Anderson et al. (2002) studies the effects of terminating the levels of addiction disability on the status of housing of persons who formerly recipients of addiction diability. They study how the various disruptions in the living situations play an integral role in the determination of the level of predisposition to drug and alcohol abuse. They present their view via both structural and individualistic theories as regrds both housing and homelessness in the society. Their study involved the quantitative analysis if data obtained through the interviewing of 101 former recipients who were selected at random. They found from their analysis that the termination of the benefits coupled with the reduced level of social services and the unprecedented explosion of housing markets resulted in an increase in the homeless and high dependency n both family and friends. The resulting negative living results contributed to the escalation of the drug related risks and use.
A study by Argeriou et al. was dedicated as a response to the requirement for the validation of data on the utilization of Addiction Severity Index (ASI) in regard to the number of homeless individuals together with the near homeless women and men. According to the scholars the use of ASI as the most widely used assessment tool in order to provide the level of severity rating of persons with multiple drug related problems is necessary in order to come up with dependable results to be used in the determination of the level of seriousness of substance abuse within our society
A study by Martinez et al. (1998) was dedicated towards evaluation of the Psychosocial Histories, Social Environment, and HIV Risk Behaviors of Injection and Noninjection Drug among the homeless youths. In their study they examine the prevalence of HIV high risk sexual activity among the youth in there Californian cities. They made use of a sample size comprising of 186 youths whose psychosocial histories were then evaluated. They found out that the youths who used the injection drugs were more likely to report traumatic psychosocial histories when compared to their counterparts who used noninjection techniques. Their study highlighted the need of a multifaceted service and appropriate preventive programs aimed at addressing the need associated to the high risk homeless youths
A study by Klingemann (2001) was directed towards the examination of the environmental context of substance abuse. This was ion relation the process of natural recovery from drug addiction. He found out that there was a relationship between the level of drug abuse and the recovery process and the level of influence played by various societal interventions. He found out that the chances of self-change among persons who used heroin in the various inner cities was more restricted to individuals in the middle class. This is because of the availability of treatment centers and the existence of enough social capital to be utilized in the facilitation of their recovery process. Kawachi also suggested that social capital may influence the health of individuals through psychosocial processes, by providing affective support and acting as the source of self-esteem and respect'(Klingemann 2001).
Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs (1998) Drug Misuse and the Environment: A
Report by the Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs. London: Stationary Office
Anderson, T.L., Shannon, C., Schyb, I., Goldstein, P.(2002).Welfare Reform and Housing: Assessing the Impact to Substance Abuse.Journal of Drug Issues 32(1): 265-295,
Addiction Disorders and Homelessness: NCH Fact Sheet #6. National Coalition for the. June 2005. (http://www.nationalhomeless.org/publications/facts/addiction.pdf).
Argeriou, M., McCarty, D., Mulvey, K., Daley, M.(1994).Use of the Addiction Severity Index With Homeless Substance Abusers.Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 11(4): 359-365
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Buchanan, J. (2004) 'Missing Links? Problem drug use and social exclusion' Probation
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to Employment -- Final Report CRSP 470S. Loughborough University: Centre for Researchin Social Policy
Klingemann, H. Sobell, L., Barker, J. & Blomqvist, J. (2001) Promoting Self-change from Problem Substance Use: Practical implications for policy and practice. Kluwer Academic Publishers
Martinez, T.E., Gleghorn, a., Marx, R., Clements, K., Bowman, M., Katz, M.H (1998) Psychosocial Histories, Social Environment, and HIV Risk Behaviors of Injection and Noninjection DrugUsing Homeless Youths. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 30(1): 1-10
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Problem drug Users. University of Liverpool
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