By means of automation, specialized works that were predominantly done by men in the manufacturing industries situated in the developed nations were diminished. Conversely, non-specialized jobs mainly in the electronic parts manufacturing industries, particularly the microchip, in which unskilled women in a number of developing nations find employment, became bigger. Thus, the electronic parts manufacturers, instead of investing in huge capital-based units, had favored to make use of manual workers based in nations wherein inexpensive, quiet, and for that reason mostly women workers was quickly accessible. (Mitter; Rowbotham, 1995) Hence, women in Asia could get several jobs from the electronics manufacturing industry. Fresh high school passed out graduates from the tiny villages moved to the cities for jobs available in the semiconductor units. Usually the daughters of those villagers who were high-incomes, these young females, irritated by the absence of clerical as well as semi-skilled employment prospects in their villages, move to semiconductor units in the cities as their choice. About 90% of the employees in the electronics manufacturing industry in America are females and approximately half of those workers are of Asia as well as Latin America, inclusive of those from Korea, Vietnam, Philippines, Mexico and Azorean. And several of these women working in the California units are lone mothers who are their families main support as a result of the salary received from being employed in the electronics industry. (Grossman, 1980)
The women almost learned all the various dimensions of the job. They had become accustomed with men's talents and were able to feel secure that they could also repair a television or even produce a new one. Indeed, the women employed in the electronics manufacturing industry had become more confident of their selves. It was actually the job which had provided them with the assurance that they also competent, and also much better in comparison to the men. They are now confident that they could undertake any new skill or strategies that the company introduces. They also had the confidence about having a permanent employment: many have got married after entering the job and some also children, but nobody wanted to leave their profession. Also for an easy shift from one commodity or procedures to that of another, the women employees had to work together in joint collaboration with the company. It means that instead of being monotonous assemblers, the women employees were able to realize a vigorous partnership in the manufacture, and in fact were like a type of artisan, making use of their own abilities as also their ingenuity. (Mitter; Rowbotham, 1995)
We shall now discuss the disadvantages of women from the growth of the Electronics Industry. Despite the benefits, women employed in the electronics manufacturing industry also have its own disadvantages. Women employees in the electronics industry in East Asia as well as America had to face similar situations and troubles, inclusive of job risk, increased manufacturing stress, authoritarian type of discipline as also HR -- Human relations strategies intended to avoid employee coordination and unionism. The transnational semiconductor manufacturing companies in East Asia, huge U.S. enterprises like National Semiconductor, Texas Instruments and Motorola, Fairchild Camera, along with over other 30 firms situated in United States, Europe as also Japan have streamlined their activities into creating a whole set of processes to maneuver and manage the women workers employed in their units. The policies of the companies relating to employees presently involve coercive type of discipline with the most refined human relations methods. The firms employ many methods to maintain low salary, even though it is estimated that several women employees in the electronics manufacturing industry provide significantly towards their families' earnings. In the Philippines as also Indonesia, the remuneration for women is low in comparison to the minimum salary for a period of 6 months, at which they are treated as trainees. Instead of giving sufficient salaries, firms make use of financial bonuses in order to employ stress on their women employees even when the training duration gets over. (Grossman, 1980)
Electronics industry has the benefit of having a hygienic, free from smokestack having fairly lesser problems relating to environment or that of occupational hazards. but, the modern high-technology production in the electronics industry makes use of several amounts of chemicals and is also considered as one of the really chemical-severe...
As the world competitiveness enhances as also the rate of change with regard to the electronics manufacturing industry rises, there evolve severe environmental hazards and the health of the women employees also gets affected, and the capacity to foresee and avoid issues decreases. The environmental inheritance of the electronics manufacturing industry disproves its clean image. The dim side of modern manufacturing exposes the impure drinking water facilities, defects in child birth, increased miscarriages of the women employees, as also increased cancer problem among women employees at old units. (Byster; Smith, 1999)
In the year 1981, chlorinated solvents let in to a subversive storage tank at the unit of Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation located in South San Jose, California, were revealed to have leakages, polluting the groundwater along with the water for drinking. During the same year in 1981, the Los Paseos society witnessed a bunch of birth deficiencies. It is not generally understood that the ultra-modern electronics manufacturing industry makes use of huge quantities of extremely poisonous items like hazardous gases, bulk gases, deionized water as also other chemicals, in the production of its commodities and greatly affects the natural resources to stimulate its world-wide enhancement and quickly altering commodity lines. Women employees have to make use of several hazardous chemicals and gases such as photoactive chemicals, caustic chlorinated substances, heavy metals, toxic gases, a mixture of acids, plastics, solvents and so on. Women workers are prone to have health hazards all through the manufacturing process in the production of the chip material through the assembly as also the testing processes. (Byster; Smith, 1999) in Hong Kong, a majority of the electronics manufacturing women workers above the age of 25 years are known as 'Grandma' since they wear spectacles. A research done by an international church group namely the Urban Industrial Mission in South Korea in the year 1975 concluded that of the women employees, who are employed at the microscopes, connecting super-fine wires to that of the wafer-thin chips, almost half were faced with problems of shortsightedness and another 19% had astigmatism. (Grossman, 1980)
Microelectronics is regarded as light manufacturing and creates way for lesser damage when compared to the heavy producing industries. but, health hazards are found at an increased rate among the electronics manufacturing women employees, predominantly in the semiconductor industry. This high rate of professional sickness in women is due to the extensive usage of toxic chemicals that could have chemical action and synergistic impacts. Joseph LaDou, who is the director of the occupational and environmental medicine situated at San Francisco State University, and his friend the industrial hygiene specialist Timothy Rohm, have found that in California, contact with toxic materials is double the reason for professional sickness in electronics manufacturing women employees compared to other production industries. LaDou has also found that complete poisoning due to being exposed to toxic chemicals is 3-4 times more possible to prevail in electronics manufacturing women employees in comparison to women employees in other production industries. (Byster; Smith, 1999)
In the study of the probable reproductive impacts of the women's job in the electronics manufacturing industry, it can be observed that there are many prejudices which may arise due to the complex communication between women's work position, salary etc. (Michael, 2001) in the U.S., in a semiconductor-producing unit, women employees who are in the child-producing age group have faced high levels of miscarriages and are at present showing a shocking amount of reproductive cancers. Two of the epidemiological studies carried out at units managed by IBM along with another chip producer, Digital Equipment Corporation, connected the miscarriages to employee contact to chemicals made use of in manufacturing, particularly ethylene-based glycol ethers. Similarly a third industry wide study supported by the Semiconductor Industry Association has found a connection among contact to ethylene-based glycol ether chemicals as also the increased levels of miscarriage. All over the world, similar problems are arising at ultra-modern centers. For instance, a latest story in the Wall Street Journal revealed a cancer cluster across women automated workers at the National Semiconductor's plant situated in Silicon Glen, Scotland. (Byster; Smith, 1999)
In the study of the probable reproductive impacts of women's job, it is essential to consider the several prejudices, that could prevail occur due to the complex relations between a woman's duty of taking care of a child, work position, salary and other features of her daily life. Ultra-modern production has an unrecorded, but generally accepted, policy of employing an economical and passive workforce. Their conventional employing mantra has been small, female as well as foreign. In the Silicon Valley…
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