Examined a Skeleton Term Paper

Excerpt from Term Paper :

frog is one of the best example of how its skeleton and muscles have adapted to provide the best response to the natures challenges. Indeed, we will notice in the paragraphs below that each muscle and each bone has a well-determined function in providing for an excellent jumper and swimmer. In general, the skeleton is correlated with the moving function. Because of the frog's specific environment and the aquatic component it is dealing with, the skeleton of a frog refers to both swimming and leaping as kinetic modalities. The sekeleton is, as such, adapted to perform these tasks.

First of all, the tibia and fibula have joined to form the tibiofibula and it has specialized in providing an excellent leaping and jumping basis. Man has two lower leg bones, but it seems natural that for the frog, these two have joined together in order to provide for the best solution in the environment the frog lives. The muscles are also adapted to provide excellent jumping skills and to support the lower leg bones, the tibiofibula.

Further more, the tibiofibula provides the best adaptation for swimming and thus covers the two main activities in the frog's life. In terms of swimming, if we look at a drawing of the frog skeleton, the tibiofibula provides the entire mechanical and energetic impulse required in swimming. If we compare this to the human tibia and fibula, we are bound to see the difference: the human lower leg is adapted to walking. The two separate bones provide the necessary equilibrium in different situation, as well as the strength to push into the ground when walking.

On the other hand, a frog's molded tibiofibula is a swimmer's mechanism. Besides providing enough strength for swimming, it also has the aerodynamic condition that permits a swift movement in the water. If the frog had two lower leg bones like the human, than it is likely that it may have moved slower through the water, because of the existing friction force.

The flexion component is not to be ignored when referring to the frog's kinematics

. Indeed, a joined boned in the lower area of the leg, namely the tibiofibula, is important if one is to ensure that the leg is able to rotate at a sufficient rate to promote the body forward. In other words, a joint tibia and fibula is the guarantee of a moving mechanism.

The front legs in a frog are much more similar to those of a man. Indeed, the frog has, just like man, one upper arm bone, the humerus, and one lower arm bone, joined in frogs into the radioulna. The radioulna has the same functional explanation as the tibiofibula and is perhaps best used in swimming. On the other hand, the existence of a single humerus bone is adapted to the position that a frog takes after the leap. In this sense, the humerus bone needed to exist on its own and be very solid, because the almost perpendicular position in which it has to remain after the leap is done. Swimming again intervenes here as well. The long humerus provides for an excellent spread and can increase speed in the water as the frog swims.

If we look at these two types of bones, the leg bones and the 'arm' bones, we may see that these have gradually adapted themselves to the requirements of the frog's outer environment. The frog relies greatly in its movement on land on jumping, short leaps that are able to carry it speedily in the area around the pond.

On the other hand, much of a frog's time is spent in the pond, in water hence. Moving around fast in the aquatic environment is essential, because it means the frog can avoid possible natural predators, such as aquatic birds, and, additionally, it can pursue its own food sources in proper timing.

The metacarpals and the metatarsals follow along this pattern as well. Both have been adapted to swimming and can be barely differentiated. The metacarpals and the metatarsals are long, with a skin in-between the fingers that is intended to provide the characteristics of a paddle and to facilitate the movement in the water, as well as an increased speed in the aquatic environment. Further more, in leaping, longer metacarpals and metatarsals help in maintaining the frog's equilibrium after the jump and in providing a larger landing area.

The carpals have an important role in this sense as well. Wider, larger…

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