As people age, there are three main types of cognitive changes that can impair or alter cognitive functioning: mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Alzheimer's, and Parkinson's. All of these syndromes are more severe than the normal decline that is expected with aging, though they do not all reach the severity of dementia. Dementia refers to the "the loss of cognitive functioning- thinking, remembering, and reasoning- and behavior abilities, to such an extent that it interferes with a person's daily life and activities" (NIH, 2013). While there are some similarities between these three conditions, there are also significant differences between the three syndromes. These differences can impact treatment options and also help predict impact on the patient and the family.
MCI is an intermediate stage, which features a more significant cognitive decline than that expected with normal aging, but is not as severe as full-blown dementia. "It can involve problems with memory, language, thinking and judgment that are greater than normal age-related changes" (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2012). In addition to the expected memory problems, some symptoms may include losing one's train of thought, feeling easily overwhelmed, becoming more impulsive, and having difficulty with navigating familiar environments (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2012). In addition, there can be an emotional side to MCI, and those experiencing MCI may be prone to: depression, anxiety, apathy, irritability, and aggression (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2012). While these symptoms can slow functioning, they do not generally interfere with day-to-day activities. However,...
There are multiple causes for MCI, although it may be caused, at least in part, by the same type of brain changes seen in other forms of dementia. MCI may progress to other diseases linked to dementia, may become stable, and, in some cases, may even revert. In addition to aging, which is the primary risk factor for MCI, those with the APOE-e4 gene are also at higher risk for the disease. In addition, several other lifestyle factors or preexisting conditions can increase one's risk of MCI, including: diabetes, smoking, depression, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, being sedentary, and not engaging in stimulating activities (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2012).
Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia in older adults. It is a brain disease that is both irreversible and progressive. While Alzheimer's can onset in younger adults, it primarily appears after 60. The root cause of Alzheimer's disease is unknown, though genetics appear to increase susceptibility, particularly the presence of the APOE-e4 gene. Moreover, the damage to the brain appears to begin approximately a decade prior to symptom onset. These changes result in "abnormal deposits of proteins form[ing] amyloid plaques and tau tangles throughout the brain" (NIH, 2013). This impacts the functioning ability of neurons. The damage spreads to…
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Combat Veterans With Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Although not limited to veterans, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) may be the single most significant mental health risk to veterans, particularly to those veterans that have seen combat. PTSD is an anxiety disorder, which occurs after a person has seen or experienced a traumatic event including, but not limited to: assault, domestic abuse, prison stay, rape, terrorism, war, or
Paiget and Vygotsky Compare and Contrast Piagets and Vygotsky Understanding is assumed to be the process which is involved when it comes to mental activity and thinking, for instance memory, problem solving and attention. In this paper which is basically on the cognitive development it will explore things by comparing and contrasting the theories of Piaget and Vygotsky, both of whom were very influential in coming up with a more scientific
Aaron Beck & Cognitive Therapies Cognitive therapies are therapies that relate to how a person thinks, and attempt to solve problems based on changing how people think. The founder of cognitive therapies was Aaron Beck. Beck believed that problems resulted from cognitive distortions, that is, were based in a person's thinking. Beck believed that a person's thought, beliefs, attitudes and perceptions were the basis for what emotions they would experience and how
personality and psychotherapy theories, namely, client-centered therapy (CCT) and cognitive therapy. The first section of the paper takes up CCT (or Rogerian therapy), giving a brief overview of the theory's key points, including its founder and the views of the founder. Sub-sections under this section explore, in brief, the areas of personality structure under the theory, theory architecture, and an approach to intervention using the theory (or in other
, 2010). In addition, small frequent feeds, and a large amount of fluid is provided to maintain the nutritional needs of the patient and prevent dehydration. The r suctioning of secretions proves necessary in preventing aspiration of secretions. The loss of voluntary muscle's activity increases the risks of accumulation of secretions hence, the need for regular suctioning. Bulbar involvement often results in communication complications such as dysarthria and muscle paralysis of
Cognitive Psychology Absolutely nothing interests humans more than humans. For this reason, numerous fields of study have arisen regarding humans. These fields of study include, but are not limited to, anatomy, anthropology, biology, sociology, and psychology. The focus here is the study of psychology, specifically the study of cognitive psychology. The American Psychological Association states that, "Psychology is the study of the mind and behavior. The discipline embraces all aspects of