Such an inclination to dismiss work like Hofstede's might rather be defined as bad science, because the definition of validity that is used in the human sciences now is one that has been imported from the hard sciences in an attempt to transfer to the human sciences the prestige of the hard sciences.
However the concept of validity is not based on a single research methodology. Instead it refers to a specific epistemological approach, which is that to be valid a study has to be able accurately to answer any question(s) that it is intended to provide a response to. Experimental validity arises from the fact that the research methodology and design provide an accurate way to measure what it is intended to measure.
This last specification, which is accepted to the point of being nearly universal,...
Thus any argument that Hofstede's work is invalid because it has a circularity about its working definition of validity would be to hold his research to a higher standard than is in any way considered to be reasonable within the field.
Hofstede's work meets the standard of validity for contemporary research in the social sciences in that it creates a measurement tool (in the form of his research design) that does in fact measure what it is designed to do. Any remaining objections to this claim to validity might be assuaged by conceptualizing Hofstede's work within the framework of qualitative or mixed-method research.
They wanted to know the best places to go after work, and expected him to help them in that regard. Hanes finally told his Japanese trainers "he preferred not to mix business with pleasure." Within a couple days, the group requested another instructor. The critical issue here, one can quickly discern, is that Hanes did not do his homework on the Japanese business culture; if he had, he would know
U.K university students who are debt ridden. Survey on Student Debts University students today are facing increasingly high levels of debt because of the credit card and the various student loan institutions available to them. This leads to them suffering from anxiety and depression when they are unable to pay it off. A national survey that was conducted by the academics at various universities in the U.K came up to the conclusion
Hofstede's Questionnaire Original Question Original Scale Revised Scale(s) Reason for Revision How does culture affect the level of satisfaction? Open ended- the respondent types their own responses 1(a). Do you agree that culture affect the level of satisfaction? Does culture affect the level of satisfaction in your society? Strongly Agree -- Strongly Disagree Simplifies confusion and likely ambiguity of responses from the first scale. This reduces bias as it uses a scale that is easy to use among a large
Organizational Culture and Sustained Competitive Advantage Organizational culture is a defining feature of every organization. The unique culture that every organization displays has an affect on its ability to remain profitable. Culture can have either positive or negative affect on the ability of the organization to remain competitive. Much academic research up to this point has focused on theory and defining what is meant by culture and sustainable competitive advantage. This
School Culture on School Safety Many studies have been done on safety in schools. Likewise, many studies have been done on the culture of various schools. Unfortunately, there has not been significant research on a link between the two. This is not to say that these kinds of studies have not been done, but rather that there has not been enough of them. Many of the studies that have been
This means that the questionnaire may be designed with a thorough understanding of the processes within the company and the experience to which the customers of the company should be ideally exposed. The studio presently collects some information on the experience of their customers but this focuses predominantly on the customer's experiences on the day of their shoot. For example the questionnaire which is currently distributed to all customers asks