Homelessness Essays (Examples)

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Homeless in America Today

Words: 606 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1958515

Homelessness: A still-Important issue

Homelessness is not just a housing problem. As noted by PLoS Medicine "there is a substantial prevalence of mental disorders among homeless people in Western countries. Among prior studies meeting criteria for consideration, the prevalence of alcohol dependency ranged from 8.1% -- 58.5%, and drug dependence ranged from 4.5% -- 54.2%. For psychotic illnesses, the prevalence ranged from 2.8% -- 42.3%, with similar findings for major depression." Homelessness is an issue which is dealt with on federal, state, and local levels. Federal policies such as healthcare reform can impact the ability of people to receive treatment for substance abuse, for example. State and local ordinances can impact access to affordable housing, how drug crimes are prosecuted, and whether it is legal to panhandle or even to offer assistance to the homeless.

The plight of the homeless was thrown into sharp relief recently when the city of…… [Read More]

References

Florida Department of Children and Families. (2014). Official Website. Retrieved from:

http://www.myflfamilies.com/service-programs/homelessness

Goldberg, E. (2014). 90-year-old Florida man faces jail Time, $500 fine for feeding homeless.

The Huffington Post. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/11/04/man-90-arrested-feeding-homeless_n_6100738.html
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Homeless the Mentally Ill Mentally Ill Individuals

Words: 506 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68430570

Homeless

The mentally ill: Mentally ill individuals often have trouble putting across their condition and fail to let others know that they actually have a mental problem. As a consequence, human services professionals need to collaborate with police officers with the purpose of making it possible for them to differentiate between individuals who are normal and individuals who are mentally ill. Similarly, professionals have the task of providing as many drugs as possible to people on the streets in order to prevent them from experiencing an unfortunate episode and actually hurt themselves or someone else.

xcitement addicts: These people fail to understand the full complexity of being homeless and think about this condition as if it were an adventure. Human services professionals thus need to intervene and instruct these people in regard to the risks that they are facing. Also, this group is vulnerable to abuse because its members are…… [Read More]

Excitement addicts are typically naive and can easily become attracted by joining gangs in their neighborhood. As a consequence, human services professionals need to instruct them concerning the risks that they are taking. Also, by cooperating with the authorities, human services professionals can also effectively combat problems that excitement addicts are predisposed to.

3. The Help the Homeless program is directed at assisting individuals in a series of places, including the Washington D.C. area. "Since 1988, Help the Homeless (HTH) has raised more than $90 million for nonprofit beneficiaries in the Washington metropolitan area that serve the homeless and those at risk of being homeless" (WASHINGTON METROPOLITAN AREA). Taking this into account, it would only be safe to assume that the institution has played an active role in assisting homeless individuals. In addition to assisting homeless people, the community also focuses on encouraging the masses to get involved in helping homeless people by adopting a series of attitudes.

4. Although human services professionals play an important role in solving social problems, they are often ignored and the masses know very little with regard to the actions that they perform with the purpose of helping homeless people and the social order as a whole. Through getting homeless people off the streets, providing them with the opportunity to eat a hot meal, or by simply helping the masses understand the desperate condition of homeless people, human services professionals practically make the world a better place. Society as a whole should look into their actions and try to reproduce them with the purpose of eventually eradicating homelessness.
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Homeless veterans and the challenges

Words: 464 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17212479

Homelessness Among Veterans

Among the social problems that have continuously bothered successive governments over the years. The problem is further compounded bearing that the veterans offered their best duty to the country when the need was most dire. As the years pass, as the US engages in one more war, veterans keep increasing and prospect for having more veterans will keep going up. The increase is astronomical for the homeless veterans. Currently at least 15% of the homeless population is consisted of the veterans. By 2008 there were approximately 135,000 homeless veterans tough this number is said to have reduced by 47% by 2016 (U.S. Department of Homeless Veterans, 2017).

Veterans are said to the prone to being homeless than other Americans by 50% due to poverty, poor support network and squalid living environments within overcrowded housing units. It is estimated that 1.5 million veterans are considered as at risk…… [Read More]

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Homeless Rights Assembly Member Mike

Words: 867 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77682514

"The Research Supplemental Poverty Measure: 2011" Census.gov (2012): 32, internet, 26 Jun. 2013. Available: http://www.census.gov/prod/2012pubs/p60-244.pdf.]

With so many residents facing homelessness, it seems imperative to understand the cost of not implementing the hygiene centers through the local public health departments. When researchers examined the hospitalization rates of homeless persons in Honolulu, Hawaii, they found that hospitalizations in acute-care hospitals occurred at a rate 5.6-fold above the average for state residents.[footnoteRef:6] for psychiatric hospitals, it was 131-fold higher. The estimated cost of the excess hospitalization for the 1,751 homeless persons studied was close to $3.5 million in 1992 dollars. In 2010 dollars,[footnoteRef:7] this would amount to about $4.9 million. Based on a homeless population of 136,000 to 750,000 for the State of California, the excess medical costs associated with homelessness could be somewhere between $381 million and $2.1 billion dollars per year. [6: Jon V. Martell et al., "Hospitalization in an…… [Read More]

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Homeless This Abstract Presents a

Words: 775 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89465197

A list of resources for further study is also provided." (National Coalition for the Homeless, 2002)

The report would include a setting, validity of the problem and a timeline that would describe the historical concerns faced by the homeless. For example, cities like Toronto, Canada have been systematically monitoring the aboriginal homeless situation for years. "The City of Toronto released the first eport Card on Homelessness in February 2000, based on a recommendation by the Mayor's Task Force. The purpose of the report card is to monitor the issue of homelessness over time to determine if the problem is getting better or worse and to help the city and its partners develop effective and responsive strategies." (Members & Staff Working Group, 2001)

Literature eview

The proposed approach for the topic would be to focus on gathering any and all pertinent information regarding the problem of aboriginal homelessness. Therefore, the full…… [Read More]

References

Government of Canada. (2003, July 3). Urban Aboriginal Homelessness. Retrieved on June 16, 2005, from Canada Web Site at http://www21.hrdc-drhc.gc.ca/initiative/uah_e.asp

HRDC-based Components. (2003, March). Evaluation of the National Homelessness Initiative: Implementation and Early Outcomes of the HRDC-based Components. Retrieved on June 13, 2005, from AHRDA/SCPI Authorities Web Site at http://www11.sdc.gc.ca/en/cs/sp/edd/reports/2003-002435/page11.shtml

Members, Staff Working Group (2001). The Toronto Report Card on Homelessness 2001. Toronto: Toronto Advisory Committee on Homeless & Socially. Retrieved on June 13, 2005, from City of Toronto Web Site at http://www.city.toronto.on.ca/homelessness/homelessnessreport2001.pdf

Ministry of Social Development and Economic Security (2000). The Relationship between Homelessness and the Health, Social Services and Criminal Justice Systems. Homelessness - Causes & Effects. Retrieved on June 13, 2005, from British Columbia Web Site at http://www.mcaws.gov.bc.ca/housing/homeless/vol1.htm
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Homeless There Is Conflicting Information

Words: 704 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55545939

Otherwise, they would not have been taken into the military (they were volunteers), supporting the theory that the military had an impact upon their being homeless (ibid., 377).

Among all of these populations, IQ dropped and mental illnesses such as schizophrenia increased as the study predicted. There is not enough information though to determine whether or not the populations of the homeless were predisposed (just that there was higher population of them) toward an IQ drop or mental illness or whether other events were responsible and the authors called for more research. However, one should expect that if one discharges a homeless person (veteran or not) that has a cognitive problem, then we should not be surprised when they join the homeless population.

(ibid., 377-378).

The candor and reservation about the results would indicate to this author the accuracy of the study's results. In terms of veterans' affairs, this then…… [Read More]

References

Resnick, R.G., & Rosenheck, R.A. (2008). Posttraumatic stress disorder and employment in veterans participating in veterans health administration compensated work therapy. Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development, 45(3), 427 -- 436.

Spence, S., Stevens, R., & Parks, R. (2004). Cognitive dysfunction in homeless adults: a systematic review. Journal of the royal society of medicine, 97, 375-379.
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Homeless Problem in New York

Words: 1281 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60112187

Data also indicates that almost one-fifth of the homeless population is female, many of whom are on the streets due to domestic abuse and/or substance abuse, and most of whom find themselves in the same abusive relationships as sent them to the streets in the first place. Moreover, for the street homeless, shelters are often seen as a last resort, as many surveyed found them too violent and dangerous, too restrictive and constraining, with many feeling more at ease sleeping in the park.

Permanent housing for homeless families and individuals actually costs less than shelter and other emergency care. The cost of sheltering a homeless family in the New York City Shelter system is $36,000 per year and for a homeless individual is $23,000 per year, compared to a supportive housing apartment with services which costs as little as $12,000 per year, and the cost of rental assistance with support…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Andrews, William. The New York Police Department. "The Early Years: The Challenge of Public Order:1845 to1870; an Era of Corruption and Reform: 1870 to 1900." http://www.ci.nyc.ny.us/html/nypd/html/3100/retro.html

Change in Total Population, 1990 and 2000: New York City and Boroughs."

New York City Department of City Planning. June 20, 2003. http://www.ci.nyc.ny.us/html/dcp/html/census/pop2000.html

Basic Facts about Homelessness and Housing." Coalition for the Homeless. http://www.coalitionforthehomeless.org/top/CFTH/events/advocacy/basic_facts.html
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Homeless Population May Have Their Share of

Words: 659 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40191432

homeless population may have their share of difficulties with certain areas of life, there are also certain benefits. Although the "job" may not be glamorous, panhandling can be an easy, work-free way to gain financial income. In addition, panhandling income is tax free, and sometimes more lucrative than a regular full time position.

Panhandling can be a lucrative "business," depending on the area of the country a person is living. For example, in Philadelphia, eginald Tull, a 36-year-old, gentle, smooth talking panhandler made a health income from panhandling. Tull himself brought in $250.00 to $300.00 a week, just through panhandling. According to city statistics, the average working person, earning minimum wage and working 40 hours a week, earns only $206.00 (Hinkelman, 2002). According to the Santa Cruz County Homeless 2000 Census and Needs Assessment eport, over 11% of respondents got their daily living money through panhandling, and earned more than…… [Read More]

References

Hinkelman, Michael. "Panhandling $250 to $300 a Week." Philadelphia Daily News. 24 June, 2002. Philadelphia Daily News. RealCities. 4 March, 2004. http://www.philly.com/mld/dailynews/news/local/3532299.htm

Applied Survey Research. "Executive Summary." Santa Cruz County Homeless 2000

Census and Needs Assessment. Santa Cruz, CA: United Way.

Homeless.org. "Homelessness." Homelessness, Make Change. 13 Feb, 2004. Homeless.org. Grassroots.org. 4 March, 2004. http://www.homeless.org/do/Home
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Homeless Population Can Be Described as a

Words: 2006 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33568774

homeless population can be described as a social grouping that is susceptible for the reason that the homeless experience greater risk for poor health-related results. Considering the situation of homelessness and the connection involving availability of resources, health status and relative risks, it becomes critical for the nurses to come up with diagnosis and treatments for health-associated problems in this kind of vulnerable population. The description of this article touches on the homeless as a vulnerable population applying health-associated problems of model of vulnerable population as a theoretical framework. A repeated matter, in the Springfield Massachusetts shelters, is about the setting free of prisoners exclusive of discharge planning that gives opportunity for going ahead with care for mental illness. In 1970's deinstitutionalization decided to do away with mentally ill warehousing in facilities that do not recognizes the rights of human. Sufficient community supports fail to be present to this vulnerable…… [Read More]

WORK CITED

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Psychiatric Services in Jails and Prisons (2nd ed.).

Washington, DC: Author.

Aroskar, M. (1994). Ethics in nursing and health care reform: back to the future. Hastings Center Report, 24 (3) 11-12

Lovell, D. & Jemelka, R... (1998). Coping with Mental Illness in Prisons. Family & Community
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Homeless Shelters Academic Perspective

Words: 2791 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32577506

Simon Communities in Ireland has been a fundamental supporting organization for homeless people ever since Anton allich-Clifford set its foundations in the 1960s. As a probation officer in London, Anton was in charge with some of the situations around people who, sleeping rough, were caught for minor infringements of the law. It was his decision for a different approach that ultimately led to Simon Communities developing into a multi-based organization that is nowadays able to provide accommodation and settlement to many people in Ireland who have lost their home due to various different reasons. Anton set up the first hospitality home for people he had seen sleeping in doorways and derelict buildings after he previously visited the places to bring people food and to know their stories. A visit to Ireland served for a group of volunteers to organize the first soup -- run in Dublin in 1969 and the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Blau, Joel. The Visible Poor: Homelessness in the United States. Oxford, New York, Toronto, Delhi, Bombay, Calcutta, Madras, Karachi, Kuala Lumpur, Singapore, Hong Kong, Tokyo, Nairobi, Dar es Salaam, Cape Town, Melbourne, Auckland, Madrid, Berlin, Ibadan: Oxford University Press, 1992. Print.

Davis, Murphy. Five years at 910. A Work of Hospitality: The Open Door Reader 1982-2002. Ed. Peter R. Gathje. Atlanta: The Open Door Community, 2002. 9-12. Print.

Hombs, Mary Ellen. American Homelessness: A Reference Handbook. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, Inc., 2001. Print.

Jencks, Christopher. The Homeless. Harvard University Press, 1995. Print.
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Homeless Students and Their Unique

Words: 1864 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15229971

165).

Conclusion:

The number of homeless students in America is staggering, and sadly growing. These children are faced with unique challenges that their peers with homes are not typically plagued with. Homeless students academic efforts are often decimated due to fatigue and poor nutrition. Anxiety and depression affects their ability to concentrate. And, they often have gaps in their knowledge due to the inability to complete their homework as a result of not having the necessary supplies on hand (Noll & Watkins, 2004). Emotional, behavioral, academic, social, and familial problems occur more frequently in this category of students. For this reason, educators and school counselors should be positioned to provide the services and support these children will probably not receive elsewhere.

As Swick (2004) notes,

Educators can positively affect the lives of children and families who are homeless or in other high-risk situations. By understanding the dynamics of what homeless…… [Read More]

References

Baggerly, J. & Borkowski, T. (Dec. 2004) Applying the ASCA National Model to elementary school students who are homeless: A case study. Professional School Counseling, 8(2). Retrieved February 10, 2005, from InfoTrac Database.

Noll, E. & Watkins, R. "The impact of homelessness on children's literacy experiences." The Reading Teacher, 57(4). Retrieved February 10, 2005, from ProQuest database.

Swick, K. (2000). Building effective awareness programs for homeless students among staff, peers, and community members. In J. Stronge & E. Reed-Victor (Eds.), Educating homeless students: Promising practices. Larchmont, NY: Eye on Education.

Swick, K. (Spring 2004). The dynamics of families who are homeless: Implications for early childhood educators. Childhood Education, 80(3). Retrieved February 10, 2005, from ProQuest database.
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Homeless Present Day Issues and

Words: 1031 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31089

Another issue is prison release, because newly released inmates often have nowhere to live, they cannot get a job because they are convicted felons, and so they end up homeless. A frightening statistic is that there are so many young people that are homeless. Another group of researchers note, "A reliable determination of the prevalence of homelessness among adolescents is difficult to obtain, but the most recent and vigorous attempt estimates that there are more than one million youth nationwide who are homeless during any given 12-month period" (Johnson, ew & Kouzekanani, 2006). Often, these young people are on the streets because of dysfunctional families. Many are runaways, who have left home because of anger and violence in the families, or sexual abuse. The researchers continue, "High rates of sexual abuse have been found among homeless and runaway adolescents" (Johnson, ew & Kouzekanani, 2006). Yet another reason for homelessness is…… [Read More]

References

Baggerly, J., & Zalaquett, C.P. (2006). A descriptive study of single adults in homeless shelters: Increasing counselors' knowledge and social action. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 34(3), 155+.

Johnson, R.J., Rew, L., & Kouzekanani, K. (2006). Gender differences in victimized homeless adolescents. Adolescence, 41(161), 39+.

Koch, W. (2008). Homeless numbers 'alarming'. USA Today. 22. Oct.

Tompsett, C.J., Toro, P.A., Guzicki, M., Manrique, M., & Zatakia, J. (2006). Homelessness in the United States: Assessing changes in prevalence and public opinion, 1993-2001. American Journal of Community Psychology, 37(1-2), 47+.
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Homeless Veterans

Words: 1464 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50927220

VA & Homeless Vets

There is not a shortage of public issues that tend to pull at the heartstrings of many people. Whether it be poverty, abuse or neglect of children or people being homeless or otherwise desperate, it would seem that there is no shortage of people in dire need of assistance. A prominent subset of the homeless population just mentioned are the homeless people that are veterans of the United States Armed Forces. As one might expect, the Veterans Affairs (VA) Administration has a program that is specifically meant to address the issue of many veterans being homeless. While it may not be popular to say, the solution to this social problem is not as easy as one might expect as there is only so much money, resources and options that exist.

Analysis

The challenges that faces the VA or anyone else will tend to have when it…… [Read More]

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Homeless the Disenfranchised Population of

Words: 702 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44526209

The stories are as varied as the people, but certainly one cannot lump every homeless person into a bundle and say they "want to be" in this condition (Conference of Mayors, 2009).

My assignement for Thanksgiving Day was filling coffee and Kool-Aid. This was perfect because it forced me to interact and get to know some of the clients in a different way. This was a real paradigm shift, and something that took me out of my comfort zone and provided a new personal achievement for me. I found the clients, for the most part to be engaging, interesting, and polite. They were so genuinely grateful that I was taken aback by the sheer emotionality of the situation.

Because of this Holiday experience, I continued on with the shelter a minimum of two days per week. I quickly found that one of the issues that seemed to be holding many…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Housing and Urban Development, Dept. (2010). "Chronic Homelessness." HUD.GOV.

Cited in: http://www.hud.gov/offices/cpd/homeless/chronic.cfm

U.S. Conference of Mayors. (December 2009). "Hunger and Homelessness."

USMAYORS.ORG. Cited in:
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Miami Homeless

Words: 1511 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24319113

Homelessness

Hearing the story about the 90-year-old being arrested in Fort Lauderdale for feeding the homeless had me thinking that South Florida, with its warm weather, probably has a significant homeless issue. So I decided to look at the homelessness situation in Miami. As it turns out, Miami-Dade County and the City of Miami have an interesting situation with respect to homelessness. In some ways, they seem to have similar views to Fort Lauderdale with respect to criminalizing the homeless, but they are also working to eliminate homelessness in their community. For me, this makes for an interesting social and public policy case study.

Causes of Homelessness

There is a reasonably good supply of affordable housing in Miami, but as the video about Toronto shows, the availability of housing is not usually the cause of homelessness. Many homeless in the Toronto video originally had homes that they owned, but either…… [Read More]

References

Book, R. (2014). End of homelessness in Miami-Dade in sight. Miami Herald. Retrieved November 20, 2014 from  http://www.miamiherald.com/opinion/op-ed/article3564875.html 

Camillus House (2014). What causes homelessness? Camillus House. Retrieved November 20, 2014 from http://www.camillus.org/about-us/what-causes-homelessness/

Gregerson, A. (2014). Homeless presents numerous problems for South Florida. University of Miami. Retrieved November 20, 2014 from  http://students.com.miami.edu/netreporting/?page_id=1632 

Henry, M., Cortes, A., Morrs, S. (2013). The 2013 Annual Homeless Assessment Report to Congress. U.S. Dept. Of Housing and Urban Development.
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Treatment for the Homeless

Words: 5851 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27753025

Homeless Mental Health

Mental health is an issue that is deemed to be very under-treated and very under-diagnosed within the United States. Beyond that, there are populations that are much more at risk than others. A good example would be the prison population where drug use and mental health issues are both rampant. However, there is another group that is highly stricken and very vexing and difficult to treat and that would be the homeless. Indeed, many people that are homeless are in that position due to mental health issues. Mental health is often not the only issue involved as comorbidity can exist with substance abuse. However, mental health will be the focus of this report. Facets of the homeless with mental health that will be focused upon within this report will include issues like diversity, ethics, values, social justice, diagnosing of patients, initiation/termination of care, aftercare, and the broader…… [Read More]

References

Belcher, J. R. (1988). Rights vs. Needs of Homeless Mentally Ill Persons. Social Work, 33(5), 398.

Chambers, C., Chiu, S., Scott, A., Tolomiczenko, G., Redelmeier, D., Levinson, W., & Hwang,

S. (2014). Factors Associated with Poor Mental Health Status Among Homeless Women

With and Without Dependent Children. Community Mental Health Journal, 50(5), 553-
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Permanent Supportive Housing for the Homeless

Words: 914 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73819662

Homeless Individuals With Mental Illness and Permanent Supportive Housing

Homeless people with severe mental illness have a difficult time transitioning into a more stable living condition. Finding permanent supportive housing for mentally ill homeless persons can be essential to helping to improve their condition and quality of life, and yet such housing can be rare due to lack of funds and/or governmental support/oversight.

Question to be Addressed

What interventions help homeless individuals with severe mental illness transition into a more stable living condition; specifically, does supportive housing translate into better quality of life for homeless individuals with mental illness -- and if so, how?

Permanent Supportive Housing (PSH)

PSH can be defined as a combination of housing and services oriented towards helping persons with serious mental health issues who require support for stable living. PSH acts as a housing community that combines shelter with health care.

The effect of PSH…… [Read More]

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Asian History the Homeless Children Dower Describes

Words: 595 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2968240

Asian History

The homeless children Dower describes in Embracing Defeat experience a type of structural inequality both similar to and different from the types of inequality addressed in Consuming Kids. In both case, the children are systematically disenfranchised before they have an input into the course of their lives. The structural inequalities faced by the disenfranchised victims of World War Two in Japan included dire straits, homelessness, and poverty. These are certainly realities in the United States, too. In the United States, Japanese children had been portrayed with rank racism, in a systematic propaganda campaign. The same types of propaganda campaigns are used by marketing professionals, in their quest to lure young minds and change children's behaviors.

Structural inequity can be traced to manipulation. Manipulation is a key theme in both Embracing Defeat and Consuming Kids. In Japan and in the United States, political power is wielded from a variety…… [Read More]

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HIV AIDS Epidemic Among the Homeless

Words: 2896 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20134468

HIV / AIDS epidemic among the homeless

HIV, the epidemic that seems to have no end, rears it head year after year causing catastrophic damage. Now more than ever, all individuals regardless of race or demographics must be weary of the devastation this virus can cause. One social economic class that is particularly prone to this epidemic is that of the homeless community. According the center for disease control and prevention, the African-American community accounts for nearly 46% of people living with a HIV diagnosis (1). Of those, 23% are homeless. What is even more mindboggling is the fact that the African-American community only accounts for 13% of the current U.S. population.

Estimated ates of New HIV Infections,

by ace/Ethnicity and Gender, 2006

(Source: CDC. Subpopulation Estimates from the HIV Incidence Surveillance System -- United States, 2006. MMW. 2008; 57(36):985 -- 989)

Obviously, the best way to mitigate the risk…… [Read More]

References

1) "HIV / AIDS and African-Americans | Topics | CDC HIV / AIDS." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Web. 03 May 2011. .

2) "HIV and AIDS among African-Americans." AIDS & HIV Information from the AIDS Charity AVERT. Web. 03 May 2011. .

3) "Sexual Activity Fact Sheet." Sexual Activity Fact Sheet. Summer 2008. Web. May 2010. http://www.kff.org/youthhivstds/upload/U-S-Teen-Sexual-Activity-Fact-Sheet.pdf>.

4) "Child Trend Databank." Child Trend Data Bank. Web. May 2010. .