Community Nursing Research Paper

Excerpt from Research Paper :

Community Nursing

The service learning project planned to address the issue of workplace violence is Workplace Violence Prevention to take place at large tertiary care hospital in North Philadelphia. After reviewing current policies and procedures (regarding workplace violence, interviewing and collaborating with those responsible for the implementation of those policies and procedures (e.g. administration, security, and human resource staff)) a poster presentation as well as an employee questionnaire will be designed, titled "Preventing Workplace Violence." This will include:

-Defining the types of workplace violence,

-Statistics regarding the incidences of workplace violence,

-Identifying jobs or locations with the greatest risk of violence as well as processes and procedures that put employees at risk of assault.

-Also, a screening tool will be used to get employees' ideas on the potential for violent incidents to help identify or confirm the need for improved security measures.

The goal of service learning project is to:

-Reduce or eliminate worker exposure to circumstances that lead to death or injury from violence.


The primary objective had been to make use of a methodology that will involve employees, identifying that engagement advances control and continuing commitment of employees even after the particular venture is finished. The methodology chosen with this project is Participatory Action Research (PAR). Kemmis and McTaggart (1990) state that two essential ideas are exclusive attributes of action research; the idea of group decision as well as dedication to advancement.

Participatory action scientific studies are a dynamic procedure, in which understanding is built via collaboration involving the researcher as well as the respondents. Without a doubt, PAR subjects are viewed as co-researchers within the venture of information building. Participatory action scientific studies are a powerful methodology for reaching final results which are tolerable for the subjects. In researching problems of interest within this distinctive way, PAR group members will likely not only produce transformation methods but additionally be critical in applying change. This will make it a suitable methodology to discover problems of employees' safety as well as create new approaches for employees' safety.

PAR produces the likelihood for subjects to engage in decision-making within their setting as well as practice (Robinson 1995; Street 1995). Therefore, whilst undertaking research regarding client established violence towards community nurses as well as other employees, PAR is definitely the methodology of preference. Its usage has established new understanding that has been utilized to style a much better understanding all through the organization, as well as put into action a big change regime inside an Occupational Safety and health framework.

The Participatory Action Research Procedure

There exist a number of methods to PAR but scientific study has a standard dedication to two aspects of the procedure - participation along with action. The method we picked out was led from the efforts of Street (1995), so it is essential to summarize her method. Additionally other authors had been influential to the selection of PAR so we will demonstrate exactly what these influences are since they shaped the foundations of the exploration procedure.

Street (1995) has primarily based her strategy on Kemmis and McTaggart's (1990) version of PAR. They comprehend PAR as being an action research spiral. This particular spiral, or perhaps corkscrew idea, calls for continuous reflection, as well as revision involving the research strategy if required, while keeping impetus toward the last objective. The preparing, action as well as assessment steps of PAR happen to be spiral by nature, and therefore are backed up by the group structure. This 'spiral' might just as well be referred to as a 'switchback'. It includes numerous phases.

In this particular procedure, the very first two phases from the spiral would be the collection and overview of relevant articles, as being a precursor as well as self-help guide to preparing additional analysis. Nevertheless, it really is after both of these phases that standard research is different from PAR. Standard research determines that the hypothesis demands testing (Street 1995), while PAR is involved with checking out the problems that the researcher as well as the subjects consider essential. Street (1995) recommends PAR as being the methodology of preference, possessing the possibility to give individuals an awareness of the specific situation, as being a precursor to making transformation. Subjects join the research procedure anticipating transformation; PAR enables the researcher to change the study questionnaire and therefore restructure the analysis.

With this specific study, there are 2 types of PAR data collection methods which will be an element of the options: 1) quantitative, which happens to be essentially numeric manifestation and breakdown of all of the facts: and 2) qualitative, which entails unique intangible measurements and may include photographs, videos, sound recordings and so on. The second one is much more prevalent than the prior one. Within this research, the investigator employed the qualitative method.

Most scientific studies regardless of whether qualitative or quantitative make use of 1 or a combination of these methodologies in order to collect their data/information:

A. Survey: which might include each questionnaire as well as interviews

B. Structured interview

C. Semi-structured interview

D. Unstructured interview

E. Questionnaire (Trochim, 2006).

To complete the goals of the study here, the researcher utilized the interviews.


The fully-structured style of interview is utilized within the study along with the standardized type, since these two types of interview will allow an in depth study, and create the information within a structured style, an easy task to be comprehend. The interviews may also be split into additional sub-sections which will allow the extraction of statistical info and thus the analysis to become interpreted effortlessly. The sub-sections within the interviews will afterwards be gathered together following the realization of the interview.

Once the interview is going to be taken, all, the subjects are going to be presented the paper and will be asked to make themselves acquainted with it; because it would most likely help them finish the questions a lot sooner. The subject is going to be permitted to speak out his views with no restrictions, as well as their answers can lead to the revelation of new questions too. In the event the subject is comfortable with his thoughts being documented, then his audio configurations may be used for better outcomes and much better findings. Nevertheless this is going to be optionally available, as everyone may not be comfortable with his views being recorded.


The credibility or perhaps validity of the study is exactly what lies behind its failure or even success. Even tiniest degrees of illegitimacy can make the entire study a perished work. For all kinds of information the validity lays within the depth, integrity as well as capacity involving the data gathered together with the targeted sample as well as the unbiased strategy utilized by the researcher. Within this study, the researcher made use of the survey approach (semi-structured interviews) with similar procedure for each and every subject within the sample. This guaranteed the dissimilarities found in the replies are personalized and genuine: therefore the methodology will never be disapproved as being subjective or even impartial by any means (Trochim, 2006).

Based on Saunders et al. (2012), to be able to decrease the likelihood of obtaining improper answers, a researcher should contemplate to what extent the study will be feasible as well as strong whilst developing the research framework.

Reliability could be considered the prospect of other researchers reaching exactly the same inference when calculating with a similar unit and utilizing comparable strategies. In point of fact, problems of reliability show dilemmas as well as issues both in precision and also accuracy from the measuring/calculating device used within the study (Bouma, 2004).

Sticking with this perspective, Saunders et al. (2012) unveils the problems of prejudice, which happens to be associated with reliability and may be categorized into 2 types. The very first is the researcher prejudice in which observations, tone in addition to body gestures from the researcher might create bias as well as the subject might react differently towards the questions (Saunders et al., 2012). Within this research, emphasis will be provided to both planning as well as designing of the questionnaire so they are not going to enforce the researcher's point-of-view as well as values. Furthermore, the researcher can make attempts to develop his trust together with the subjects to ensure that reliability as well as validity concerns could be reduced.

The next kind of bias is considered the respondent's bias which happens to be primarily induced by views concerning the researcher (Saunders et al., 2012). Within this research analysis, even though the researcher can make efforts to develop trust before providing questionnaire, however it is apparent that the participants will probably be aware of the fragile nature of several questions and could make a decision to not reveal and answer specific questions. Additionally, it is also contended that the subjects usually do not answer the queries with precision as well as accuracy and try to exaggerate their responses and provide an optimistic impression.

However validity could be considered the…

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