Factors Affecting Inner City Developmental Outcomes Essay

Excerpt from Essay :

Amato, P.R. (2005). The impact of family formation change on the cognitive, social, and emotional well-being of the next generation. Marriage and Child Wellbeing, 15(2), 75-96. The author addressed two questions related to child development in single-parent households: (1) cognitive, social, and emotional consequences, and (2) etiology of outcome differences. This review of the research literature was up-to-date 2005. Overall, the author concluded that children of single-parent households will do more poorly throughout their life, but only modestly so. Protective variables included remarriage and cohabitation, in that order. The author pays careful attention to inconsistent and mixed findings within and between studies, thereby rendering the review credible.

Shook, S.E., Jones, D.J., Forehand, R., Dorsey, S., & Brody, G. (2010). The mother-coparent relationship and youth adjustment: A study of African-American single-mother families. Journal of Family Psychology, 24(3), 243-51. This study examined the impact of coparent relationship quality on child development outcomes in African-American single-mother households in the Southeastern United States. Discordant coparenting relationships were associated with lower social and cognitive child competence and problem behaviors. A positive parenting style was protective against the negative effects of coparent conflict. These findings are limited by the cross-sectional study design and reliance on maternal self-reports for the data.

Gonzalez, M., Jones, D., & Parent, J. (2014). Coparenting experiences in African-American families: An examination of single mothers and their nonmarital coparents. Family Process, 53(1), 33-54. This study...
...In this sample from North Carolina, the vast majority of coparents were non-resident grandmothers, sisters, and female friends. The credibility of the findings was strengthened by cross-validation of mother and coparent reports; however, the cross-sectional study design prevented longitudinal analysis of these variables and outcomes.

Gaylord-Harden, N.K., Elmore, C.A., & Montes de Oca, J. (2013). Maternal parenting behaviors and child coping in African-American families. Journal of Family Psychology, 27(4), 607-17. Inner-city African-American mothers or legal guardians were studied to better understand how coping skills may be transferred to their children. The predictors of child coping competency were maternal support and socialization of coping, but this finding was based on child reports only. Child gender determined the magnitude of the effect, with girls benefiting the most. There are a significant number of limitations associated with this study, including recruitment of participants from family support agencies. This method of recruiting would tend to limit the generalizability of the findings to all inner-city African-American single-parent households.

Choi, J-K., & Jackson, A.P. (2012). Nonresident fathers' parenting, maternal mastery and child development in poor African-American single-mother families. Race and Social Problems, 4(2), 102-11. The authors of this study examined eight variables, including child behavioral and cognitive problems, but in contrast to the majority of studies on this topic the variables were assessed longitudinally. All maternal and non-resident paternal factors were significant predictors of cognitive and behavioral problems, with maternal mastery and parenting skills having a consistently large effect. A non-resident father's involvement in parenting, however, was protective against negative child outcomes. Study limitations include sole reliance on mother reports for all data and a lack of consideration for parenting contributions from other males. Additionally, the impact of paternal contributions was not evaluated longitudinally.

Tolan, P.H., Gorman-Smith, D., & Henry, D.B. (2003). The developmental ecology of urban…

Sources Used in Documents:

McMahon, T.J., & Luthar, S.S. (2007). Defining characteristics and potential consequences of caretaking burden among children living in urban poverty. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 77(2), 267-81. This study examined the impact of caretaker burden imposed on children between the ages of 8 and 17, living in inner-city households with mothers abusing drugs or suffering from psychiatric problems. Doing household chores, caring for siblings, and/or caring for mother were significant predictors of internalizing and externalizing behaviors and social competence. The authors mentioned continued controversy about how to measure caretaker burden in children, which could represent a significant limitation of this study.

Sagrestano, L.M., Paikoff, R.L., Holmbeck, G.N., & Fendrich, M. (2003). A longitudinal examination of familial risk factors for depression among inner-city African-American adolescents. Journal of Family Psychology, 17(1), 108-20. This longitudinal study followed children of inner-city, African-American single-parent household to better understand how family factors influenced the incidence of depression and anxiety among children and parents. Increased family conflict and reduced parental monitoring were both significant predictors of child depression, while increased positive parenting was protective. Interestingly, parental depression was increased by peer interactions with the child and decreased by positive parenting. The data was based on self-reports from child and mother and revealed significant differences in perceptions, which the authors attributed in part to the immaturity of the child.

Florsheim, P., Tolan, P., & Gorman-Smith, D. (1998). Family relationships, parenting practices, the availability of male family members, and the behavior of inner-city boys in single-mother and two-parent families. Child Development, 69(5), 1437-47. African-American and Latino families, with boys between 10- and 15-years of age and living in inner-city Chicago neighborhoods, were recruited to participate in a study examining possible predictors of externalizing behaviors. Externalizing behaviors by the boys in the study were reduced significantly by feelings of family cohesion, structure, discipline, affiliation, and the presence of a positive male influence. Although child self-reports were the source for much of this data, the externalizing data was based on child, parent, and teacher reports.

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