Distinguish terms 'criterion -- referenced assessment' 'norm-referenced assessment'.
Robert Glaser's 1963 paper "Instructional Technology and the Measurement of Learning Outcomes" marked a watershed in psychometrics, the measurement of educational effectiveness. Glaser's innovation came through classifying two particular means of comparing test outcomes, and his definitions continue to drive controversial change in the provision of education across the United States to this day. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 represents the maturation of a very concrete and nationwide movement toward what Glaser termed "criterion-referenced measures" (Glaser 1963, p. 7), the measurement of individual student test results against absolute scores intended to demonstrate mastery of coursework, as opposed to "norm-referenced measures" (Glaser 1963, p. 8), which rank students' mastery of coursework relative to each other. Both types of measurement are used for different purposes at the same time, often with the same instrument (Popham and Husek 1969, p. 19), even while one national modern trend seems to be a revaluation of the one over the other as if they were binary opposites, rather than complimentary methods of assessment.
The formal study of test performance measurement separates psychometric techniques into many categories. Glaser's definition of criterion-referenced against norm-referenced measurement rested on a prior distinction between aptitude and achievement testing, where aptitude refers to a student's potential to learn in the future, and achievement testing attempts to measure proficiency, or students' mastery of course content, although this distinction is sometimes blurred (Glaser 1963, p. 6). Criterion- as opposed to norm-referenced measurement generally attempts to quantify achievement, either after presentation of target material or both before and after presentation, with the initial test providing a benchmark against which post-teaching comprehension can then be compared (so-called ipsative measurement, where the student competes with herself (Neil, Wadley and Phinn 1999, p. 304)). Aptitude tests could be criterion-referenced if mastery could be predicted from specific knowledge already obtained, except there would be no way to test comprehension of material to which the student has not yet been treated. Inferential statistics are widely used in both regimes to imply future performance, overt or unstated, but norm-referenced assessment has traditionally...
Whereas ipsative measurement tests a student's comprehension against their own prior knowledge -- really, the prior lack thereof -- after the treatment has been applied, discussion of norm- or criterion-referenced psychometrics implies students' performance is measured against each other or against a target benchmark, respectively. The difference lies in how the results are compared, because the two formats often appear similar in presentation and both depend on the validity of evidence justifying the appropriateness of individual test questions (Fernandez-Ballestros 1993, p. 283). The difference in how the outcomes are presented become significant because either form of comparison gives rise to widely different consequences for both the acquisition (learning) and the transmission (pedagogy) of subject content.
Structural Differences in Application, Interpretation
Colburn (2009) points out that while norm-referenced assessment is often used to measure individual competency and also rank students, attempting to derive both types of results from the same instrument is inappropriate because the two types of measurement are structurally distinct. This departure has arisen since Popham's early argument that the same test can yield information for both styles of reference (1969, p. 36). Either way, there are constraints that underlie both however they are applied. Since norm-referenced assessment compares students' performance against each other to derive hierarchical rank (best; second-best; third-best), then if all students answer a particular question correctly, that data point is often rejected as useless because it reveals no difference between test subjects. Therefore this implies norm-referenced assessment requires a large enough series of questions such that all students do not get all the answers correct, or hierarchical ranking would be impossible and a norm-referenced assessment would be useless. Test subjects' rank can be sliced into percentiles, and a particular rank designated as the line between pass and fail, but within cohorts, norm-referenced assessment is powerless to distinguish between identical scores. Grading on the curve requires just that, a curve, not a spike where all students are the same.
Teaching under criterion-referenced assessment on the other hand could include a result where all students scored perfectly, because the designation between pass and fail would depend…
Although the boy's loudness resulted in a sanction from his father there were none forthcoming from customers around them. This suggests that a certain level of tolerance and flexibility is granted to children when regarding social norms -- they are less familiar with them. Also, the boy was under the impression that it was feasible for him to get onto the roof of the library, while the father recognized
Norms of Behavior Behavioral theorists have long recognized the influence of norms upon behavior, and for decades at least, practitioners have tried to use the media, group opinion leaders, and small-group or other interactive activities in sexuality and HIV education classes to change norms and to thereby change behavior. In addition, for a variety of reasons, people have tried to increase connectedness between youth and their families, schools and faith communities.
The second time, I sat down next to a woman who was sitting alone. The woman turned and looked directly at me and furrowed her brow just a bit as she was turning away. I could hear her sigh as she shifted over dramatically as if to avoid being too close. She was reading a book and listening to headphones. Although she glared at me at first, she refused to
Norms Psychological Observations and Norms: Comparison in terms of Multicultural and Traditional Research Methodology In the field of psychology, research methods vary significantly based on the sources of information that are focused on, how that information is samples, and the types of instruments that are used in data collection. Generally, methods vary in terms of whether they collect qualitative, quantitative data, or both. This research methodology further contains both multicultural and
norms and values surrounding marriage and family. In the fifties, life in the United States was good. Posterity was evident throughout most levels of society and there was little reason to question or even consider the importance of marriage and family. The dawning of the sixties, however, beginning with the Cuban missile crisis, the upheaval over Civil Rights, and the assassination of President Kennedy brought discontent and soul searching
For example, at the end of a history class' unit on the Revolutionary War, a summative test would asses how much the student had retained about this critical period in the nation's history. It would measure the student's effort and the teacher's relative success in imparting knowledge to the student. In contrast, a formative assessment like a quiz measures what is currently being taught in class. It measures the student's