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Assessment and Special Education

Words: 1334 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 84617524

Special Education

Assessment Options

There were a number of eminent points and observations regarding the methodology of assessment utilized within Maryellen Weimer's article, "Making exams more about learning," which initially appeared in The Teaching Professor in 2011. This article essentially functions as a case study in which an undergraduate instructor, Thomas Smith, employed a number of unusual methods to assist his students with the process of assessment. Among the measures that Smith adopted was grading the examinations students took individually with each student, as well as allowing them access to previous examinations on the same topic. While analyzing Smith's methodology, the author makes note of both positive and negative points that can aid additional instructors who want to incorporate some of Smith's techniques in the future. The overall effect is that readers and pedagogues are able to get a practical, compressive overview of alternate assessment methods that can easily be…… [Read More]


Osborn, J. (1998) "Assessing gifted children." Understanding Our Gifted Open Space Communications, Inc. 9-12. Retrieved from 

The Center for Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement. (no date). "Using classroom assessment to improve teaching." Retrieved from 

Reschley, D.J. (1996). "Identification and assessment of students with disabilities." The Future of Children. 6 (1): 40-52. Retrieved from 

Weimer, M. (2011). "Making exams more about learning." The Teaching Professor. 25 (2): 5. Retrieved from
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Assessment Center Approach

Words: 1832 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Business Proposal Paper #: 57034075

CEO who asked for a short report on strategic human resource management was impressed with the report. Following the reading of the research on strategic human resource management and considering how senior individuals in the organization are selected the Assessment Center Approach caught the attention of the CEO. The objective of this work is to prepare a proposal that includes a description of this approach as well as methods of measuring the effectiveness of the approach and the costs and benefits anticipated for such an approach.

The "Guidelines and Ethical Considerations for Assessment Center Operations" Task Force on Assessment Center Guidelines states that the Assessment Center "…consists of a standardized evaluation of behavior based on multiple inputs. Multiple trained observers and techniques are used. Judgments about behaviors are made, in major part, from specifically developed assessment simulations. These judgments are pooled in a meeting among the assessors or by a…… [Read More]


Byham, William C. (2011a) What is an Assessment Center. Development Dimensions International, Inc. Retrieved from: 

Byham, William C. (2011b) The Assessment Center Method and Methodology: New Applications and Technologies. DDI. Retrieved from: 

Guidelines and Ethical Considerations for Assessment Center Operations (2000) International Task Force on Assessment Center Guidelines Endorsed by the 28th International Congress on Assessment Center Methods May 4, 2000 San Francisco, California, U.S.A. Retrieved from: 

Overview of the Assessment Centre Approach Popularity of the Assessment Centre Approach (2011) Canadian Public Service Commission. Retrieved from:
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Assessment and Treatment of Criminal Offenders

Words: 2787 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 76109918

Treatment of Criminal Offenders

As a clinician, how can you apply the knowledge you gained from this course to more effectively serve your clients?

A connection has been established by researchers between brutal and violent susceptibility to impair a particular area of the brain. Till date, several evidence, have assisted to bring into limelight the shady aspect of human attitude and might pave the way for important interference. For instance, several types of spontaneous aggression might be a result of defective balancing of emotion within the prefrontal cortex of the brain, the centre of superior intellectual activities like judgment, analysis and substantial control of impulses. The degree of malfunctions in the core circuits of the brain related to aggressive behavior and if these circuits are capable of being repaired is of course debatable. esearchers have mentioned that individuals inclined to violence have structured blueprints in the brain that can be…… [Read More]


Allen, Harry E; Simonsen, C.E. (1998) "Corrections in America" New York, NY: Macmillan Publishing Company.

Gendreau, P & Goggin, C. (1996) "Principles of Effective Programming with Offenders" Forum on Corrections Research, Volume: 8; No: 3, pp: 38-40.

Hoge, R.D. & Andrews, D.A. (1996) "Assessing the Youthful Offender: Issues and Techniques" New York: Plenum.

Jacobs, B. L; Azmitia, E.C. (1992) "Structure and function of the brain serotonin system" Physiological Reviews. Volume: 72; pp:165-229.
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Reflection on Assessment Competencies for School Leadership

Words: 1602 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 30167639

Assessment Competencies
Assessment in education is referred to a range of tools or methods used by educators to measure, document and evaluate the academics readiness, skill acquisition, progress and learning needs of students. The tracking progress report plays an important role to the student since it gauges where they are heading in terms of academics. Assessment is often likened to the traditional standardized tests but educators nowadays, use different types of assessment tools or methods. In the past, normal tests were the way to go when assessing students. That has changes over the years. According to (Xu, 2016) teacher assessment literacy has defined the field of research. Educators have come up with innovative ways to ensure that none of the traditional ways sees the light of day. Assessment involves a holistic evaluation of students or a leader. The result should bring a positive impact on the lives of…… [Read More]

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Teaching Allows Learning and Assessment for Those

Words: 2519 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97759434

teaching allows learning and assessment for those that are my learners, as a painting and decorating tutor with the view to self-develop and progress. e will learn how to make the most of and inspire learning and how diversity and fairness play a significant part for both teachers and learners.

Most would probably know that assessment is getting the measurement of the learners' reaction to understanding and competence in teaching instruction (Curzon pg 383). In the job as a painter and decorating tutor, assessment are very important and foremost, as in the way learners are measured against usual standards prior to exams and attaining combined standing. My proficient and personal thoughts upon assessments are that as a teacher we need to be able to utilize various of methods and skills that will be employed to inspire and really keep learners motivated while giving feedback that is constructive in allowing them…… [Read More]

Works Cited

APPLEYARD, N. a. (2010). Communicating with Learners in the LifeLong Sector. Glasglow: Learning Matters.

BLACK, P. a. (2010, May 13). Inside the Black Box: Raising Standards Through Classroom Assessment, Phi Delta Kappan. Retrieved from 

COWLEY, S. (2008, March). Teaching Skills For Dummies. Atlanta: Cowans Publishing.

CURZON, L. (2006). Teaching in Further Education, an Outline of Principles and Practice. Oxford: 6th Edition. Continuum.
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Theory and Methods in Clinical Psychology

Words: 1273 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 58668587

Psychological test or assessment method. "The Substance Abuse Questionnaire -- Adult Probation III

Brief Description of the Test

The recent release of one of the youngest convicted child murders in our nation's history, Lionel Tate, now an adult, into the general population, has highlighted the difficulty of determining if a former prisoner should be eligible for parole. Psychologists have attempted to answer this difficult and subjective question by designing the objectively-assessed test known as "The Substance Abuse Questionnaire -- Adult Probation III" exam. (Risk & Needs Assessment, Inc., 1997) This test was originally designed in 1987 exclusively for adult prisoners eligible for probation to determine the risk of paroling them and assessing their risk to society and has since been updated, in 1997, to include inventories for truthfulness. (Spies, 2003)

The SAQ is 165-item questionnaire. It can be administered either in a paper and pencil format or on a computer.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Educational Research Association. (1999). Standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.

SAQ -- The Substance Abuse Questionnaire -- Adult Probation III (1997). Risk & Needs Assessment, Inc.

Spies, Robert. (2003). [Review of the SAQ -- Adult Probation [Substance Abuse Questionnaire].]. Buros Institute of Mental Measurements. .

Toneatto, T. (1995). [Review of the SAQ -- Adult Probation [Substance Abuse Questionnaire].] In J.C. Conoley & J.C. Impara (Eds.). The twelfth mental measurements yearbook (pp. 889-891). Lincoln, NE: Buros Institute of Mental Measurements.
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Student Assessment and Background Variation Flexnet Courses

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22466555

Student Assessment and Background Variation

Flexnet courses are both online, and face-to-face, and so have a variety of assessment methods available, including both written and oral components, though all require English fluency. Technology competency and small group work are key.

Flexnet courses are both online, and face-to-face, and so have a variety of assessment methods available. Online courses based in newsgroups have primarily written assessments, including mandatory short-answer essays and written participation, which requires both reading comprehension and writing skills. Longer written essays and PowerPoint presentations are both common online assessment methods. Small group learning teams will require proficiency in informal written communication, and possibly oral communication in the form of phone calls. Face-to-face assessment methods vary widely, and include oral presentations, oral class discussions, and small group work resulting in a written product. All of these, of course, are conducted in English, and therefore require English reading comprehension and…… [Read More]

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Insider Trading Risk Assessment Insider

Words: 2321 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 77584682

However, it would be safer to follow general policies that are being followed even now. This means that one should pass on published information to shareholders on the Internet as it would be simpler and less expensive to send. This may include information about quarterly results, monthly turnover, changes of directors, appointment of new sales agents, general trends of markets at certain times, etc. The question would still remain as to how many shareholders would be competent enough to use this information and the passing on of information may result for the clients as an exercise of garbage in, garbage out.

5. Discuss the legal boundaries, including privacy issues. What exceptions if any exist to allow for the use of such data? If they do not exist, how would you counter the privacy advocates concerns?

Some experts believe that privacy concerns will ultimately reduce the growth of the Internet generally…… [Read More]


Insider Trading" U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. Retrieved at . Accessed 15 October, 2005

Is Government needed to watch online markets?" (11 November, 2002) Harvard Business

School. Retrieved at,289142,sid19_gci864459,00.html . Accessed 15 October, 2005

Ivancevich, Susan; Jones, Lucian. C; Keaveney, Thomas. (December, 2002) "Don't Run the Risk" Journal of Accountancy. Retrieved at . Accessed 15 October, 2005
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Differentiated Learning & Assessment -- PLC Presentation

Words: 1743 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47845156

Differentiated Learning & Assessment -- PLC Presentation

Differentiated instruction and assessment recognizes that the individual needs, strengths and weaknesses of students must drive learning (Wormeli, 2007). Changing the outcomes of traditional lesson plans to account for differentiated learning is a fundamental part of ensuring student success. Each student's readiness, interest and learning profile is at the core of this approach. Students are diverse; therefore, instructional and assessment practices should be as well, to improve student outcomes in all content areas.

Many teachers design lessons that have a set of specific learning objectives and standardized assessments for students. However, today's learning models ask teachers to adopt multiple objectives and use different levels of assessment for more individualized learning (Dobbertin, 2012). Differentiation of process, then, refers to the way in which a student accesses material (i.e., one student may explore a learning center, while another may conduct an online search for information).…… [Read More]


Dobbertin, C. (2012). Just How I Need to Learn It. Educational Leadership, 69(5), 66-70

Forsten, Char, Grant, J., & Hollas, B. (2003). Differentiating Textbooks: Strategies to Improve Student Comprehension & Motivation. New Hampshire: Crystal Springs Books.

Heacox, Diane. (2002). Differentiating Instruction in the Regular Classroom: How to Reach and Teach All Learners, Grades 3-12. Minnesota: Free Spirit Publishing.

Painter, D.D. (2009). Providing Differentiated Learning Experiences Through Multigenre Projects. Intervention in School & Clinic, 44(5), 288-293.
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Clinical Assessment of Learners Clinical Assessment Involves

Words: 2688 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35872340

Clinical Assessment of Learners

Clinical assessment involves the evaluation of technical skills, communication skills, professionalism, knowledge base, and teaching skills, where applicable, of students who are about to enter independent practice. Technological changes have made it possible to assess clinical performance in ways that are far more advanced than pencil and paper tests relied on in the past (Dauphinee, 1995). In the late 1970s, clinical training programs utilized continuous practical assessments to evaluate learner competencies and as means of providing formative assessment feedback. These continuous practical assessments were considered to be "a much more valid, reliable, and realistic method of assessment" (Quinn, 1989). As clinical placements grew shorter and the number of staff, including those with "supernumerary status" grew larger, the quality of continuous practical assessments was substantively impaired (Girot, 1993). The goal of assessment has always been to identify a "competent practitioner" and to support the educational efforts required…… [Read More]


Andrews, M. And Chilton, F. (2000) Student and mentor perceptions of mentoring effectiveness, Nurse Education Today, 20 (7), 555-562.

Atkins, S. And Williams, A. (1995) Registered nurses' experiences of mentoring undergraduate nursing students, Journal of Advanced Nursing, 21, 1006-1015.

Cahill, H.A. (1996) A qualitative analysis of student nurses' experiences of mentorship,

Journal of Advanced Nursing, 24(4), 791-799.
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Education Assessment Theories and Practices

Words: 1142 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 10904709

Standardized tests do not do well in measuring the emerging content standards, and over use of this type of assessment often leads to instruction that stresses only basic knowledge and skills. Although basic skills may be important goals in education, they are often overstressed in an effort to raise standardized test scores. Basic skills and minimum competencies become the main goal of schools and teachers as accountability and minimum competency exams concentrate on these areas (Critical Issue: ethinking Assessment and Its ole in Supporting Educational eform, 1995).

ecently, educators, policymakers, and parents have begun to recognize that minimums and basics are no longer sufficient and are calling for a closer match between the skills students learn in school and the skills they will need to succeed in the world. Schools are now expected to help students develop skills and competencies that apply to real life, genuine situations, and schools are…… [Read More]

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Student Assessment The Superiority of

Words: 2542 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 37255157

This helps them deal with administrative tasks such as applying for grants, reporting their progress, appeasing parents, etc. In addition, teacher-based methods of assessment have at least one positive implication for students. According to Flood et al., teacher-based assessments allow teachers to enter the process of scaffolding with significant foreknowledge. Flood et al. (2003). suggests that all good assessment includes a component in which a teacher plans and sets goals, and then collecting data and interpreting it. This can be done in the classroom or at the macro level -- applicable to either the school itself or the state. Teachers can use the data gleaned from teacher-centered assessment as a means by which to identify areas of weakness and address them (Kearns, 2009). Standardized testing and teacher-based testing in classrooms allows teachers to determine where most students are having problems and use scaffolding techniques to intervene on the student's behalf…… [Read More]


Chall, J.S. & Adams, M.J. (2002). The Academic Achievement Challenge: What Really

Works in the Classroom. New York: Guilford.

Flood, J. et al. (2003). The Handbook of Research on Teaching the English Language

Arts 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lawrence Erlbaum.
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Curriculum Assessment in the Document

Words: 1268 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 77257892

This in turn reflects badly upon me. There is no valid way in which I can adjust my teaching methods to relate to the narrowly focused test material without severely harming my or my students' goals towards excellence and future success.

Having spoken with other teachers in my school and district, I have found that the problem also applies to teachers of other subject areas and other schools in my district. After carefully considering the issue, it was decided that a number of suggestions should be made to the chool Board and district authorities. These are of course substantiated with current teaching and assessment theory.

Conclusions and Recommendations

The first and most important suggestion will be that the assessment methods should be more closely related to teaching methods in the classroom. Like children, teachers have their particular personalities and goals for the classroom. These are concomitant with teaching methods, and…… [Read More]


Hlebowitsh, Peter S. (2005). Designing the School Curriculum. First Edition. Allyn and Bacon.

Porter, Andrew. (1995). Critical Issue: Integrating Assessmsent and Instruction in Ways that Support Learning. Wisconsin Center for Education Research.

Porter, Andrew (2004, Jan 2). Curriculum Assessment.Vanderbilt University.

Taylor, Catherine S. & Nolen, Susan Bobbitt. (2005). Classroom Assessment: Supporting Teaching and Learning in Real Classrooms. Merrill/Prentice Hall.
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Mathematics Assessment

Words: 1864 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35582929

Mathematics is closely connected to economics, commerce and business modelling, as well as systems for military weapons. Due to the widespread of its use, it was noted that students in the U.S. were beginning to perform a little worse in mathematics than children from other countries worldwide. Mathematical knowledge among citizens was considered a very important factor for a country to be a leading world power. Assessment activities have been a continuing focus of academic research for more than twenty-five years. In that period, there have been new tools developed. In addition, the curriculum has shifted its focus to the results of learning. The shift of focus in the theory of learning to constructivism from behaviourism has greatly influenced the learning and teaching of mathematics. Conventional tests are only centred on the mathematical procedures and skills of students. Thus, application of authentic tools for assessment to measure the learning of…… [Read More]

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Education the Three Main Types of Assessments

Words: 1192 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53961459


The three main types of assessments for the Highfield Awarding ody for Compliance Level 3 Preparing to Teach in the Lifelong Learning Sector qualification specifically gauge whether or not a pedagogue understands the three primary components of his or her profession: that of the responsibilities of the teacher, that of the responsibilities towards the learners, and that of the responsibilities of proper classroom management. Although these areas are far from mutually exclusive in scope and focus, the fact that they are listed as distinct from one another alludes to the individual importance each assessment is given within the realm of education. Foremost of these assessments involves the primary role of the educator, and details both the legal requirements and common practices inherent in the professional status of this occupation. Candidates must demonstrate mastery of these mandates, as well as of those which directly affect their particular didactic focus, be…… [Read More]


Cooper, D. 2006. Talk About Assessment: Strategies and Tools to Improve Learning, ON: Thomson Nelson, Toronto

HABC Level 3 PTLLS Candidate Assessments, 2011, Highfield Awarding Body for Compliance.

O'Connor, K. 2002. How to Grade for Learning. Skylight, Arlington Heights.

Rethinking Assessment with Purpose in Mind: assessment for learning, assessment as learning, assessment of learning, 2006, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada: MECY.
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Organizational Assessment Plan

Words: 4905 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 40691584

Organizational Assessment as Impetus for Change at a Vet Center

Organizational Assessment as an Impetus for Change at a Vet Center

Organizational Context. Every type of organization has, or should have, as a major goal, the need to optimize the productivity of its human resources (Farr, Schuler & Smith, 1993). One organization that has recently assumed critical importance in the U.S. is the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). Today, the VA is responsible for administering an enormous healthcare and benefits network for its active duty and retired service members and their families at U.S. taxpayer expense.

Among the most prominent of such government-administered programs is the healthcare systems comprised of VA medical centers (VAMCs), outpatient clinics (VAOPCs), community and outreach clinics, and numerous Vet Centers. In fact, taken together, almost one-third of the American population (around 70 million persons who are veterans, dependents and survivors of deceased veterans) are eligible…… [Read More]


Alioth, A., Duell, W., Frei, F., Hugentobler, M., & Schurman, S. (1993). Work design for the competent organization. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.

Becker-Reems, E., & Garrett, D. (1998). Testing the limits of teams: How to implement self- management in health care. Chicago: American Hospital Publishing.

Coopman, S.J. (2001). Democracy, performance and outcomes in interdisciplinary health care teams. The Journal of Business Communication, 38(3), 261.

Dallimore, E.J. & Souza, T.J. (2002). Consulting course design: Theoretical frameworks and pedagogical strategies. Business Communication Quarterly, 65(4), 86.
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Psychometric Assessment of Autism

Words: 3635 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15294317

Psychometric Assessment Autism

Background of Autism

What is autism? Autism is a disease, which poses tons of questions, while providing least of answers. This being said, autism is one of the five diseases coming under Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD). It shows in early years of a human and effects the brain's functioning. An autism website states that, 'it's a result of a neurological disorder, which hampers the proper operations of a brain, hindering the social interactions and communications' (Autism Society of America website). Autism asks us millions questions, its origins, its solutions, its causes and symptoms; none of which are answered. The diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (American Psychiatric Association (APA), 2013), states that, autism is basically pervasive developmental disorder otherwise called Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). It is described as a condition where the person faces severe problem in social communication, interactions, perception and communication. APA (2013) shows…… [Read More]


Alpern, G.D. (2007). Developmental Profile 3. Lutz, FL: Western Psychological Services.

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. Arlington, VA, American Psychiatric Association, 2013.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2010. 

Cohen, D., Pichard, N., Tordjman, S., Baumann, C., Burglen, L., & Excoffier, E. (2005). Specific genetic disorders and autism: Clinical contribution towards their identification. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 35, 103 -- 116.
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Personality Assessment Instruments Millon Rorschach

Words: 2270 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 32945520

This 14-year-old male is currently in the ninth grade. In the demographic portion of the test, he identifies "restless/bored" as the problem that is troubling him the most. A tendency toward avoiding self-disclosure is evident in this adolescent's response style. This nondisclosure may signify characterological evasiveness or an unwillingness to divulge matters of a personal nature, problematic or not. Also possible are broad deficits in introspectiveness and psychological-mindedness, owing to either emotional impoverishment or thought vagueness" (Millon 2005).


As evidenced in the above, sample assessment, the Millon devices are all-encompassing, giving a diagnosis and analysis of a multitude of different factors relating to an individual's state of mental health. A statistical recording of all responses and how they correlate to different mental health conditions is included and incorporated into the assessment. The assessment can make judgments about an adolescent's developmental state, as for example the above 9th grader's lack…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dana, Richard Henry. (2005). Multicultural assessment. New York: Routledge.

Millon, Theodore, Carrie Millon, Roger Davis, & Seth Grossman. (2008). MACI:

Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory. Pearson Assessments. Retrieved 11 Nov 2008 at 

Millon, Theodore, Carrie Millon, Roger Davis, & Seth Grossman. (2008). MCMI-III:
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Performances Performance Based Assessments Can

Words: 560 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1034493

It can occasionally become difficult to find projects that truly engage students and that reinforce didactic principles as well. Other challenges that are associated with performance based assessment include the pecuniary costs, as well as significant amounts of time, that are associated with coming up with alternative assessment measure. Creating and designing tests for students to complete are cost-effective, fairly quick ways of measuring a student's knowledge at a given moment in time regarding a particular subject. Consequently, many administrative officials and state level educational personnel whose jobs it is to measure the most effective usage of monetary resources for schools prefer such assessment methods, and claim that alternative methods are more costly and not necessarily even worth the time and money to create or implement.

It is difficult to say whether or not these criticisms of performance based assessment are valid or if they are simply excuses to continue…… [Read More]

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Alternative Assessment Educational Reforms Are

Words: 1750 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 42255251

As with most assessments, there are disadvantages in using criterion-referenced tests. The most obvious limit to this type of assessment is its susceptibility to inadequately reflect the curriculum. This is particularly true with state mandated criterion-referenced tests. State-level test makers are far removed from classrooms; they do not witness the goings-on of individual schools and classrooms. Due to this distance, state-created criterion-referenced tests may assess knowledge and skills that may not have been taught. They certainly do not allow for local needs, interests, and abilities. Another serious limitation to criterion-referenced tests is their tendency to inadequately evaluate students' abilities. These assessment tools may not provide a holistic and complete illustration of students' knowledge and skills. This, by nature, reduces the purpose and effectiveness of assessment.

As pointed out, criterion-referenced tests contain some respectable characteristics. However, its flaws, if serious enough, may outweigh the potential benefits. For this reason, it seems…… [Read More]


Clark, Robin E. "Performance Assessment in the Arts." Kappa Delta Pi Record. 39.1 (2003):

Ediger, Marlow. "Philosophy and Measurement of School Achievement." Journal of Instructional Psychology. 30.9 (2003):1-6.

Moon, Tonya R., Brighton Catherine M., & Callahan, Carolyn M. "Development of Authentic

Assessments for the Middle School Classroom." The Journal of Secondary Gifted
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Alternative Assessments

Words: 508 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38841253

Counter Point

Point: "Assessments are a powerful tool that can be constructed and used by teachers to improve student learning" (Holler et al., 2008).

Counterpoint: "Teacher-made tests may neither provide an accurate source of information about student mastery of the content nor properly prepare students for high-stakes tests" (Holler et al., 2008).

In assessing the aforementioned statements it appears both are flawed to some degree. Each suggests valid points but neither capture the essence of the problem at hand. Assessments are indeed useful and important tools, but only when used in moderation. Balance and reason are more important assessments, but that does not mean they have no value.

Teachers and administrators are endowed with many challenges within the school systems they work within, but they are also blessed with many tools to solve those challenges. Assessments are tools that teachers and administrators may use to help get a clearer picture…… [Read More]

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ELL Students Appropriate Assessments to

Words: 649 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 96639273

These assessment techniques may include open-ended or closed survey questions, interviews, structured observations by the teacher in the learning environment, and performance-based assignments like writing portfolios or role-plays ("Document ELL Progress," 2008, ELL ebsite).

hat are the benefits of using alternative assessments for ELL students? For native English speakers?

For ELL students, particularly those whose written proficiency has not yet matched their oral proficiency, alternative assessment techniques give the student additional ways to show the teacher what they know, and also to gain more social confidence in the English language. However, all students have unique learning styles and can benefit from the creativity and enthusiasm these assessment methods generate. Additionally, these techniques can also bring the different intelligences of some neglected talents to light, such as performing. They encourage students to use the concepts that are being taught in class, and help the teacher establish a more on-on-one relationship with…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Academic & social English for ELL students: Assessing both with the Stanford English

Language Proficiency Test." (2003, Sept). Harcourt Assessment, Inc. Retrieved 27 Mar 2008 at 

Document ELL Progress." ELL Website. Job Corps. Retrieved 27 Mar 2008 at
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Screening and Assessment Techniques

Words: 669 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41412717

Screening and Assessment Methods

Drug or substance abuse and other addictive disorders have become a major issue in the United States given their prevalence among adult members across various occupations and workforce. Actually, recent statistics and trends have indicated that working adults account for a huge portion of illicit drug users. Notably, the substance abuse and other addictive disorders not only involve the use of illicit drugs but also entail misuse of prescription drugs like stimulants, tranquilizers, sedatives, and analgesics (Hersch, McPherson & Cook, 2002, p.1332). As drug abuse has increased tremendously, the negative impacts of addictive behaviors have become prevalent in the society such as increased health care costs and high rates of accidents. Consequently, several measures have been developed in an attempt to deal with these disorders including cognitive behavioral therapies.

The use of the various measures and therapies usually involves assessing and diagnosing clients for drug abuse…… [Read More]


Copersino et. al. (2012). Effects of Cognitive Impairment on Substance Abuse Treatment

Attendance: Predictive Validation of a Brief Cognitive Screening Measure. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 38(3), 246-250.

Hersch, R.K., McPherson, T.L. & Cook, R.F. (2002). Substance Use in the Construction

Industry: A Comparison of Assessment Methods. Substance Use & Misuse, 37(11), 1331-1358.
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content and reliability of assessments and job

Words: 658 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37224250

1. Why are reliability and validity important for assessment? How are content validity and criterion-related validity used to establish construct validity? Support your position.
Assessment instructions, whether for measuring cognitive ability or intelligence, or for psychometrics like personality, need to be both reliable and valid; otherwise, their results would be meaningless. In fact, using unreliable or invalid assessment instruments could lead to distorted judgments and biased beliefs. The decisions made based on reliable assessments can be sound and productive, whereas decisions made based on invalid or unreliable assessments may be unethical. Assessment reliability refers to how consistent the results are, and validity refers to how well the instrument measures what it intends to measure (“Reliabiity and Validity,” n.d.). The same test administered to the same population at a different point in time should yield similar results—the “test/retest” effect (Sullivan, 2011, p. 119). Likewise, assessment reliability takes into account how the…… [Read More]

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Teacher Performance Assessment

Words: 5549 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 89356313

Teacher Performance Assessment

Lesson Title: Science

Central Focus of Lessons: What science is all about

State Standard(s) Addressed: 7th Grade on science, science methodology and famous scientists.

Lesson Objectives and Language Demands

• Content/Skill Objectives:

Students should state the definition of science

Students should discuss the various science methodologies

Students should name and discuss various prominent scientists

Students should be able to identify the application of science in day to day life

Language Demands: students are required to define and describe what science is. They should also be able to use this understanding of science to apply scientific knowledge.

Use scientific terms and language both in spoken and written presentations of scientific information.

• Key Vocabulary:

Science, scientists, famous scientists, scientific methods

esources and Materials

• esources: class text-books, handouts, charts etc.

• Materials: worksheets, games, projector, Smartboard, paper, pencils, art supplies, cards, post- its, etc.)

NOTE: Attach and/or embed…… [Read More]


Edelson Daniel (2001). Learning-for-use: A framework for the design of technology-supported inquiry activities. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. Volume 38, Issue 3. Pages 355 -- 385.

Pappas Christoforos (2014). Instructional Design Models and Theories: Inquiry-based Learning Model.
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Teacher Performance assessment

Words: 5567 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97655163

Lesson Plan

Grade Level: 7th Grade Subject: Science

Number of Students: 4 Date: Instructional Location: Classroom

Lesson Goals

• Lesson Title: Science

Central Focus of Lessons: What science is all about

State Standard(s) Addressed: 7th Grade on science, science methodology and famous scientists.

Lesson Objectives and Language Demands

• Content/Skill Objectives:

Students should state the definition of science

Students should discuss the various science methodologies

Students should name and discuss various prominent scientists

Students should be able to identify the application of science in day to day life

Language Demands: students are required to define and describe what science is. They should also be able to use this understanding of science to apply scientific knowledge.

Use scientific terms and language both in spoken and written presentations of scientific information.

• Key Vocabulary:

Science, scientists, famous scientists, scientific methods

Resources and Materials

• Resources: class text-books, handouts, charts etc.

• Materials:…… [Read More]

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Formative Mathematical Assessments

Words: 4585 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 84627369

Group Activities as Formative Assessment in Mathematics Classroom

The modern educational system is characterized by an increase demand for accountability and high-stakes testing. The demand for such accountability and testing is demonstrated in the quest for the use of summative assessments that provide a summary of the learning progress of students. Generally, the push for increased accountability and high-stakes testing has contributed to the use of different kinds of assessments that are administered at the state, district, school, and national levels. The use of these various kinds of assessments is not only geared towards realization of increased accountability but also act as a means for comparing and ranking students and schools. An example of the type of assessments that can be used in this process is formative assessments for various topics such as mathematics. Formative assessments are defined as systematic procedures of collecting evidence regarding students' learning to inform teaching…… [Read More]


Benjamin, A. (2013). Math in plain English: literacy strategies for the mathematics classroom.

New York, NY: Routledge.

Black, P. & Wiliam, D. (1998, March). Assessment and Classroom Learning. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 5(1), 1-65.

Callingham, R. (2010). Mathematics Assessment in Primary Classrooms: Making it Count.
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Nurse Assessment an Outcome Assessment

Words: 1621 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 98890200



The methodology of this research is one that is qualitative in nature. The research is one that will use the qualitative method in testing with cases and open problems as to the effectiveness of the training provided to the practical nurse group through case and open problems through direct observations of that which has been taught in which observation is through the structured method specifically work-based assessment. Work-based research is highly effective when clear learning outcomes are in place.


Data will be collected through the trainers in a work-based assessment of the skills acquired during training and education of the practical nurse group. All trainers will meet the requirements of the Department of Defense insofar as credentials and other necessary qualifications.


The data, qualitative in nature will be analyzed through review of the information collected as to the skills of the…… [Read More]


Eisenhower Army Medical Center () Hospital Education and Training

Army Practical Nurse Assessment Online available at

Nursing Education and Training: Alternative Federal Approaches (1978) the Congress of the United States Congressional Budget Office May 1978. Online available at .
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Forms of Authentic Assessment

Words: 1222 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 98888598

Authentic Assessment

By authentic assessment, we mean all the different forms of assessments/evaluations that show students achievement, learning, attitudes, and motivation on all instructionally applicable classroom works. In this era of accountability, different assessment methods are being launched in classrooms as ways of determining the quality of the works students do. Student assessments require students to partake in assignments that necessitate the application of skills and knowledge in real-life conditions. These alternative techniques are real-world frameworks and challenges, such as audiences for the demonstration of strategies and concepts that students have managed to learn. Authentic assessments, ingrained in classroom lessons, address groups of learning objectives and educational goals. These practices place greater emphasis on problem solving, comprehension, critical thinking, metacognition and reasoning, self-reflection, and personal skills as compared with conventional assessment techniques. Concluding student products (e.g., for end of term assessments) include exhibition, portfolios, investigation, performances, journals, experiments, presentations, and…… [Read More]


Frey, B. B., Schmitt, V. L., & Allen, J. P. (2012). Defining authentic classroom assessment. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 17(2), 2.

Herrington, J., & Oliver, R. (2000). An instructional design framework for authentic learning environments. Educational Technology Research and Development, 48(3), 23-48.

Janesick, V. J. (2006). Authentic assessment: Primer. New York: Lang.

Luongo-Orlando, K. (2003). Authentic assessment: Designing performance-based tasks for achieving language arts outcomes. Markham, Ont: Pembroke Publishers.
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Authentic Assessments Are a Progressive

Words: 884 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 84919354

Under the Act, educational professionals work within the existing institutional framework. Teaching is still an authoritarian model rather than being student-centered. Learning is assessed using the measures that have failed many children in the past. Instead of changing the methods of teaching and assessment, the No Child Left Behind Act bolsters them.

A far cry from progressive education, No Child Left Behind has become highly controversial and in need of reform. Progressives from all sorts of political and ideological backgrounds can appreciate the need to move away from No Child Left Behind and toward true educational inclusiveness.

4. Educating the whole child is a term used widely in Montessori, which is a progressive philosophy of education. The whole child theory assumes that children are naturally curious and eager to learn (the Montessori School). Moreover, the whole child concept takes into account social development as well as academic skills acquisition. Educating…… [Read More]


Foundation for Excellence in Education. Retrieved Jan 29, 2009 at 

Jones, T.S. (nd). Education That Makes a Difference: Success Stories for Conflict Resolution Educators. Conflict Resolution Education Connection. Retrieved Jan 29, 209 at

The Montessori School. "Educating the Whole Child." Retrieved Jan 29, 2009 at

Mueller, J. (2008). What is Authentic Assessment? Retrieved Jan 29, 2009 at
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Portfolio Assessment

Words: 2269 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 56403136

teaching profession in order to help students achieve various things.

Goals for students are for example assessed in terms of problem solving, critical thinking, lifelong learning, and thinking independently. Further goals may include personal traits such as persistence, flexibility, motivation, and self-confidence. Portfolios are also helpful to reveal the work processes of students. Teachers can then help students to develop processes through which to monitoring their own learning, and be able to perceive when there is a need to adjust.

Portfolio assessment is also valuable to the teacher in communicating value to the students. Classroom values are those things that are important to the teacher, and the teacher should communicate this adequately to the students. Through portfolio assessment then, both teachers and students receive information from each other about the situation in class and about what can realistically be expected.

Assessment should be integrated with instructions to reflect current instruction…… [Read More]


Adams, Dennis, and Mary E. Hamm.(1992). "Portfolio Assessment and Social Studies: Collecting, Selecting, and Reflecting on What Is Significant." Social Education 56.2,103-105.

Arter, J.A. (1995). "Portfolios for Assessment and Instruction." ERIC Digest.

Broad, Bob. "Reciprocal Authorities in Communal Writing Assessment: Constructing Textual Value within a'New Politics of Inquiry.'"(1997). Assessing Writing 4.2,133-167.

Yancey, K.B. (1992). Portfolios in the writing classroom. Urbana, Illinois: National Council of Teachers of English.
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ICU Delirium Assessment Instrument

Words: 1192 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 37238620

ICU Delirium -- Evidence eview and Synthesis

Evidence eview

Luetz et al. (2014) conducted a study in which they examined how delirium management is an important aspect of intensive care treatment alongside analgesia and sedation management. The main objective of the study was to examine the implementation rate of delirium screening by healthcare professionals in the intensive care unit. To achieve the study's objectives, the researchers utilized a multinational, two-part survey in which hospital and ICU data as well as patients' data was collected and analyzed. The study found that even though 44% of hospitals and ICUs reported using a validated screening assessment, only 27% of patients had been monitored using the instrument. Additionally, the researchers found that a validated screening instrument enhances the ability of healthcare professionals to identify ICU delirium. The study provides Level III evidence, which is essential for this study to promote the use of a…… [Read More]


Filinson et al. (2016). Adoption of Delirium Assessment in the Acute Care Setting: A Tale of Two Hospitals. Best Practices in Mental Health, 12(2), 81-95.

Friedman et al. (2014). Delirium in Advanced Cancer: Screening for the Incidence on Admission to an Inpatient Hospice Unit. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 17(9), 1045-1048.

Ista et al. (2014, October 2). Improvement of Care for ICU Patients with Delirium by Early Screening and Treatment: Study Protocol of iDECePTIvE Study. Implementation Science, 9(143), 1-10.

Luetz et al. (2014, November). Delirium, Sedation and Analgesia in the Intensive Care Unit: A Multinational, Two-Part Survey among Intensivists. PLOS One, 9(11), 1-6.
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Standardized Assessments in the Hiring

Words: 1033 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 66510300

"For example, selecting your next executive, who will have a great deal of responsibility over the company and its people, is a High Impact hiring decision. In other words, the risks and consequences of a bad hiring decision are severe, which necessitates a greater investment into a quality assessment program. However, hiring someone to clean your warehouse is a relatively Low Impact hiring decision, as the consequences of selecting a poor employee are relatively limited" (Haywood 2009).

Haywood's blithe assertion not only flies in the face of participatory management approaches, but is blatantly unsubstantiated by any evidence in his article. It is possible to argue, for example, that a lower-level technician capable of swiftly fixing an error in a user's Blackberry service is just as, if not more important, than an upper-level manager. After all, if an executive loses a million-dollar deal because his or her connection is not working…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Haywood, Chad. "How to choose the right assessments for your next hiring project."

Fast Company. June 24, 2009. January 18, 2009.
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An Article on Personality Assessments in Organizations

Words: 1487 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34379917

Integrative Typology of Personality Assessment for Aggression: Implications for Predicting Counterproductive orkplace Behavior," Bing et al. discuss the relevance of personality measures on organizational behavior and psychology. The authors present a typology of personality that may be particularly relevant from a human resources perspective. Self-reports are central to the personality assessments, as are conditions requiring situational and conditional reasoning. The emphasis in this study is on aggression and aggressive tendencies. The authors note the methodological weaknesses in prior research using self-reports, as "individuals possessing negative attributes, such as aggression, may be reluctant to reveal these attributes to others," (Bing et al. 722). In fact, research has shown that persons who tend toward aggression can also cultivate false sense of self with "inflated, positive, and inaccurate self-perceptions," (Bing et al. 722). To correct for the biases inherent in self-reports, the authors propose a new method of personality assessment based on "implicit…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Bing, Mark N. et al. "An Integrative Typology of Personality Assessment for Aggression: Implications for Predicting Counterproductive Workplace Behavior." Journal of Applied Psychology, 2007, Vol 92, No. 3, pp 722-744.
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ICU Delirium Assessment Instrument

Words: 543 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 34630478

ICU Delirium

Clinical Question

The PICOT question that will be evaluated in this study is, "Does the use of a validated delirium assessment instrument (intervention) improve delirium detection (outcome) among adults in the ICU (population) as compared multicomponent interventions (comparison) within a 6-month period (timeline)?"

Intervention to be Implemented

The intervention that will be implemented in this study is Confusion Assessment Method, which is a validated delirium screening instrument. The intervention will be utilized to examine how it improves the detection of ICU delirium among adults in intensive care units as compared to multicomponent interventions.

Outcomes to be Analyzed

The outcomes that will be analyzed during this study is whether a validated delirium screening instrument enhances the detection of this condition among adults in intensive care units as compared to other methods. As previously indicated, the validated delirium screening instrument that will be implemented is Confusion Assessment Method while the…… [Read More]


Ista et al. (2014, October 2). Improvement of Care for ICU Patients With Delirium by Early Screening and Treatment: Study Protocol of iDECePTIvE Study. Implementation Science, 9, 143. Retrieved from 

Research Connections. (2016). Experiments and Quasi-Experiments. Retrieved May 19, 2017, from
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Complementary and Alternative Pain Management Methods

Words: 1134 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 24829910

Alternatives to Pain Medication

Given the growing concerns over opioid addictions in recent years and the potential for tolerance, clinicians continue to search for efficacious alternatives to convention pain medications (Moore & Anderson, 2016). Fortunately, a number of alternatives to conventional pan medication are readily available, including cannabis, yoga, hypnosis, mind-body meditation, therapeutic touch, herbal remedies, acupuncture, biofeedback, massage therapy, homeopathic practices (Tan & Craine, 2007) and aromatherapy (Esposito & Bystrek, 2014). To learn more about these alternatives, this paper provides an initial reference list of ten relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly sources concerning pain medication alternatives, followed by a description of clinical guidelines and an implementation plan for these alternatives. A discussion concerning the manner in which the implementation of the intervention should be tested is followed by an assessment of potential barriers and strategies intended to gain cooperation from individuals who will be implementing the change. Finally, a timeline…… [Read More]


Clinical practice guidelines. (2016). U.S. National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. Retrieved from .

Levin, R. F. & Feldman, H. R. (2006). Teaching evidence-based practice in nursing: A guide for academic and clinical settings. New York: Springer Publishing Company.

Moore, B. A. & Anderson, D. (2016, Janury). Stepped care model for pain management and quality of pain care in long-term opioid therapy. Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development, 53(1), 137-141.

Pain management guidelines. (2016). U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Retrieved from ?.
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Assessment and Special Education

Words: 1401 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 1999614

SPED Assessment

In 2002 the American Association on Mental etardation (AAM) made changes to their manuals regarding the assessment of mental retardation (M). The revisions were designed to affect changes in professional practice regarding assessment of M, public policy, and the science and understanding of M. Key in this change was the attempted change from the M term to a more politically correct term Intellectual Disability. Assessment was to consider both IQ scores and adaptive behavior (AB) which was to be termed "adaptive skills as well as the individual's cultural background and in the context of associated strengths. Instead of following a deficit model of explanation the goal was to follow a needs model. The definition of intellectual disability then includes three core criteria: significant impairment of intellectual functioning (defined by decreased IQ scores), significant impairment of adaptive/social functioning and, onset before adulthood. Polloway et al. (2009) looked at the…… [Read More]


Gordon, S., Duff, S., Davison, T. & Whitaker, S. (2010). Comparison of the WAIS-III and WISC-IV in 16-year-old special education students. Journal of Applied Research and Intellectual Disabilities, 23, 197-200.

Polloway, E.A., Patton, J.R., Smith, J.D.., Antoine, K., & Lubin, J. (2009). State guidelines for mental retardation and intellectual disabilities: A revisitation of previous analyses in light of changes in the field. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 44, 14-24.

Silverman, W., Miezejeski, C., Ryan, R., Zigman, R., Krinsky- McHale, S. & Urv, T. (2010). Stanford-Binet & WAIS IQ differences and their implications for adults with intellectual disability. Intelligence, 38 (2), 242-248.

Whitaker, S. (2008). The stability of IQ in people with low intellectual ability: An analysis of the literature. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 46, 120-128.
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Assessment Process

Words: 3434 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42011974

therapy is usually applied in cases such as the one exhibited by Kong, following the loss of a loved one. The procedure is outlined below:

The Semi-Structured Clinical Interview

The informal assessment of individuals faced with the effects of the loss of a loved one such as Kong's case is the semi structured interview. This approach allows the therapist to classify victims according to the symptoms that they exhibit. The approach allows for the recording of changes in profile symptoms demonstrated over time. The information below should be collected from a client.

One's bio-data

The mental illness history of the family

Ones medical history

Any past visits or interactions with a psychiatrist

One's social history

Varying aspects of one's specific information should be collected regarding the loss of a loved one

There is need to focus the interview details on the secondary and primary…… [Read More]

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Assessment of Communication Effectiveness

Words: 1343 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53022709

Communication Effectiveness of Made at TU Organization

Made at TU Organization is an organization that existed at The University of Tulsa since the 1970s in order to help mechanical engineering students fund their projects. The organization was founded after the then Dean, Steve Bellovich, became interested in the efforts by mechanical engineering students at the institution to develop projects that help meet the needs of the local residents suffering from physical and developmental disabilities (The University of Tulsa, n.d.). Since its inception, Made at TU has developed to become an important student organization in this academic institution through leadership and service. The main objective/goal of Made at TU is to utilize the university's mechanical engineering students to help enhance the lives of people with disabilities. This paper focuses on examining communication effectiveness at the organization given the value of its social service aspects to the university's students and faculty.

Methodology…… [Read More]

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Assessment and Feedback

Words: 999 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 52714799

Differentiated Learning

Simply because a teacher treats all students 'the same' does not mean that all of his or her students are being treated fairly. For example, expecting a child with dyslexia to read an assignment as quickly, without support, as his or her non-dyslexic peers, does not promote the child's ability to learn. This is why differentiated instruction is so essential. "Differentiation is a philosophy that enables teachers to plan strategically in order to reach the needs of the diverse learners in the classrooms today to achieve targeted standards. As individuals come to school with varying learning styles and numerous intelligences, differentiated instruction becomes a means of addressing the learning needs of everyone in the classroom" (Assessment strategies, 2011, BOE). Differentiated instruction requires teachers to use a variety of strategies and have a flexible lesson plan.

Teachers must have many different pedagogical 'tools' on hand to teach. For example,…… [Read More]


Assessment strategies. (2011). BOE. Retrieved December 15, 2011 at

Chalupa, Eric. (2004). The effects of differentiated learning on gifted and talented students.

Published dissertation. Retrieved December 15, 2011 at 

Differentiated learning. (2011). National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM).
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Methods of Teaching English at the High School Level

Words: 2431 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 71442469

teachers assess only the final product of a student's writing work. The result of this is that students are left with the impression that writing is a one-time product that cannot improve beyond the first attempt. Teachers are faced with the dilemma that students deliver work with too much room for improvement. This makes adequate assessment, teaching and improvement strategies difficult. If writing in class is treated as a process with various stages, then improvements are easier, less overwhelming for the teacher and more understandable for students. The lesson will therefore focus on the point the chapter makes regarding writing as a process, and the fact that writing can be improved throughout every stage.


Students too often feel that writing exists only to complete a finish product. Teachers often encourage them in this view. The rationale of this lesson is then to focus students' attention on the fact that…… [Read More]

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Assessment Program for Poverty Reduction

Words: 1595 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 86459321

Poverty eduction Programs in Urban Communities

Needs Assessment For Poverty Programs In Urban Communities

Many countries around the world have made poverty reduction a policy priority by adopting the goals of the Millennium Declaration or similar objectives. The Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates (SAIPE) Program to enable it to analyze income and poverty trends in individual counties such as Wilson County. The application of the SAIPE Program in the State of North Carolina in 2012 revealed that despite some major poverty-reduction plans being implemented, the overall rates of poverty still remained relatively high. It has been estimated that Wilson County, N.C., has a population in which approximately 18.5% of the population (representing around 13,747 people) and 13% of families live below the federal poverty line; the second poorest county in the state.

The rates of poverty are worrying because there have been several attempts to attempt to alleviate poverty…… [Read More]


Besharov, D., & Call, D. (2009). Income Transfers Alone Won't Eradicate Poverty. The Policy Studies Journal, 599-631.

Bollinger, C., & Hagstrom, P. (2011). The Poverty Reduction Success of Public Transfers for Working Age Immagrants and Refugeees in the United States. Contemporary Economic Policy, 191-206.

Cornwall, A., & Brock, K. (2006). What do buzzwords do for development policy? A critical look at 'participation', 'empowerment' and 'poverty reduction'. Third World Quarterly, 1043-1060.

DeClerck, F. (2012). Integrating Ecology and Poverty Reduction: Ecological Dimensions. Springer Science & Business Media.
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Assessment of the Validity of a Research Design

Words: 511 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74592429

Accept This Conclusion?

This conclusion is spurious because there are too many potential intervening variables. For one, the students are enrolled and being taught at two different schools. There is no mention of their ages, grade levels, background, or any other pertinent data that could affect reading habits or scores on reading tests. Any number of factors could influence their literacy levels, including demographic issues and the reading resources available at their respective schools.

Second, there is no definition of terms or operational definitions that would be critical for clarifying issues related to literacy. Simply noting that the word method and phonics method were being used is not specific enough. The researchers need to indicate what tools and techniques are being used, in what manner, and in which classrooms, in order to classify one group as "word" and one as "phonics." Finally, the participants were not given a pre-assessment of…… [Read More]

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Assessment Techniques and Intervention Goal Planning

Words: 562 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Corporate Paper #: 77925182

Yellowbird Family Case Study

The case of Jason Yellowbird and his family is an all-too-common one: pregnant with him at the age of seventeen, Jason's mother Carol marries Jason's father, Stone Yellowbird, only to divorce him when Jason is four years old. Since remarrying, Jason has suffered from abuse and neglect at the hands of both his mother and his stepfather, and has been in and out of the foster care system and the juvenile justice system. Currently living with a treatment foster family that is a part of the community's foster care program, Jason is being prepared for returning to live with his mother and stepfather again, something that both of the guardians in this case have resisted before. Developing appropriate assessment techniques and preliminary interventions is vital to helping Jason find some real stability and direction in his life, or he is liable to end up like many…… [Read More]

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Assessment Activities

Words: 1760 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 30477531


Activity #1: Discuss the pros and cons of testing from two perspectives: (1) as a test-taker and (2) as a test-giver

From the point-of-view of the test-taker, the 'cons' of taking a test seem obvious. Besides the nerves and the fear of being put under pressure, from the test-taker's point-of-view being tested requires subjecting something quite unique, namely their individual human mind, to an objective test that cannot take into consideration adverse circumstances, from a lack of engagement with the material, poor teaching, or an eccentric learning style. Testing can thus discourage creativity and a sense of fun in learning for the test taker. Test can also encourage students to learn how to take a particular teacher's tests, rather than to truly learn and actively engage with the material on an individual basis like a research paper.

This is also the downside of testing from the teacher's perspective as…… [Read More]

Works Cited

ABC Teach. (2004). "Charlotte's Web." Retrieved on July 13, 2004 

Bloom's Taxonomy. (2004) Retrieved on July 13, 2004 

College Board. (2004) Retrieved on July 13, 2004 at

Fair Test. (2004) Retrieved on July 13, 2004 at
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Methods of Teaching English in High School

Words: 1759 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 64005275

Lesson Plan for 11th or 12th Grade English

(Using Literature to Teach a Language Concept)

To introduce the concept of denotative and connotative meanings in language and illustrate the concept through literature.

Objectives (aligned with standards) - Students will be able to explain the difference between denotative and connotative meaning in language and recognize which is which (2.A.4d). Students will read age-appropriate material with fluency and accuracy (1.B.4c). Students will learn to look for denotative and connotative meaning in literature (2.A.4d). Students will look up the meaning of words in the dictionary.

Students will follow complex oral instructions (4.A.4c). Students will strengthen interpersonal communication skills through small group discussion (4.B.4b). Students

will use questions and predictions to guide reading (1.C.4a). Students will explain and justify an interpretation of a text (1.C.4b). Students will analyze how the author uses denotative and connotative meaning in the text to express and emphasize his…… [Read More]

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Assessments of Literacy Learning in Ireland

Words: 1288 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79974675

Literacy in Secondary School in Ireland

The literacy curriculum in secondary school in Ireland is based on a strategy of language-related lesson modifications, identified by Peregoy and Boyle as good methods of ensuring that differentiation occurs in the classroom. This strategy allows for the use of "visuals, concrete objects, direct experience, and other nonverbal means to convey lesson content" alongside the main lesson taught by the teacher in the classroom (Peregoy, Boyle 86). In my area, this is consistent with what we experienced in school, and differentiation is a huge part of the cycle -- as much of what is centered on literacy is done so with direct relation to experiential learning, the use of visual aids, and the expression of ideas identified in readings via nonverbal means, such as drawings, videos or performance in the classroom. At the same time, there is a notable urgency among literacy leaders and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Department of Education and Skills Press Release., 2011. Web. 1 June


Gottlieb, M. Assessing English Language Learners. CA: Corwin Press, 2006. Print.

Peregoy, S., Boyle, O. Reading, Writing and Learning. MA: Pearson, 2013.
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Assessments and Readability of Texts

Words: 1313 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Application Essay Paper #: 37746844

personal experiences with assessments is an ongoing and continuous life event; every individual on earth is either assessing or being assessed in almost every interaction one can think of. Assessment is especially important in the educational communities. Heeneman, Oudkerk Pool, Schuwirth, Vleuten, & Driessen (2015) found that most experts agree with the viability of student assessments saying that "it is widely acknowledged that assessment can affect student learning" (p. 487). If what Heeneman et al. found to be true, is true, then assessing student progress (or lack thereof) through the use of assessments benefits the students by helping them learn.

My personal experience with being assessed and with creating assessments is quite extensive. Throughout my educational career I have taken (and done quite well overall) a large number of assessments in an equally as large number of courses, clinics and programs. Some of the most effective assessments that I can…… [Read More]


Heeneman, S.; Oudkerk Pool, A.; Schuwirth, L.W.; Vleuten, C.P. & Driessen, E.W.; (2015) The impact of programmatic assessment on student learning: Theory versus practice, Medical Education, 49(5) p. 487-498

Saint, D.A.; Horton, D.; Yool, A. & Elliott, A.; (2015) A progressive assessment strategy improves student learning and perceived course quality in undergraduate physiology, Advances in Physiology Education, 39(3) p. 218-222

Suskind, D.C.; (2015) Living assessment passes the test, Phi Delta Kappan, 97(1) p. 38-41

Text Readability Consensus Calculator (2015) accessed on October 5, 2015 at
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Methods for Couples and Family Therapy

Words: 2219 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 51024945

family counseling requires a broad and diverse set of tools and techniques. Those tools and techniques should be adaptable to suit the needs of each family, individuals within that family, and also the contextual or environmental variables that impact families. Using a wide range of exercises and interventions, therapists can provide effective and evidence-based practice, as well as offer ongoing assessments and maintenance.

Techniques and exercises that may be particularly useful for families and couples include the oyal Flush exercise for families with young children, the family-based school interventions for children with behavioral or academic performance problems, and the "altering the abyss" exercise for couples. Each of these exercises is rooted in fundamental family practice theory, and each can also yield measurable outcomes that improve the efficacy of the treatment.

oyal Flush

The "royal flush" technique is named as such because it uses picture cards, similar to those used in…… [Read More]


American Psychological Association (2015). Managing stress for a healthy family. Retrieved online:

Brimhall, A.S. & Gardner, B.C. (n.d.). Altering the abyss.

Friedman, B.D. & Allen, K.N. (n.d.). Systems theory. Retrieved online: 

Gergen, K.J. (1985). The social constructionist movement in modern psychology. American Psychologist 40(3): 266-275.
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Assessment of the Mental Health of Psychiatric Patient Monique

Words: 1976 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41521976

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome -- A Case Study

Case study 'Monique.'

Case presentation and history

Monique, a female aged 30, possesses a history of depression and chronic fatigue syndrome, starting at the age of 16 to 17, together with suicide attempts (entailing overdosing), in addition to a long record of anxiety. During baseline evaluation, she reported continuous constant fatigue as well as anhedonia. She also expressed dense retrograde amnesia following a 12-week program of bi-weekly electroconvulsive therapy early in 2006 (she asserts that has no memory of any occurrences preceding this). In late 2006, Monique was also diagnosed with ADHD, however, trusts that she has had continuous problems with distractibility and vagueness. At one point, dexamphetamine was experimented on her, which, even though enhanced her attention, also reduced her mood and hence it was discontinued. Monique also reported that when she was 2 years old, she cracked her skull consequent to…… [Read More]


Canadian Mental Health Association, 2015. Mood Disorders. [Online]

Available at:  / [Accessed 19 September 2015].

APA, 2010. Anxiety Disorders and Effective Treatment. [Online]

Available at: [Accessed 19 September 2015].
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Assessment and Screening of Adolescents with Suicide Ideations

Words: 2233 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 40872454

Adolescents at isk of Suicide

Today, alarming numbers of young people are contemplating taking their own lives, and many follow through on their suicide ideations to actually kill themselves or to make an attempt. In sum, suicide represents the second-leading cause of death for people aged 15 to 34 years and is the third-leading cause of death among young people aged 10 to 14 years (Suicide facts at a glance, 2015). To gain some additional insights into these issues, this case study provides a description of hypothetical 14-year-old runaway Caucasian adolescent, "Jane," who as referred from a homeless shelter with suicide ideations to determine what screening and testing should be performed, a discussion concerning current recommended treatment protocol, drugs and non-pharmacological interventions, and a description of expected treatment outcomes including a corresponding time frame and follow-up plan. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning adolescents such as…… [Read More]


Horwitz, A. V. & Wakefield, J. C. (2007). The loss of sadness: How psychiatry transformed normal sorrow into depressive disorder. New York: Oxford University Press.

Interventions for suicide risk. (2017). Zero Suicide. Retrieved from  toolkit/treat/interventions-suicide-risk.

King, K. A. & Price, J. H. (2009, April). Preventing adolescent suicide: Do high school counselors know the risk factors? Professional School Counseling, 3(4), 255-257.

Maris, R. W. & Berman, A. L (2000). Comprehensive textbook of suicidology. New York: Guilford Press.
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Methods of Measuring Personality

Words: 1166 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 7797609

Personality Measurements

Personality traits make up the characteristics of the individual. Schmutte and yff (1997) define personality traits as describing, "individual propensities toward stable patterns of behavior and thought, that often are neither inherently good nor inherently bad." Psychologists generally assess five factors of the personality, known as the Big Five personality factors. These five factors include neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness and conscientiousness. There are multiple scales designed to measure such factors. This paper will examine four major instruments used to measure personality, specifically, the Big Five personality traits; the NEO-Five-Factor Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992), the Five Factor Personality Inventory developed by Somer, Korkmaz & Tatar in 2002 (Tok, 2011), and the Big Five Inventory (John, Donahue & Kentle, 1991).

Discussion of Topic

When deciding on an instrument to measure personality, a researcher must take into account the scale's validity, reliability and preferred methodology. For this reason,…… [Read More]


Costa, P.T., Jr., & McCrae, R.P. (1992). The revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO-Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.

Goldberg, L.R. (1992). The development of markers for the Big-Five factor structure. Psychological Assessment, 4, 26-42.

Salami, S. (2011). Personality and psychological well-being of adolescents: The moderating role of emotional intelligence. Social Behavior and Personality, 39(6), 785-794.

Schmutte P, Ryff C. (1997). Personality and well-being: Reexamining methods and meanings. Journal Of Personality & Social Psycholody, 73(3), 549-559.
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Assessment of Nike Assets and Liabilities

Words: 895 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 78420738

balance sheet would be recognized at historical cost?

The balance sheet presents a list of the firms' long- and short-term assets and liabilities. The historical cost convention sees assets measured at their historical price; the price that was paid for them when they were purchased, rather than estimating the current value. Where historical cost is used, the assets are assessed based on their historical value, and then deprecated over their estimated useful life. On Nikes balance sheet, it is the property, plant and equipment, including buildings, equipment and computer hardware and software are recorded at cost, which are listed under the long-term assets.

Which of the items listed using historical cost could potentially be the most undervalued?

The method of accounting for these assets means that at any point in time it is highly likely the book value of the assets on the accosting will different form the current value.…… [Read More]

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Assessment fo Nike Current Assets

Words: 688 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36829394

Assets at Nike

Current assets are an important element of the balance sheet. However, to understand what assets are available it is necessary examine how the assets classes are assessed and qualified. For example, receivables are an asset, as this is money which is earned and owed to the firm, but not yet received. Looking at the Nike 10-k, the accounts receivable is adjusted to allow for bad debts (Nike, 2016). The firm has many customers, some of whom may fail to pay their accounts; this may be due to bankruptcy, dispute or other reasons. Under the concept of prudence, Nike (2016) state that they make an assessment of the level of bad debt likely to be suffered and deduct this from the accounts payable shown as an asset. The firm does not provide details o the level of expected bad debt, merely stating it is based on historical analysis…… [Read More]


Libby, R., Libby, P., & Short, D. G. (2011). Financial Accounting. Maidenhead: Mcgraw-Hill Higher Education.

Nike. (2016), Form 10-K. available at
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Methods of Obtaining Data for a Classroom Study

Words: 483 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64275481

Primary… [Read More]


Baxter, P., Jack, S. (2008). Qualitative case study methodology: Study design and implementation for novice researchers. The Qualitative Report, 13(4): 544-559.

Creswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing among

Five Approaches. CA: SAGE.

Merriam, S. (2002). Qualitative research in practice: Examples for discussion and analysis. CA: Jossey-Bass.
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Methods of School Instruction

Words: 924 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72189166

History Teaching to Modern Students

The way teaching history and social sciences to students of the modern era has to undergo a change. There is no place for the old style of books and hundreds of pages of history cramped into one to two text books. Students are no longer the types of students that used to exist decades ago times have changed and so has the pattern and tendency to learn.

Sam Wineburg, the Professor of Educational Psychology and Adjunct Professor of History, University of Washington, Seattle, says that the education system and the teachers have been trying to rewrite textbooks and hoping that by doing so they would change how history is learned and taught by the to the students. But they are wrong as many realize that the means and ways of teaching and learning have changed. Wineburg claims that the problems is not with hat is…… [Read More]


Gerwin, D. (2004). Preservice Teachers Report the Impact of High-Stakes Testing. The Social Studies, 95(2), 71-74. 

Marshak, L., Mastropieri, M., & Scruggs, T. (2011). Curriculum Enhancements in Inclusive Secondary Social Studies Classrooms. Exceptionality, 19(2), 61-74. 

Timmins, G., Vernon, K., & Kinealy, C. (2005). Teaching and learning history. London: SAGE.