know about Hepatitis C" 2009. Retrieved June 17, 2010 from http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/hepc_ez/
embrel.com) it was deemed safe to use in patients who had Hepatitis C Lab tests were ordered and conducted on the 60-year-old patient's liver, and the results indicated normal enzyme production in the liver. In August 2004, the patient was started on Enbrel 50 MG twice a week, and some immediate improvement was noted; but after 18 weeks, the patient, who was inconsistent in making appointments, showed a worsened psoriasis condition. The dosage was cut to 50 MG once a week, and patient was urged to visit his liver doctor to have PCR for his Hepatitis C titers (concentration), to repeat CBC and Liver Function Test (LFT) titers (which was normal in Aug. 2002). A mild elevation of LFTs was discovered, so the patient was worked up further with ultrasound and a liver biopsy. The patient was then started in IFN treatment and Enbrel was discontinued. By June, 2006, the…
Enbrel. "Important Product Information: What do I need to know about Enbrel?" Retrieved 12 November, 2006, at http://www.enbrel.com/important-product-information.jsp .
The results revealed that this route did not lead to any needle stick injuries. The ESA worked as efficaciously as it would have if needles were used and this was proved by the maintenance of the hemoglobin levels. It was observed that 91% of the nursing staff was in favor of the needle free administration of ESA. This study therefore concluded that drugs with detached needles present further routes to prevent needle stick injuries in the future. (Chow et. al, 2009)
Seeing how needle stick injuries can lead to emotional, health related and financial dilemma, experts are working on ways to reduce their occurrence. The study by Chow et al. (2009) shows one way in which these incidences can be reduced. Molen et al. (2011) stated that education reduces the occurrence of needle stick injury. He conducted a study in which one group was educated in a workshop and given…
Adams, D. 2012 Needle stick and sharps injuries: implications for practice. Nursing Standard. 26 (37), pp. 49-57.
Aziz, A.M., Ashton, H., Pagett, A., Mathieson, K., Jones, S., and Mullin, B 2009 Sharps
management in hospital: an audit of equipment, practice and awareness. Br J. Nurs 18(2), pp. 92 -- 8
Blenkharn, J. 2009. Sharps management and the disposal of clincal waste. British Journal of Nursing, 18 (14).
Kumar, G.B.S., Ganapathi, TR. Bapat, V.A. Revathi, C.J. & K.S.N. Prasad. (2002). Expression
of Hepatitis B surface antigen in transgenic banana plants and NT- I cell line of tobacco. BARC. Retrieved from: http://barc.gov.in/publications/nl/2003/200310-12.pdf
ne of the most difficult and intractable health issues worldwide is that of Hepatitis B The disease is difficult to treat and potentially deadly. "There are about 350 million chronic carriers in the world and it is estimated that 75- 100 million of them will die of liver cirrhosis and/or hepatocellular carcinoma" (Kumar, Ganapathi, Bapat, Revathi, Prasad 2002:85). Although vaccinations do exist, the injectable form of the vaccine is expensive and has been difficult to distribute throughout the developing world where Hepatitis B is most prevalent. Injectable vaccines also require trained healthcare professionals to disseminate. There is also the risk of needle contamination in unsanitary conditions, again, making vaccines in the developing world potentially more dangerous. Cold…
One possible solution is the development of oral vaccines. This proved to be a great advantage in the treatment of polio. Unlike injectable vaccines, "they can activate the mucosal immune system against many pathogens by oral delivery" and also because they do not contain whole pathogens, there is no risk of actually transmitting the disease by accident through the vaccination process (Kumar et al. 2002: 86). Plant-based vaccines have proven to be particularly effective in the developing world through the use of transgenic banana plants. At present, the surface antigen of Hepatitis B (HBsAg) has been successfully found to be expressed in transgenic tobacco plants as well. "The HBsAg derived from transgenic tobacco plants is physically, biochemically and immunologically similar to yeast derived rHBsAg" but is cheaper to produce (Kumar et al. 2002: 87). Both transgenic tobacco and banana plants, it is hoped, hold the potential to develop an effective oral vaccine.
The series of experiments conducted by the study's authors to support their exploratory research to find plant-based vaccines were promising. For the transgenic tobacco plants, "Western analysis confirmed the presence of HBsAg specific band corresponding to yeast derived rHBsAg in pHBs100 and pHER100 transformed tobacco cells whereas in the control non-transformed cells the same was absent…the denatured HBsAg expressed in plant cells showed 4 kDa peptides similar to yeast derived rHBsAg" (Kumar et al. 2002: 91). This antigen is not naturally occurring in tobacco plants, it should be noted: transgenic manipulation would be required for the vaccine to be generated, thus there still would be considerable expense in generating the vaccine initially. The hope would be, however, that once it was developed, it would be useful in the context of the developing world to provide treatment.
The most desirable and promising potential vaccine source, however, would still be to derive the vaccine from a banana plant, given the proliferation of the fruit in the tropics and also its palatability. "Expression of HBsAg in bananas may be advantageous as they are grown in most of the tropical and subtropical countries, where cost effective vaccines are required and their digestibility and palatability by infants makes it an attractive choice" (Kumar et al. 2002: 93). It must be noted that the development of the vaccine in any plant form is still very much in its nascent stages. At present, the closest to an oral vaccine that has been derived in a lab is an HBsAg prototype from a transgenic potato plant tested in mice. Still, the research indicates potentially promising developments in this area which should not be ignored.
Immunizing Your Baby, Protecting or Harming?
Positives for Vaccinations
Recommended and Minimum Ages for Early Childhood Vaccinations
Negatives for Vaccinations
Vaccines against diphtheria, polio, pertussis, measles, mumps and rubella, hepatitis B and chicken pox, have given humans powerful immune guards to ward off unwelcome disease and sickness. Because of this the CDC works closely with public health agencies and private partners in order to improve and sustain immunization coverage and to monitor the safety of vaccines so that public health can be maintained and expanded in the future. Despite the good that vaccines appear to do there is a debate stirring in regards to the safety of vaccines and whether or not they are link to disorders such as autism. There are some studies that appear to link childhood vaccinations to autism but the evidence is very weak at best. But because of these types of studies…
Carolyn Drews-Botsch, et al. "Timeliness of Childhood Immunizations: A State-
Analysis." American Journal Of Public Health 95.8 (2005): 1367-1374. Business
In some countries, bed numbers began to drop before the introduction of the drugs. In others, bed numbers actually increased despite this introduction. The drugs also have been used on a variety of populations that were not deemed to be mentally ill (such as people with learning difficulties and older people). The drugs were only relevant in giving psychiatric staff more confidence in dealing with community-based patients; they do not explain the policy of deinstitutionalization. At the end of the twentieth century deinstitutionalization has become a dominant mental health policy goal in most Western democracies (Sax, 1984).
However, this formal goal has become clouded by evidence that the gradual reduction of large institutions has been replaced by a scattering of smaller ones 'in the community' (Roe, 1976). Also, most countries still have legal statutes to coercively remove madness from community set- tings. The extent of this continued coercive control…
Gale, F. 2007 A changing Aboriginal population. In F. Gale and G. Lawton (eds), Settlement and Encounter: Geographical studies presented to Sir Grenfell Price, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, 65-88.
Smith, L. 2006 The Aboriginal Population, The Australian National University Press, Canberra.
CDHHS 2004, The National Aboriginal Health Strategy: an evaluation, Commonwealth Department of Health and Human Services, Canberra.
Roe, M 1976, 'The establishment of the Australian Department of Health: its background and significance', Australian Historical Studies 17(67):176-92.
Mary Jane's laboratory results show there is an elevated white blood count, with CBC with differential within normal limits. Proton and INR were normal. Pregnancy was negative. UA showed occasional bacteria, but normal otherwise. Drug screen was normal, and EKG showed sinus bradycardia, rate of 59 beats per minute. Renal and hepatic functions were within normal limits.
There are four sexual response cycles, marked by physiological and psychological changes. The first stages is excitement, which Mary Jane is not getting with her partners, which is triggered by psychological or physical stimulation, and is marked by emotional changes, and increased heart rate, and vaginal swelling. Second stage is plateau, Mary Jane states she doesn't have this stimulation. The third stage is orgasm, which Mary Jane doesn't getting during intercourse, or she doesn't remember because she in under the influence of alcohol. The final phase, resolution, involves a rush of blood away…
Moreover, recent legislation such as the Affordable Care Act is expected to create an even greater need for nurses who can take on more advanced responsibilities. As one nurse stated on National Public adio: "…with the passage of the Affordable Care Act, which was passed in March, we're going to see 32 million new patients accessing the health care delivery system which previously weren't accessing this system. And currently, we don't have the capacity to provide high-quality, patient-centered care for this new expanded population" (NP, 2010)
Careers in nursing have become vast and varied, particularly for the highly educated, and pay for many of these careers is above $60,000 annually. While a nurse with a BSN who becomes an N can still advance in her career, enter management, or become a nursing professor, an MSN is necessary for nurses to enter one of the more prestigious and specialized subfields (Sacks,…
AACN. (2010, 10). The Impact of Education on Nursing Practice. Retrieved 02-14, 2011, from AACN: http://www.aacn.nche.edu/media/factsheets/impactednp.htm
Allen, J. (1988). Health Care Workers and the Risk of HIV Transmission. The Hastings Center Report, 18 (2), 2+.
NPR. (2010). Talk of the Nation: Role of Nurses in Primary Care May Expand. Retrieved 02-14, 2011, from NPR: http://www.npr.org/2010/11/16/131361359/role-of-nurses-in-primary-care-may-expand
OSHA. (2011). Bloodborne Pathogens and Needlestick Prevention. Retrieved 02-14, 2011, from OSHA.gov: http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/bloodbornepathogens/index.html
Therefore, Hexsel's study will not be included in this analysis for failure to meet the study protocol.
Another human study involved a case study of a single patient. This Brazilian study represented a case study and does not meet the protocol for inclusion in this analysis either (Rittes, 2001). As there have been no human studies in the United States to date, we must rely on studies published in other countries for our meta-analysis. A study conducted in Vienna by Karl Heinrich will be used as one of the studies to be analyzed. This was the only study that could be located involving an actual population of human subjects, as this type of research is prohibited in the U.S. At this time.
The sample population used by Heinrich consisted of 86 individuals who received a standardized series of treatments. This study suffered from significant flaws that make the results questionable.…
Atoba MA, Ayoola EA, Ogunseyinde O. Effects of essential phospholipid choline on the course of acute hepatitis-B infection. Trop Gastroenterol. 1985; 6:96-9.
Bechara FG, Sand M, Altmeyer P. et al. Intralesional lipolysis with phosphatidylcholine for the treatment of lipomas: pilot study. Arch Dermatol. 2006 Aug;142(8):1069-70. Retrieved March 24, 2007 at http://www.hubmed.org/display.cgi?uids=16924064 .
Hanin I, Ansell GB, eds. Lecithin. Technological, Biological and Therapeutic Aspects. New York and London: Plenum Press; 1987.
Doris Hexsel "
Abnormal Uterine Bleeding and Issues
Reproductive Tract Diseases for human females are typically focused in the upper reproductive tract or the lower reproductive tract. The upper tract includes the fallopian tubes, ovary and uterus, while the lower reproductive tract focuses on the vagina, cervix and vulva. There are three major types of infections: endogenous, iatrogenic and sexually transmitted diseases. Endogenous diseases arise from internal cellular structures and may be bacterial, viral or genetic, usually the most common and arise from an overgrowth of organisms that are already present in the vagina; iatrogenic diseases are the result of medical or surgical treatment, and sexually transmitted diseases occur between humans as a result of sexual behavior. In addition to infections, there are congenital abnormalities, cancers and functional problems. Each infection has its own specific cause and symptoms; caused by bacteria, virus, fungi or other organisms. Indeed, some are easily treatable and cured,…
Azim, P., et al. (2011). Evaluation of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding. Isra Medical Journal, 3(3). Retrieved November 2013, from http://22.214.171.124/Isra%20Medical%20Journal%20Volume-III%20Issue-III.pdf#page=6
Davidson, B., et al. (2012). Abnormal Uterine Bleeding During the Reproductive Years. Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health, 57(3), 248-54.
Fraser, I., et al. (2011). The FIGO Recommendations on Terminologies and Definitions for Normal and Abnormal Uterine Bleeding. Seminars in Reproductive Medicine, 29(5), 383-90.
Gray, S. (2013). Menstural Disorders. Pediatrics in Review, 34(1), 6-18.
Genetically Modified Foods: ational for Topic Selection
Genetically modified foods are frequently in the mainstream media, making them a highly relevant topic of discussion in the areas of genetic science and gene technologies. As with most technologies and techniques related to genetic science, genetically modified foods are controversial and thus politically charged issues. It is important to be armed with facts before forming an opinion about whether or not genetically modified foods are acceptable, feasible, or ethical.
Genetically modified foods refers to organic foodstuffs -- plants and animals -- "whose genetic material (DNA) has been modified in a way that does not occur naturally," (World Health Organization, 2013). However, genetically modified organisms (GMOs) can also include medicines and vaccines (United States Department of Energy: Office of Science, 2013). The primary process used to modify the genes of organisms is called recombitant DNA technology; as the term suggests, recombitant…
Damery, P., D'Adamo, N., Graham, M., Hoffman, M. & Riedl, J. (n.d.). The debate on labeling genetically modified food. Retrieved online: http://www.public.iastate.edu/~ethics/LabelGMFood.pdf
"Genetically modified crops gaining ground in China: Report," (2013). The Times of India. 7 March, 2013. Retrieved online: http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/home/environment/developmental-issues/Genetically-modified-crops-gaining-ground-in-China-Report/articleshow/18847379.cms
Hiatt, S. & Park, S. (2012). Influence and regulatory approval of genetically modified organisms. Academy of Management Journal. Nov 26, 2012.
United States Department of Energy: Office of Science (2013). Human genome project. Retrieved online: http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/gmfood.shtml
Common risk factors for chronic liver problems include: intravenous drug use, overdosing on acetaminophen, engaging in risky sexual behaviors like having multiple sexual partners and unprotected intercourse, eating contaminated foods, traveling to an area where certain diseases are common, living in a nursing home or rehabilitation center, having a family member who recently had hepatitis a, using or abusing alcohol, being an organ transplant recipient, having HIV or AIDS, having received a blood transfusion before 1990, being a newborn of a mother with hepatitis B or C, being a health care worker, including dentist and dental hygienist, because of blood contact and receiving a tattoo (Hepatitis Health Article, 2010).
Eighty percent of those people who have Hepatitis C go on to develop chronic liver disease, liver failure or liver cancer. Hepatitis C is the number one reason that people received liver transplants in the United States. Permanent liver damage, liver…
"Hepatitis Health Article." 2010. Healthline. Web. 24 May 2010.
Many of the electric gadgets we use today like the cell phones and the home computers were invented in the 80s. Many multinational corporations came into existence in the 80s this spur the growth to a record 3.2% per year (Bellis, 2012). This was the highest nine-year rate in American history. This was occasioned by a number of factors some of which were economic, financial, legislative, and regulatory frameworks. This unprecedented growth led to failure of a number of banking institutions. From these failures, a term "corporate greed" was coined. This essay seeks to enumerate how technology advanced in the 80s (Coppens, 2012).
In 1980, Hepatitis B Vaccine was invented by Baruch Blumberg. This research physician discovered an antigen that provoked antibody response against Hepatitis B Other took queue from this discovery to develop a vaccine against this viral hepatitis. Baruch together with Irving Millman invented a vaccine…
Bellis, M. (2012). The 80s -- the technology, science, and innovations. Retrieved October 3, 2012 from http://inventors.about.com/od/timelines/a/modern_4.htm
Coppens, T. (2012). Major Inventions Timelines: 20th Century. Retrieved October 3, 2012 from http://teresacoppens.hubpages.com/hub/Major-Inventions-Timeline-20th-and-21st -
Kotelinkova, S. (2012). History of Genetic Engineering. Retrieved October 3, 2012 from http://sgugenetics.pbworks.com/w/page/47775520/The%20History%20of%20Genetic%2
This is particularly the case in sub-Saharan Africa where clinicians have often come to rely on signs and symptoms alone to make diagnoses." (Nicoll, Walraven, Kigadye, Klokke, 1995)
The laboratory environment is critical to administering testing to determine population rates of HIV / AIDS throughout nations and perhaps continents where the lacking of resources facilitates a substandard environment for care. In the case of the African nation of Mozambique, which perhaps can be understood as a case indicative of the environmental assessment one would find throughout Africa and therefore, can be labelled to be a median statistical nation. A nation representing the median would indicate that half of the population nations that are categorized as resourced deficient, half would be above Mozambique in terms of resource allocation and half would fall below.
esearch into the quality of HIV / AIDS case-detection and case-reporting system in Mozambique was conducted by (Chilundo,…
Chappuis, F., Loutan, L., Simarro, P., Lejon, V., and Buscher, P. Options for Field Diagnosis of Human African Trypanosomiasis. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, January 2005, p. 133-146, Vol. 18, No.1
Chilundo, B., Sundeep S., Sundby J. The Quality of HIV / AIDS case-detection and case reporting systems in Mozambique. African Journal of AIDS Research 2004, 145-155. Copyright NISC Pty Ltd.
Clark. Blood Safety PPT. CDC, WHO
Loefler, I. Surgical wound infection in the Third World: the African experience. Journal of Medical Microbiology. Volume 47, 471-473. 1998. The Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland
Management of Occupational Exposures to Bloodborne Pathogens:
Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus, and Human Immunodeficiency Virus
his paper is written specifically for health care professionals who may, at some point during the course of their workday, be exposed to certain bloodborne pathogens, potentially resulting in serious illness. herefore, it is important that these professionals create and maintain a plan to address key issues that may arise during the testing and care of potentially infected patients. By writing this article, the authors hope to establish a standard procedure for dealing with occupational exposure to the pathogens for healthcare workers while also reviewing much of the current information available.
he authors note that there have been many studied performed over the years that deal with exposure to bloodborne pathogens, but this article attempts to combine them into one coherent plan for all healthcare workers to follow. hey reference several studies that…
The authors do not present many controversial findings in this article, but the demand for zidovudine is growing as an immediate treatment after exposure. The authors find no evidence to support its efficacy and, therefore, do not condone its use. They also question the efficacy of using other antibodies in the wake of exposure since there is little evidence suggesting they have any effect at all. The authors have clearly been working with bloodborne pathogens for some time and have grown concerned about the exposure rate of many professional healthcare workers. They view the immediate influence of counseling as essential in helping a worker to overcome the emotional aspect of exposure and believe that every precaution must be taken to avoid such risks. While most people would readily agree with this position on the risks associated with treating infected patients, some would argue that these risks should not supersede the patient's privacy, a contention that the authors seem to find ineffectual. For them, the risks facing healthcare workers are far more important than any privacy issues that may present themselves.
Gerberding, Julie L. And David K. Henderson. "Management of Occupational Exposures to Bloodborne Pathogens: Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus, and Human Immuno-
Deficiency Virus." Clinical Infectious Diseases 14.6 (1992): 1179-1185. Print.
Edit Research Premarital Screening
Evaluating Premarital Screening Knowledge in Saudi Students
The purpose of this research was to investigate the impact of premarital screening (PMS) in Saudi Arabia. The use of PMS as a means to identify and approach both and infectious and hereditary disease was investigated in order to determine the impact of this practical approach.
A cross-sectional study was conducted at Jazan University from January to June 2014 to perform this research. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 1000 Jazan University Students, both males and females. The questionnaire consisted of 3 main parts. The first part was based on socio-demographic data, the second part dealt with the students' knowledge about the premarital screening program while the third part explored their attitudes towards the screening program.
The vast majority of the participants (922; 94%) believed that a PMS program was a preventive measure. More than two thirds of…
As to catheter straps, if fastened too tightly they can act as tourniquets, cutting off the needed flow of blood and presenting. And at least theoretically, use of straps brings about a risk of increasing the complications such as "…deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism" in those patients with "impaired lower extremity circulation" (Billington 504). Research presented in this article shows that the problem of infection due to poorly attached catheters can be reduced significantly through the use of a product called "Bard StatLock" -- which, the authors insist, is an effective stabilization device because it allows movement (through a swivel clip), because it is a "sterile latex-free, tug-resistant product" (Billington 504). An article in the journal RN, incidentally, states that treating "hemodialysis catheter-related bacteremia" can cost a hospital up to $45,000.
ashing "Bloody Hands": An article in the Australian Nursing Journal asserts, "…hand hygiene is the single most effective…
Aziz, a.M., Ashton, H., Pagett, a., Mathieson, K., Jones, S., & Mullin, B. (2009).
Sharps management in hospital: an audit of equipment, practice and awareness.
British Journal of Nursing, 18(2), 92-98.
Billington, a., Crane, C., Jownally, S., Kirkwood, L., & Roodhouse, a. (2008).
Emergency Action Plan
As a strict requirement of OSHA, the clinical laboratory science department must comply to this standard that is used in describing all the appropriate actions that must be taken by the facility in order to ensure that there is proper safety in case of any accidents such as fire outbreak.
As a strict requirement of OSHA, the facility must ensure that there is a proper Fire Prevention Plan that is necessary to avert any kind of loss of either life or property.
Medical and First Aid
All the employees who work in this department must have the necessary component of both medical and first-aid providers. This is in order to ensure that any emergency situation that arises can be met with the appropriate solution.
Personal Protective Equipment
Due to the high risk of infection that is associated with the samples in the laboratory, it is…
AIUM, (2009).Standards and Guidelines for the Accreditation of Ultrasound Practices
ARDMS (2010) Introducing...MY ARDMS
Chronic Liver Disease
With a number of functions -- including detoxification, protein synthesis, and the production of chemicals that are necessary for digestion -- the human liver is vital.
It is reddish brown and has four unequal sized lobes; usually weighs about 3.5 pounds and is the largest gland in the human body. It is located just below the diaphragm in the body's right upper abdominal quadrant.
The liver plays a major role in the body's metabolic processes as well -- glycogen storage, decomposition of red blood cells, some hormone production.
The liver produces bile -- which is an alkaline compound that helps in digestion by changing fat (lipid) molecules to a more digestible format.
The liver's detoxification and synthesis of micronutrients are vital -- short-term liver dialysis is possible, but a person cannot exist without a functioning liver (Virtual Liver, 2008).
Cirrhosis of the Liver
Cirrhosis is the result…
Nutrition and Cirrhosis. (2010). HepCNet. Retrieved from:
Greenlee, H., et.al. (2007). "Clinical Applications of Silybum Marianum." Integrative
Cancer Therapies. 6(1): 158-65.
Huseini, H., et.al. (2006). "The Effects of Sulybum Marianum in the Treatment of Type II Diabetes." Phytotherapeutic Research. 20(1): 1036-39.
Based on etiologic differences, male-to-female ratio is 1.5-3:1. Primary biliary cirrhosis accounting for only 1.5% of deaths from cirrhosis is mostly found in females and ethanol-related cirrhosis is greatly found in males. Age-specific death rates in the United States tend to be greatest in the older age groups, topping at 49 per 100,000 males aged from 65-74 years and at 26.7 per 100,000 women of the age group from 75-84 years. (Cirrhosis: (www.emedicine.com)
Diagnosis and Imaging Modalities:
Ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and angiography are suggested as imaging modalities for the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis. In cases of patients doubtful for diffuse liver disease, ultrasound of the liver is being used as a screening-imaging tool and it is useful in for follow-up examinations. In order to make the presence of liver disease to be clear, computed tomography is usually carried out and it is detected by ultrasound. Against this…
Cirrhosis. Retrieved October 7, 2005, from the World Wide Web http://www.gutdoc.org/Cirrohis.htm
Cirrhosis. Retrieved October 7, 2005, from the World Wide Web http://www.healthcentral.com/ency/408/000255.html
Cirrhosis Treatment. Retrieved October 7, 2005, from the World Wide Web http://health.allrefer.com/health/cirrhosis-treatment.html
Digestive System Organs. Retrieved October 7, 2005, from the World Wide Web http://www.healthcentral.com/ency/408/ImagePages/8710.html
This allows the client to place their level of behavior on the continuum and assess the levels of risk associated with their behaviors. The continuum also allows the client to assess the ways in which their behaviors over time, by examining the ways in which their behaviors are now different to past behaviors. This may allow clients to recognize that they have already made some progress toward less harmful behaviors, or may allow them to identify specific events which led to developing more risky behaviors. The harm reduction model allows the client to assess their current situation and plan the actions which they wish to take to change their future behaviors.
Applications of the model
The harm reduction model has been applied predominantly to drug misuse issues, however it is also appropriate to apply the model for a wide range of social and health behavior changes. The model has been…
Amato, L., Davoli, M.A., Perucci, C., Ferri, M., Faggiano, F.P. And Mattick, R. (2005) an overview of systematic reviews of the effectiveness of opiate maintenance therapies: Available evidence to inform clinical practice and research. Journal Substitutes Abuse Treatment, 28, 321-329.
Bluthenthal, R.N., Kral, a.H., Erringer, E.A. And Edlin, B.R. (1998) Use of an illegal syringe exchange and injection-related risk behaviors among street-recruited injection drug users in Oakland, California, 1992 to 1995. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Human Retrovirology, 18, 505-511.
Bradley-Springer, L. (1996) Patient education for behavior change: Help from the transtheoretical and harm reduction models. JANAC, 7(1), 23-33.
Des Jarlais, D.C. (1995) Harm reduction: A framework for incorporating science into drug policy. American Journal of Public Health, 85, 10-12.
Give at least 3 examples of workers who are at risk of exposure to bloodborne pathogens.
2. List the three ways exposure to bloodborne pathogens commonly occurs.
3. Describe at least 5 key aspects of a Bloodborne Pathogen Exposure Control
4. Explain how properly used PPE and appropriate housekeeping methods protect against exposure to bloodborne pathogens.
5. List three important steps to take if exposed to a bloodborne pathogen
These are all very specific and measurable goals, which according to Bradshaw and Lowenstein is a vital part of a good lesson plan. The authors of the lesson plan could have stated much vaguer goals, such "the student will become more familiear with exposure to bloodborne pathogens." However, vague objectives like that cannot be accurately measured. So it is good that this lesson plan states exactly what the student should be able to learn.
What is expected of the learner?…
Bradshaw, M.J. & Lowenstein, a.J. (2007) Innovative teaching strategies in nursing & related health professions. 4th ed. Jones & Bartlett Publishers
Maryland Prison System
Crime is expensive. But so too is punishment. The state of Maryland, like the majority of states across the nation at the moment, is facing a period of slow economic growth and shrinking economic resources even as it continues to have to meet the needs of its citizens. This paper examines the effect on the state's overall budget of the cost of incarcerating prisoners.
The treatment of prisoners causes few legal problems for the government of a dictatorship. A government that refuses to acknowledge the human rights of even its law-abiding citizens is not likely to show too many qualms about shoving its criminals into overcrowded and unsafe prisons - or even to worry about whether the niceties of due process were considered in getting the person to prison to begin with. But the rule of constitutional law changes all that. Because we live in a country…
Feely, M. And Edward, R. (1998). Judicial policy making and the modern state: How courts reformed. Cambridge: Cambridge University.
Hafetz, J. (1995). Tough justice. New York Empire State Report. http://126.96.36.199/search?q=cache:5haT4coRUqgJ:www.mdgreens.org/montgomery/pdf/schoolsnotprisons.pdf+maryland+state+budget+prison&hl=en&ie=UTF-8
Regulating Tattoo and ody Piercing Shops
In the United States, only 11 states have regulations and laws governing tattoo and body piercing licenses and training, while South Carolina and Oklahoma have banned tattooing in their states. Regulations help promote professionalism, and discourage "scratchers." This is important when considering disease transmission - HIV and Hepatitis in particular (Westbrook, 2003). States that have regulations promote not only professionalism but can guarantee to consumers that when they go into a tattoo or body piercing parlor that they are going to receive professional, and safe service. They can be assured that if buildings are not safe, clean and have adequate lighting that they are supported by their state and that particular parlor would be shut down.
More importantly they will know that a licensed tattoo artist has gone through proper training and an apprenticeship and all equipment and procedures in tattooing and body piercing…
DeLio M. The Darkside of Tattooing www.faqs.org/faqs/bodyart/tattoo-faq/part8/section-11.html
Investigates some of the harmful cases of tattooing, including sex-crimes and body disfigurement. Regulation and proper licensing measures would allow for law enforcement to be able to take action against these crimes as well as lower their occurrence.
Westbrook, B.U.S. Laws Regulating Tattooing www.faqs.org/faqs/bodyart/tattoo-faq/part8/section-12.html
Article outlines the states that have laws regulating tattooing and tattoo licensing, as well as laws in Florida that make it a unique state. The 11 states that have regulations on tattoo parlors have guidelines that would be beneficial to the other states to incorporate in their laws. They are simple and pretty much common sense that will supplement my argument.
Ethical Dilemma: AIDS and Needles Case
Ethical dilemmas, also considered as moral dilemmas, are circumstances that require a decision to be made between two choices, a moral and an immoral act. According to ethical dilemmas' assumption, the chooser will follow the societal norms i.e. the procedures of law or religious teachings, while making his choice that is ethically impossible (Your Dictionary 1996-2016). Employees have to choose between the company's success, as they have strong pressures to perform and their personal attractions for an easy way out. Thus, as employees face many dilemmas throughout their career, the company should arrange for their training and should assist them in taking the right decision. (Mann n.d.) People can take ethical decisions only when they recognize an issue or situation as ethical, therefore developing this ethical issue awareness should be the first step in the direction of business ethics. (Ferrell, Fraedrich & Ferrell 2011,…
Ferrell, OC, Fraedrich J & Ferrell, L 2011, Business Ethics: Ethical Decision Making and Cases, 9th edn, Cengage Learning, p. 6.
Holzhey, H & Mudroch, V 2005, The A to Z of Kant and Kantianism. Scarecrow Press, Inc., United Kingdom, p. 180.
Mann, T (Demand Media) n.d., What Causes an Ethical Dilemma in Conducting Business?, Small Business, viewed 23 May 2016,
Roemer, JE 1996, Theories of Distributive Justice, Harvard University Press, United States of America, p. 5.
Scientific and Political Aspects
of Genetically Modified Foods
While there is little controversy over many aspects of biotechnology and its application, genetically modified (GM) foods have become the target of intense controversy. This controversy in the marketplace has resulted in a firestorm of public debate, scientific discussion, and media coverage. The countries most affected by this debate are Middle Eastern and third world countries, who stand to reap the benefits of solving widespread starvation, and countries such as the United States, as strong suppliers of genetically modified foods. The world's population is predicted to double in the next 50 years and ensuring an adequate food supply for this booming population is already a challenge. Scientists hope to meet that challenge through the production of genetically modified food plants that can help in warding off starvation as the world's population grows.
Although "biotechnology" and "genetic modification" commonly are used interchangeably, GM…
"A Rice Dilemma." Social Issues Research Center. 2002. Social Issues Research. 13 Dec. 2004
Bredahl, Lone. "Attitudes and Decision Making With Regard to Genetically Engineered Food
Products -- A Review of Literature and a Prescription of Models for Future Research." Journal
Section 1 – Typical Case
Research the characteristics of a typical case associated with the pathogen you have chosen to analyze.
Coronaviruses represent a family of single-stranded, enveloped, positive-strand, Nidovirales RNA viruses. The family encompasses human pathogens and pathogens of several animal species, such as the latest-isolated SARS-CoV (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus) (Weiss & Navas-Martin, 2005). COVID-19 or coronavirus disease 2019 surfaced for the first time towards the end of 2019 and, ever since, has affected over two-hundred nations. In a matter of a mere five months, over 4,890,000 individuals worldwide were diagnosed with the illness. Over 100,000 individuals tested positive for the disease within a single day (Yang, Li, Sun, Zhao, & Tang, 2019).
The first patient to contract the disease was a Chinese man aged 31 years, hailing from Wuhan, hospitalized at the Parisian Bichat-Claude Bernard University Hospital while on holiday in Paris, France, with his wife.…
Asrani, P., Eapen, M., Chia, C., Haug, G., Weber, H., & Hassan, I. (2020). Diagnostic approaches in COVID-19: clinical updates. Taylor and Francis Online.
Clark, A., Jit, M., Warren-Gash, C., Guthrie, B., Wang, H., & Mercer, S. (2020). Global, regional, and national estimates of the population at increased risk of severe COVID-19 due to underlying health conditions in 2020: a modeling study. The Lancet, E1003-E1017.
ECDPC. (2020, August). Clinical characteristics of COVID-19. Retrieved from European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control: https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/covid-19/latest-evidence/clinical
Kumar, S., Nyodu, R., Maurya, V., & Saxena, S. (2020). Morphology, Genome Organization, Replication, and Pathogenesis of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). National Center for Biotechnology Information, 23-31.
Ouassou, H., Kharchoufa, L., Bouhrim, M., Daoudi, N., Imtara, H., Bencheikh, N., . . . Bnouham, M. (2020). The Pathogenesis of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Evaluation and Prevention. Journal of Immunology Research.
Rosenthal, M. (2020). Why Are Bats the Perfect Coronavirus Reservoir? Infectious Disease Special Edition.
Weiss, S., & Navas-Martin, S. (2005). Coronavirus Pathogenesis and the Emerging Pathogen Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews.
WHO. (2020). Coronavirus disease (COVID-19). World Health Organization.
Drug addiction has been the scourge of our times. Heroin and cocaine especially are the leading cause of imprisonment in the civilized world. (Johnson, 1973) The anti-drug lobbies aver with statistics that show that marijuana users often fall prey to more potent narcotics -- especially those that are seeking that perennial "high."
This essay will present a comprehensive picture of the factors -- physical, pharmacological, societal and epidemiological -- that surround heroin in Australia. (Hirst, 1979)
Heroin (Hulburd, 1952). Pharmacologically, heroin belongs to a class of drugs called depressants. This is because heroin use slows down the brain and central nervous system.
Heroin usually comes in powder form. In its pure form, heroin is white. ut depending on how it is "cut" or diluted, it can have different colors. In some third world countries, users are familiar with "brown sugar" (severely cut heroin, occasionally even with rat poison). (Charles,…
Ashbrook, D.L., & Solley, L.C. (1979). Women and heroin abuse: a survey of sexism in drug abuse administration. Palo Alto, Calif.: R & E. Research Associates.
Bucknall, A.B.V., & Robertson, J.R. (1986). Deaths of heroin users in a general practice. Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners, 36, 120-122.
Burgess, M. (1998). Smack (1st American ed.). New York: Holt.
Charles, M., Nair, K.S., Britto, G., & National Addiction Research Centre (Bombay India). (1999). Drug culture in India: a street ethnographic study of heroin addiction in Bombay. Jaipur: Rawat Publications.
This is only in the case whereby protein introduced possesses allergenic properties and is introduced to the edible part of the particular plant. Due to the difficulty of predicting allergens, there should be careful selection in gene donors so as to avoid widespread consequences.
Bacteria in the digestive tracts can pick up antibiotic resistant genes present in genetically modified foods and it may bring about an increase in the problem of bacteria adapting to antibiotics. It is believed that the dispersal of pollen and seeds from genetically modified crops to other crops and the surrounding environment might result in genetic and biological pollution bringing about a new breed of genetically engineered organisms which will lead to unknown problems. This pollution will eventually spread to the soil and eventually make every plant genetically modified.
Genetically modified foods are seen as a means of solving the problem of food security and…
GM foods. (2002). Retrieved on April 9, 2010 from http://www.princeton.edu/~chm333/2002/spring/GMFoods/impactshumanco sumptionpros.html
Halford, N.G., & Shewry, P.R. (2000). Genetically modified crops: methodology, benefits, regulation and public concerns. Retrieved on April 11, 2010, from http://bmb.oxfordjournals.org
Jefferson, V. (2006). The Ethical Dilemma of Genetically Modified Food.
Retrieved on April 10, 2010, from http://www.thefreelibrary.com/The+ethical+dilemma+of+genetically+modified+food-a0148957139
A dominant healthcare practice for many Mexican-Americans is the hot and cold theory of food selection, where illness or trauma may require adjustments in the hot and cold balance of foods to restore body equilibrium. In lower socioeconomic groups is a wide-scale deficiency of vitamin a and iron, as well as lactose intolerance.
Mexican-American birth rates are 3.45 per household compared to 2.6 per household among other minority groups (Chapa & Valencia, 1993 as cited in Purnell & Paulanka, 1998). Multiple births are common, particularly in the economically disadvantaged groups. Men see a larger number of children as evidence of their virility. If a woman does not conceive by the age of 24, it may be considered too late. Given their predominant Catholic beliefs, the tendency is only to use acceptable forms of birth control, although many will use other unacceptable forms. Abortion is morally wrong. Family planning is an…
Lopez, P. (2003) Mexican-American Health Issues for the 21st Century. Californian Journal of National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (2000) Health Disparities: Bridging the Gap. Washington: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Purnell, L, & Paulanka, B. (1998). Transcultural Healthcare. Philadelphia: Davis Company.
Purnell, L. & Paulanka, B. (1998a) Purnell Model for Cultural Competence. in
Nava, G. (director) Quintanilla, a. (executive producer) (1997) Selena. Q Productions.
Merrill, in the UK. Following his experience with heart surgery using innovating surgical techniques, the physician noted the problems he experienced in understanding all of his alternatives compared to a simpler earlier procedure, and finally trusted to the advice of his cardiologist to surgically intervene. In response to the experience, Dr. Merrill emphasized that, "As a physician talking to colleagues, I had the best information possible under the circumstances. But it wasn't the same as my hernia repair. The experience brought home to me the realization that the progress of medicine has made informed consent impossible -- even for me" (Merrill 1999: 190).
ationale of Study
Taken together, the foregoing issues indicate that there is an ongoing need for an assessment of knowledge levels of informed consent among perioperative nurses and operating department practitioners. Perioperative nurses and operating department practitioners, though, are frequently subjected to an enormous amount of stress…
Calloway, S.J. (2009) 'The Effect of Culture on Beliefs Related to Autonomy and Informed
Consent.' Journal of Cultural Diversity 16(2): 68-69.
Cobb, W.G. (2005) 'Defending the Informed Consent Case.' Defense Counsel Journal 72(4):
This can contribute directly to human health and development (Agio). orlaug (1999), who won the Nobel Prize in 1970 for his work in developing high-yield wheat and other grains in third-world countries, stresses that genetic engineering is essential due to the worldwide population growth. Other organizations supporting genetically modified foods are the American Medical Association, the International Association of African Scientists, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, and the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.
Of course, there are always two sides to every coin, and individuals such as Ronnie Cummins, national director of the ioDemocracy Campaign, a grassroots organization that promotes organic food and opposes genetic engineering in agriculture, states that genetically modified foods can result in production of items that are toxic, carcinogenic, and allergenic. She warns that widespread planting of GM crops could cause unexpected harm to the environment; as crops are engineered to…
AgBio World, Scientists in support of agricultural biotechnology. February 27, 2008 http://www.agbioworld.org/declaration/index.html
BioDemocracy. Hazards of genetically engineered food and crops. Ronnie Cummins. http://www.organicconsumers.org/ge-free.cfm
N. Borlaug, (1999) Biotech can feed eight billion in the next century. New perspectives quarterly 25(1): 129-132
D.A. Christopher. (2000). The Gene genie's progeny. In the World & I. Washington, DC: Washington Times Corporation.
Acupuncture is an ancient practice of the East with a long history, which has been incorporated into modern Western use, and has been met with mixed reviews by the public and scientific communities.
The History of Acupuncture
The Origins of Acupuncture
Early tools and methods
Evolution of Acupuncture
F. Development of schools and comprehensive Texts
Eastern Medicine Meets the Modern West
Medical Missionaries to China
Adoption of Western Practice
The Decline of Acupuncture
Communist Support for Acupuncture
Regrowth and new methods
Acupuncture in Use Today
FDA Approved Needles
Universities and Physicians
New variations on Acupuncture
E. Why Western Medicine Fails
Arguments Against Acupuncture
A. The skeptics
C. How to avoid Risks
Scientific Proof and Conclusion
A. Studies have varying conclusions
. Remains widely used by prestigious medical institutions and private practitioners
C. Acupuncture makes people feel better, therefore it works
Carroll, Robert Todd. "Acupuncture." The Skeptic's Dictionary. 2003. http://www.skepdic.com/acupunc.html
Dold, Catherine. "Needles & Nerves - Evidence of the Effectiveness of Acupuncture." Discover. September 1998.
Ellis, Andrew, Wiseman, Nigel, and Boss, Ken. Fundamentals of Chinese Acupuncture. Boston: Paradigm Publications, 1991.
Findlay, Steven; Podlosky, Doug; and Silberner, Joanne. "Acupuncture." U.S. News & World Report. 23 September 1991.
Read the following scenario and then answer the questions that follow
You are on your hospital's Peer Review Committee (PRC). You are reviewing Nurse A's practice. She works on the pediatric unit. In the past, Nurse A has practiced safely without incidents. However, four months ago, Nurse A gave immunizations to five pediatric patients (3 months, 9 months, 2 years, 4 years, and 5 years of age). She used a vial of Hepatitis B vaccine that had been expired for 30 days but still was being stored in the unit refrigerator. She gave the five immunizations within a few minutes of each other, and she got the vial from the refrigerator only once (i.e., She did not take it out and replace it five times). She took responsibility for the errors when she was informed by her unit manager.
Should Nurse A be reported to the BON?
Apply the Minor…
Hospital: Peer Review
Applying Rule 217.16 Minor Incidents
Read the following scenario and then answer the questions that follow
You are on your hospital's Peer Review Committee (PRC). You are reviewing Nurse A's practice. She works on the pediatric unit. In the past, Nurse A has practiced safely without incidents. However, four months ago, Nurse A gave immunizations to five pediatric patients (3 months, 9 months, 2 years, 4 years, and 5 years of age). She used a vial of Hepatitis B vaccine that had been expired for 30 days but still was being stored in the unit refrigerator. She gave the five immunizations within a few minutes of each other, and she got the vial from the refrigerator only once (i.e., She did not take it out and replace it five times). She took responsibility for the errors when she was informed by her unit manager.
Should Nurse A…
Healthcare Case Study Schuylkill County, PA
County Overview - Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania is located in the heart of the anthracite Coal region of Pennsylvania where the Schuylkill iver originates. Pottsville is the county seat, and the county showed a population of just under 150,000 as of 2010 with a density of 190 persons per square mile. The total area of the county is 782 square miles, almost all land, less than 1/2 a per cent water. The county's history, likely due to large coal deposits, focused on the railroad and industrialization (Schuylkill Chamber of Commerce, 2011).
The county experienced the high point of its population during the 1920s and 1930s, and has been losing people ever since, most between 1950 and 1970, with about a 1-2% population loss since the turn of the century. This is likely due to the lack of appropriate jobs and opportunities within the county. Schuylkill…
County Health Statistics - Healthcare 2010. (2009, March). Retrieved from Pennsylvania Department of Health: http://www.portal.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt-in_hi_groupoperator_1=or&in_hi_req_objtype=18&in_hi_req_objtype=17&in_hi_req_objtype=512&in_hi_req_objtype=514&in_hi_req_objtype=43&in_hi_req_objtype=1&in_hi_req_apps=7&in_hi_req_page=10&in_ra_topoperator=or&
Comprehensive Plan. (2010, March). Retrieved from City of Pottsville, PA: http://www.city.pottsville.pa.us/html/cp1.htm
Election Statistics. (2010, June). Retrieved from Pennsylvania Department of State: http://www.dos.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/community/running_for_office/12704
Schuylkill County. (2010, June). Retrieved from Sperling's Best Places USA: http://www.bestplaces.net/economy/county/pennsylvania/schuylkill
Clinical isk Management
Hospitals are one of the top listed high-risk places of work. Just like any high-risk workplaces, Clinical isk Management (CM) procedures are formulated to enable hospitals in identifying, containing, as well as manage work related risks such as injuries, which are bound within the facilities. Implementation of element contained in risk management procedures in any hospital setting should be effected in order to ensure for the safety of both patients and workers accommodated in the facility.
isk management is highly prioritized in most high-risk organizations. Technological advances have been realized in modern medicine progressively resulting to more complex care and treatment processes. Despite the positive result of leveraging care opportunities, such advancements may result in adversities that might in turn affect patients and staff working in hospital environments. Since it is far from possible to eradicate such risks completely, clinical risk management procedures are there…
Elizabeth, A. H and Betty, J.H. (1976). The American Journal of Nursing, Vol. 76, No. 6, pp. 924 -- 927: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins Publishers.
Stanbury, M. S and Anderson, H.A. (2000). Guidelines; Minimum and Comprehensive State-Based Activities in Occupational Safety and Health: DHHS (NIOSH) publication No. 95 -- 107.
Stanbury, M.J. And Goldoft, M. Use of OSHA Inspection Data for Fatal Occupational Injury Surveillance in New Jersey. Am J. Public Health 1990; 80: 200-202.
Tepper, A. (2000). Surveillance of Occupational Illnesses, Injuries, and Hazards in New Jersey. NJDOH.
As one would expect, the police are aggressive, noticeable and thespian. It is easy for them to happen to be the objects and representatives of order, jeopardy, and inscrutability. They not only mark the boundaries of an urbane organization and regulation but also are the boundary markers themselves. They have vast authority over the legal resources including lethal and nonlethal weapons, specialized vehicles, adequate personnel etc. (Manning, 2008). In American society, the most significant revolution taking place in policing today is possibly associated with information technology. A majority of the police agencies are using the Internet to transmit information to the public. They are also making use of cell phones to be in touch with others while in the field. Moreover, mobile computers are also being used in order to retrieve information straight away. Nevertheless, it is crystal clear that this is just the beginning. The information technology…
Grant, H.B., & Terry, K.J. (2008). Law Enforcement in the 21st Century. (2 ed.). Allyn & Bacon. Print.
Johns, C. (n.d.). Police Use of Less-Than-Lethal Weapons. Retrieved May 24, 2012 from http://www.cjjohns.com/lawpowerandjustice/commentaries/llethal.html
Johnson, C.P. (2000). Crime Mapping and Analysis Using GIS. Retrieved May 23, 2012 from http://www.cdac.in/html/pdf/geom4.pdf
Manning, P.K. (2008). The Technology of Policing: Crime Mapping, Information Technology, and the Rationality of Crime Control. New York: New York University Press. Retrieved May 23, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=118077707
Kaiser Permanente Quality Assurance Program
Facility description. Kaiser Permanente is a healthcare organization that had its origins in the pre-war industrial sector. The program offered health care for workers in the steel mills, the shipyards, and the construction companies in a nation just recovering from the depression and attempting to stand apart from the conflict and volatility evidenced across the globe.
A young surgeon, Sidney Garfield, borrowed money to build Contractors General Hospital with the idea of serving the thousands of contractors building the Los Angeles Aqueduct near Desert Center -- which was in the middle of the Mojave Desert. The 12-bed hospital found it difficult to get insurance companies to pay for the treatment of injured and ill contractors. Some of the workers did not have insurance, but Dr. Garfield treated them anyway and the hospital's debts piled up. With the help of man named Harold Hatch,…
Kaiser Permanente leads the nation in eight quality measures. (2009, October 8). Clinical Excellence, Kaiser Permanente. Retrieved http://xnet.kp.org/newscenter / clinicalexcellence/2009/100809qualitycompass.html
Quality Compass. (2009). National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA).
Thompson, R.G., and Moss, F.M. (2008). QIR and SQUIRE: continuum of reporting guidelines for scholarly reports in healthcare improvement, Quality Safety in Health Care, 17, i10-i12. Doi:10.1136/qshc.2008.029074. Retrieved http://qualitysafety.bmj.com/content/17/Suppl_1/i10.full
Laiteerapong, N., Keh, C.E., Naylor, K.B., Yang, V.L., Vinci, L.M., Ovler, J.L. And Arora, V.M. (2011). A resident-led quality improvement initiative to improve obesity screening, American Journal of Medicine Quality, 26 (4), 315-322. Doi: 10.1177/1062860610395930. Retrieved http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21447835
Public Health Planning
Community-Based Intervention Programs Improve Child Vaccination ates
Improvements in the rates of childhood vaccinations has, until recently, depended largely on remind/recall strategies employed by provider- and community-based programs (reviewed by Findley, Sanchez, Mejia, Ferreira, Pena, Matos, et al. 2009; Szilagyi, Schaffer, Shone, Barth, Huminston, Sandler et al. 2002). Unfortunately, such programs have failed to erase the racial and economic disparities that leave communities of color more vulnerable to preventable infectious diseases. In an effort to improve the rates of up-to-date child vaccinations in these communities, a group of researchers and clinicians designed and implemented a community program that added tracking and outreach activities to already established programs promoting child vaccination (Northern Manhattan Start ight Coalition; Findley, Irigoyen, Sanchez, Guzman, Mejia, Sajous, et al., 2004). When compared to national averages for all racial groups (74.8%) the improvements were significant, increasing from 65 to 88% for children…
Findley, Salley E., Irigoyen, Matilde, Sanchez, Martha, Guzman, Letty, Mejia, Miriam, Sajous, Michelle et al. (2004). Community empowerment to reduce childhood immunization disparities in New York City. Ethnicity and Disease, 14, S1-134 -- S1-141.
Findley, Sally E., Irigoyen, Matilde, Sanchez, Martha, Stockwell, Melissa S., Mejia, Miriam, Guzman, Letty et al. (2008). Effectiveness of a community coalition for improving child vaccination rates in New York City. American Journal of Public Health, 98(11), 1959-1962.
Findley, Salley E., Sanchez, Martha, Mejia, Miriam, Ferreira, Richard, Pena, Oscar, Matos, Sergio et al. (2009). REACH 2010: New York City: Effective strategies for integrating immunization promotion into community programs. Health Promotion Practice, 10(2), 128S-137S.
Fu, Linda Y., Cowan, Nuala, McLaren, Rosie, Engstrom, Ryan, and Teach, Stephen J. (2009). Spatial accessibility to providers and vaccination compliance among children with Medicaid. Pediatrics, 124, 1579-1586.
Cutaneous Candidiasis: A Case Study
This case study involves a 35-year-old woman diagnosed with candidiasis of the inner thighs. The goal of this report is to provide the patient with information about the most likely cause of her condition and how best to resolve the infection. In order to accomplish this goal a review of Candida pathogenesis will be presented first.
Members of the Candida genus, in particular C. albicans, can be detected in the oral cavities of 75% of the general population (Mayer, Wilson, & Hube, 2013). This mostly commensal microbe colonizes oral, vaginal, gastrointestinal, anal, and cutanous locations (az-Pasteur, Ullmann, & Berdicevsky, 2011). Candida species are commensal in health people and rarely cause any problems, but in persons who suffer from mild medical conditions with impaired immunity the commensal relationship can quickly evaporate and turn pathogenic (Mayer, Wilson, & Hube, 2013). For example, Candida is…
Mansur, A.T., Aydingoz, I.E., & Artunkal, S. (2012). Facial Candida foliculitis: Possible role of sexual contact. Mycoses, 55, e20-e22. Doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0507.2011.02075.x.
Mayer, F.L., Wilson, D., & Hube, B. (2013). Candida albicans pathogenicity mechanisms. Virulence, 4(2), 119-128.
Raz-Pasteur, A., Ullmann, Y., & Berdicevsky, I. (2011). The pathogenesis of Candida infections in a human skin model: Scanning electron microscope observations. International Scholarly Research Network, 2011, 1-6. Doi: 10.5402/2011/150642.
Scheinfeld, N.S. (2004). Obesity and dermatology. Clinics in Dermatology, 22, 303-309.
STDs: A MAJO CONTEMPOAY PUBLIC HEALTH CONCEN
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Given the advances in medicine and public health over the past several decades, most people might assume that the incidence and prevalence of sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs) is declining; however, the scientific evidence suggests otherwise. ecent estimates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the United States suggest that 20 million new STD infections occur every year and cost the U.S. health care system close to $16 billion dollars annually (CDC, 2013). This is up from 12 million STD infections and $10 billion dollars annually during the mid-1990s (Zenilman, 2004). In 2011, reports of chlamydia incidence set another annual record, double from what it was just 10 years ago (CDC, 2011). To better understand the health threats facing Americans when they engage in sexual activity this report will review what is known about the most common STDs infecting…
CDC. (2013). CDC Fact Sheet: Incidence, prevalence, and cost of sexually transmitted infections in the United States. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/std/stats/STI-Estimates-Fact-Sheet-Feb-2013.pdf .
CDC. (2011). Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance, 2011. Altlanta, GA: Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/std/stats11/Surv2011.pdf .
Dyck, E.V., Meheus, A.Z., & Piot, P. (1999). Laboratory Diagnosis of Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Geneva: World Health Organization.
Katz, A.R., Lee, M.V.C., & Wasserman, G.M. (2012). Sexually transmitted disease (STD) update: A review of the CDC 2010 STD treatment guidelines and epidemiologic trends of common STDs in Hawai'i. Hawai'I Journal of Medicine & Public Health, 71(3), 68-73.
Teratology is the scientific study of causes and mechanisms of malformation during the human development. Fetal diseases, mechanical effects and retarded development of the embryo and the fetus are some of the causes of CDDs (congenital developmental disorders) according to various studies. oth mystical and scientific theories were developed in the past to explain the origin of Teratology; some theories stating that it originated from the position of the stars, maternal impressions, hybridization, and oligohy dramnios, among others. Today, biological assumptions on abnormalities seem to have more weight than the unproven theories given in the past. Scientific studies have revealed that the real causes of congenital developmental disorders include: mechanical effects, biological factors, physical factors and chemical substances (Ujhazy, Mach, Navarova, rucknerova, & Dubovicky, 2012).
Fig. 1. 1. The irth of Modern Teratology (McCormick, 2012)
The contemporary science of teratology started in the 1930s with the release of a study…
Agrawal, S. (2007). Genetic Causes of Congenital Malformation. Anthropologist Special, 425-434 .
Can, O. G. (2007). Principles of Human Teratology: Drug, Chemical, and Infectious Exposure. JOGC, 911-917.
Chung, W. (n.d.). TERATOGENS AND THEIR EFFECTS. 1-8. Retrieved from: http://www.columbia.edu/itc/hs/medical/humandev/2004/Chpt23-Teratogens.pdf
HoRC. (n.d.). FASD and alcohol consumption patterns. Retrieved from Parliament of Australia: http://www.aph.gov.au/parliamentary_Business/Committees/House_of_Representatives_Committees?url=spla/fasd/report/chapter2.htm
Special Master denied the motion on March 16, 2009 because it was not filed within the 21-day period required by law. He also noted that even if the P's had filed their motion in time, it would not be in the interest of justice to withdraw his decision. On the same day, P's filed with the Court their motion for review of the Special Master's decision.
acts: Michelle was born on August 30, 1994. Pregnancy and birth were uncomplicated and all medical records up to the vaccines (first 16 months of life) indicate medically verifiable normal health. Michelle experienced some typically childhood ailments; flu symptoms, etc., but at two months of age she was able to focus and follow a moving object; speak a few works at 12 months; crawl at the same time, and began walking at 16 months.
Michelle received two early hepatitis B vaccinations in 1994, and…
Facts: Michelle was born on August 30, 1994. Pregnancy and birth were uncomplicated and all medical records up to the vaccines (first 16 months of life) indicate medically verifiable normal health. Michelle experienced some typically childhood ailments; flu symptoms, etc., but at two months of age she was able to focus and follow a moving object; speak a few works at 12 months; crawl at the same time, and began walking at 16 months.
Michelle received two early hepatitis B vaccinations in 1994, and various other vaccinations between September 1994 and September 1995. On December 20, 1995, Michelle, then 15 months old, received an MMR vaccination at the office of her regular Pediatrician. She next visited said doctor on January 6, 1996, at which time Mrs. Cedillo reported that one week after the MMR vaccination, Michelle developed a fever and serious rash. Although the fever subsequently subsided, it spiked again on January 5, 1996, also culminating in cough and gagging to the point of vomiting. On the morning of January 6, 1996, Michelle's temperature was 105.7 degrees; subsequently Pediatrician diagnosed sinusitis and flu, and prescribed antibiotics.
Michelle visited Pediatrician again on March 15, 1996 for a scheduled well-child 18 months check up. Despite no overt presentations, Pediatrician noted that Michelle was talking less since her bout with the flu in January. At
In fact, I think I'll just keep eating for a while, I'm not feeling quite full yet. There, that did it.
Did I mention there's a whole bunch of us hanging out in here? Well, it seems there were quite a few of us in that fish our human ate, and we've all taken up residence here. Some of us are in the intestines, but most of us are just hanging out here, enjoying the company. After breakfast, I just take a little time to digest my meal, and then it's time for my own morning cleansing. I'll excrete my nasty stuff, right into my human's bile, and then it will travel out along with my human's excretions. I spend some time shifting around and making sure I'm securely attached, so I don't head outside along with the morning meal, and then, I'm ready to do my favorite thing for…
Editors. "Clonorchiasis." Centers for Disease Control & Prevention. 2007. 17 Nov. 2007. http://www.dpd.cdc.gov/DPDX/HTML/Clonorchiasis.htm
Fan, P.C. "Viability of metacercariae of Clonorchis sinensis in Frozen or Salted Freshwater Fish." International Journal for Parasitology, Vol. 28, No. 4, 1998, April. 603-605.
Lin, Rui Lin, and Xueming Li, Chungeng Lan, Senhai Yu, Kawanaka Masanori. "Investigation on the Epidemiological Factors of Clonorchis sinensis Infection in an Area of South China." Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health. Vol. 36, No 5, 2005. 1114-1117.
Shin, Hai-Rim, and Chae-Un Lee, Hyung-Jong Park, Sang-Young Seol, Jung-Myeong Chung, Ha-Chin Choi, Yoon-Ok Ahn, Takao Shigemastu. "Hepatitis B and C Virus, Clonorchis sinensis for the Risk of Liver Cancer: A Case-Control Study in Pusan, Korea." International Journal of Epidemiology Vol. 25, No. 5, 1996. 933-940.